README

Examples

Traversal

For the purpose of the example, we'll generate the following graph:

er-traversal-graph

The first step is to generate the 3 schemas: Pet, User, Group.

ent init Pet User Group

Add the necessary fields and edges for the schemas:

ent/schema/pet.go

// Pet holds the schema definition for the Pet entity.
type Pet struct {
	ent.Schema
}

// Fields of the Pet.
func (Pet) Fields() []ent.Field {
	return []ent.Field{
		field.String("name"),
	}
}

// Edges of the Pet.
func (Pet) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
		edge.To("friends", Pet.Type),
		edge.From("owner", User.Type).
			Ref("pets").
			Unique(),
	}
}

ent/schema/user.go

// User holds the schema definition for the User entity.
type User struct {
	ent.Schema
}

// Fields of the User.
func (User) Fields() []ent.Field {
	return []ent.Field{
		field.Int("age"),
		field.String("name"),
	}
}

// Edges of the User.
func (User) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
		edge.To("pets", Pet.Type),
		edge.To("friends", User.Type),
		edge.From("groups", Group.Type).
			Ref("users"),
	}
}

ent/schema/group.go

// Group holds the schema definition for the Group entity.
type Group struct {
	ent.Schema
}

// Fields of the Group.
func (Group) Fields() []ent.Field {
	return []ent.Field{
		field.String("name"),
	}
}

// Edges of the Group.
func (Group) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
		edge.To("users", User.Type),
		edge.To("admin", User.Type).
			Unique(),
	}
}

Let's write the code for populating the vertices and the edges to the graph:

func Gen(ctx context.Context, client *ent.Client) error {
	hub, err := client.Group.
		Create().
		SetName("Github").
		Save(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("failed creating the group: %v", err)
	}
	// Create the admin of the group.
	// Unlike `Save`, `SaveX` panics if an error occurs.
	dan := client.User.
		Create().
		SetAge(29).
		SetName("Dan").
		AddManage(hub).
		SaveX(ctx)

	// Create "Ariel" and its pets.
	a8m := client.User.
		Create().
		SetAge(30).
		SetName("Ariel").
		AddGroups(hub).
		AddFriends(dan).
		SaveX(ctx)
	pedro := client.Pet.
		Create().
		SetName("Pedro").
		SetOwner(a8m).
		SaveX(ctx)
	xabi := client.Pet.
		Create().
		SetName("Xabi").
		SetOwner(a8m).
		SaveX(ctx)

	// Create "Alex" and its pets.
	alex := client.User.
		Create().
		SetAge(37).
		SetName("Alex").
		SaveX(ctx)
	coco := client.Pet.
		Create().
		SetName("Coco").
		SetOwner(alex).
		AddFriends(pedro).
		SaveX(ctx)

	fmt.Println("Pets created:", pedro, xabi, coco)
	// Output:
	// Pets created: Pet(id=1, name=Pedro) Pet(id=2, name=Xabi) Pet(id=3, name=Coco)
	return nil
}

Let's go over a few traversals, and show the code for them:

er-traversal-graph-gopher

The traversal above starts from a Group entity, continues to its admin (edge), continues to its friends (edge), gets their pets (edge), gets each pet's friends (edge), and requests their owners.

func Traverse(ctx context.Context, client *ent.Client) error {
	owner, err := client.Group.			// GroupClient.
		Query().                     	// Query builder.
		Where(group.Name("Github")). 	// Filter only Github group (only 1).
		QueryAdmin().                	// Getting Dan.
		QueryFriends().              	// Getting Dan's friends: [Ariel].
		QueryPets().                 	// Their pets: [Pedro, Xabi].
		QueryFriends().              	// Pedro's friends: [Coco], Xabi's friends: [].
		QueryOwner().                	// Coco's owner: Alex.
		Only(ctx)                    	// Expect only one entity to return in the query.
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("failed querying the owner: %v", err)
	}
	fmt.Println(owner)
	// Output:
	// User(id=3, age=37, name=Alex)
	return nil
}

What about the following traversal?

er-traversal-graph-gopher-query

We want to get all pets (entities) that have an owner (edge) that is a friend (edge) of some group admin (edge).

func Traverse(ctx context.Context, client *ent.Client) error {
	pets, err := client.Pet.
		Query().
		Where(
			pet.HasOwnerWith(
				user.HasFriendsWith(
					user.HasManage(),
				),
			),
		).
		All(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("failed querying the pets: %v", err)
	}
	fmt.Println(pets)
	// Output:
	// [Pet(id=1, name=Pedro) Pet(id=2, name=Xabi)]
	return nil
}

The full example exists in GitHub.

Relationship

O2O Two Types

er-user-card

In this example, a user has only one credit-card, and a card has only one owner.

The User schema defines an edge.To card named card, and the Card schema defines a back-reference to this edge using edge.From named owner.

ent/schema/user.go

// Edges of the user.
func (User) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
		edge.To("card", Card.Type).
			Unique(),
	}
}

ent/schema/card.go

// Edges of the user.
func (Card) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
		edge.From("owner", User.Type).
			Ref("card").
			Unique().
			// We add the "Required" method to the builder
			// to make this edge required on entity creation.
			// i.e. Card cannot be created without its owner.
			Required(),
	}
}

The API for interacting with these edges is as follows:

func Do(ctx context.Context, client *ent.Client) error {
	a8m, err := client.User.
		Create().
		SetAge(30).
		SetName("Mashraki").
		Save(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("creating user: %v", err)
	}
	log.Println("user:", a8m)
	card1, err := client.Card.
		Create().
		SetOwner(a8m).
		SetNumber("1020").
		SetExpired(time.Now().Add(time.Minute)).
		Save(ctx)
	if err != nil {
    	return fmt.Errorf("creating card: %v", err)
    }
	log.Println("card:", card1)
	// Only returns the card of the user,
	// and expects that there's only one.
	card2, err := a8m.QueryCard().Only(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("querying card: %v", err)
    }
	log.Println("card:", card2)
	// The Card entity is able to query its owner using
	// its back-reference.
	owner, err := card2.QueryOwner().Only(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("querying owner: %v", err)
    }
	log.Println("owner:", owner)
	return nil
}

The full example exists in GitHub.

O2O Same Type

er-linked-list

In this linked-list example, we have a recursive relation named next/prev. Each node in the list can have only one next node. If a node A points (using next) to node B, B can get its pointer using prev (the back-reference edge).

ent/schema/node.go

// Edges of the Node.
func (Node) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
		edge.To("next", Node.Type).
			Unique().
			From("prev").
			Unique(),
	}
}

As you can see, in cases of relations of the same type, you can declare the edge and its reference in the same builder.

func (Node) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
+		edge.To("next", Node.Type).
+			Unique().
+			From("prev").
+			Unique(),

-		edge.To("next", Node.Type).
-			Unique(),
-		edge.From("prev", Node.Type).
-			Ref("next).
-			Unique(),
	}
}

The API for interacting with these edges is as follows:

func Do(ctx context.Context, client *ent.Client) error {
	head, err := client.Node.
		Create().
		SetValue(1).
		Save(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("creating the head: %v", err)
	}
	curr := head
	// Generate the following linked-list: 1<->2<->3<->4<->5.
	for i := 0; i < 4; i++ {
		curr, err = client.Node.
			Create().
			SetValue(curr.Value + 1).
			SetPrev(curr).
			Save(ctx)
		if err != nil {
			return err
		}
	}

	// Loop over the list and print it. `FirstX` panics if an error occur.
	for curr = head; curr != nil; curr = curr.QueryNext().FirstX(ctx) {
		fmt.Printf("%d ", curr.Value)
	}
	// Output: 1 2 3 4 5

	// Make the linked-list circular:
	// The tail of the list, has no "next".
	tail, err := client.Node.
		Query().
		Where(node.Not(node.HasNext())).
		Only(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("getting the tail of the list: %v", tail)
	}
	tail, err = tail.Update().SetNext(head).Save(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	// Check that the change actually applied:
	prev, err := head.QueryPrev().Only(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("getting head's prev: %v", err)
	}
	fmt.Printf("\n%v", prev.Value == tail.Value)
	// Output: true
	return nil
}

The full example exists in GitHub.

O2O Bidirectional

er-user-spouse

In this user-spouse example, we have a symmetric O2O relation named spouse. Each user can have only one spouse. If user A sets its spouse (using spouse) to B, B can get its spouse using the spouse edge.

Note that there are no owner/inverse terms in cases of bidirectional edges.

ent/schema/user.go

// Edges of the User.
func (User) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
		edge.To("spouse", User.Type).
			Unique(),
	}
}

The API for interacting with this edge is as follows:

func Do(ctx context.Context, client *ent.Client) error {
	a8m, err := client.User.
		Create().
		SetAge(30).
		SetName("a8m").
		Save(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("creating user: %v", err)
	}
	nati, err := client.User.
		Create().
		SetAge(28).
		SetName("nati").
		SetSpouse(a8m).
		Save(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("creating user: %v", err)
	}

	// Query the spouse edge.
	// Unlike `Only`, `OnlyX` panics if an error occurs.
	spouse := nati.QuerySpouse().OnlyX(ctx)
	fmt.Println(spouse.Name)
	// Output: a8m

	spouse = a8m.QuerySpouse().OnlyX(ctx)
	fmt.Println(spouse.Name)
	// Output: nati

	// Query how many users have a spouse.
	// Unlike `Count`, `CountX` panics if an error occurs.
	count := client.User.
		Query().
		Where(user.HasSpouse()).
		CountX(ctx)
	fmt.Println(count)
	// Output: 2

	// Get the user, that has a spouse with name="a8m".
	spouse = client.User.
		Query().
		Where(user.HasSpouseWith(user.Name("a8m"))).
		OnlyX(ctx)
	fmt.Println(spouse.Name)
	// Output: nati
	return nil
}

The full example exists in GitHub.

O2M Two Types

er-user-pets

In this user-pets example, we have a O2M relation between user and its pets. Each user has many pets, and a pet has one owner. If user A adds a pet B using the pets edge, B can get its owner using the owner edge (the back-reference edge).

Note that this relation is also a M2O (many-to-one) from the point of view of the Pet schema.

ent/schema/user.go

// Edges of the User.
func (User) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
		edge.To("pets", Pet.Type),
	}
}

ent/schema/pet.go

// Edges of the Pet.
func (Pet) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
		edge.From("owner", User.Type).
			Ref("pets").
			Unique(),
	}
}

The API for interacting with these edges is as follows:

func Do(ctx context.Context, client *ent.Client) error {
	// Create the 2 pets.
	pedro, err := client.Pet.
		Create().
		SetName("pedro").
		Save(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("creating pet: %v", err)
	}
	lola, err := client.Pet.
		Create().
		SetName("lola").
		Save(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("creating pet: %v", err)
	}
	// Create the user, and add its pets on the creation.
	a8m, err := client.User.
		Create().
		SetAge(30).
		SetName("a8m").
		AddPets(pedro, lola).
		Save(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("creating user: %v", err)
	}
	fmt.Println("User created:", a8m)
	// Output: User(id=1, age=30, name=a8m)

	// Query the owner. Unlike `Only`, `OnlyX` panics if an error occurs.
	owner := pedro.QueryOwner().OnlyX(ctx)
	fmt.Println(owner.Name)
	// Output: a8m

	// Traverse the sub-graph. Unlike `Count`, `CountX` panics if an error occurs.
	count := pedro.
		QueryOwner(). // a8m
		QueryPets().  // pedro, lola
		CountX(ctx)   // count
	fmt.Println(count)
	// Output: 2
	return nil
}

The full example exists in GitHub.

O2M Same Type

er-tree

In this example, we have a recursive O2M relation between tree's nodes and their children (or their parent).
Each node in the tree has many children, and has one parent. If node A adds B to its children, B can get its owner using the owner edge.

ent/schema/node.go

// Edges of the Node.
func (Node) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
		edge.To("children", Node.Type).
			From("parent").
			Unique(),
	}
}

As you can see, in cases of relations of the same type, you can declare the edge and its reference in the same builder.

func (Node) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
+		edge.To("children", Node.Type).
+			From("parent").
+			Unique(),

-		edge.To("children", Node.Type),
-		edge.From("parent", Node.Type).
-			Ref("children").
-			Unique(),
	}
}

The API for interacting with these edges is as follows:

func Do(ctx context.Context, client *ent.Client) error {
	root, err := client.Node.
		Create().
		SetValue(2).
		Save(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("creating the root: %v", err)
	}
	// Add additional nodes to the tree:
	//
	//       2
	//     /   \
	//    1     4
	//        /   \
	//       3     5
	//
	// Unlike `Save`, `SaveX` panics if an error occurs.
	n1 := client.Node.
		Create().
		SetValue(1).
		SetParent(root).
		SaveX(ctx)
	n4 := client.Node.
		Create().
		SetValue(4).
		SetParent(root).
		SaveX(ctx)
	n3 := client.Node.
		Create().
		SetValue(3).
		SetParent(n4).
		SaveX(ctx)
	n5 := client.Node.
		Create().
		SetValue(5).
		SetParent(n4).
		SaveX(ctx)

	fmt.Println("Tree leafs", []int{n1.Value, n3.Value, n5.Value})
	// Output: Tree leafs [1 3 5]

	// Get all leafs (nodes without children).
	// Unlike `Int`, `IntX` panics if an error occurs.
	ints := client.Node.
		Query().                             // All nodes.
		Where(node.Not(node.HasChildren())). // Only leafs.
		Order(ent.Asc(node.FieldValue)).     // Order by their `value` field.
		GroupBy(node.FieldValue).            // Extract only the `value` field.
		IntsX(ctx)
	fmt.Println(ints)
	// Output: [1 3 5]

	// Get orphan nodes (nodes without parent).
	// Unlike `Only`, `OnlyX` panics if an error occurs.
	orphan := client.Node.
		Query().
		Where(node.Not(node.HasParent())).
		OnlyX(ctx)
	fmt.Println(orphan)
	// Output: Node(id=1, value=2)

	return nil
}

The full example exists in GitHub.

M2M Two Types

er-user-groups

In this groups-users example, we have a M2M relation between groups and their users. Each group has many users, and each user can be joined to many groups.

ent/schema/group.go

// Edges of the Group.
func (Group) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
		edge.To("users", User.Type),
	}
}

ent/schema/user.go

// Edges of the User.
func (User) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
		edge.From("groups", Group.Type).
			Ref("users"),
	}
}

The API for interacting with these edges is as follows:

func Do(ctx context.Context, client *ent.Client) error {
	// Unlike `Save`, `SaveX` panics if an error occurs.
	hub := client.Group.
		Create().
		SetName("GitHub").
		SaveX(ctx)
	lab := client.Group.
		Create().
		SetName("GitLab").
		SaveX(ctx)
	a8m := client.User.
		Create().
		SetAge(30).
		SetName("a8m").
		AddGroups(hub, lab).
		SaveX(ctx)
	nati := client.User.
		Create().
		SetAge(28).
		SetName("nati").
		AddGroups(hub).
		SaveX(ctx)

	// Query the edges.
	groups, err := a8m.
		QueryGroups().
		All(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("querying a8m groups: %v", err)
	}
	fmt.Println(groups)
	// Output: [Group(id=1, name=GitHub) Group(id=2, name=GitLab)]

	groups, err = nati.
		QueryGroups().
		All(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("querying nati groups: %v", err)
	}
	fmt.Println(groups)
	// Output: [Group(id=1, name=GitHub)]

	// Traverse the graph.
	users, err := a8m.
		QueryGroups().                                           // [hub, lab]
		Where(group.Not(group.HasUsersWith(user.Name("nati")))). // [lab]
		QueryUsers().                                            // [a8m]
		QueryGroups().                                           // [hub, lab]
		QueryUsers().                                            // [a8m, nati]
		All(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("traversing the graph: %v", err)
	}
	fmt.Println(users)
	// Output: [User(id=1, age=30, name=a8m) User(id=2, age=28, name=nati)]
	return nil
}

The full example exists in GitHub.

M2M Same Type

er-following-followers

In this following-followers example, we have a M2M relation between users to their followers. Each user can follow many users, and can have many followers.

ent/schema/user.go

// Edges of the User.
func (User) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
		edge.To("following", User.Type).
			From("followers"),
	}
}

As you can see, in cases of relations of the same type, you can declare the edge and its reference in the same builder.

func (User) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
+		edge.To("following", User.Type).
+			From("followers"),

-		edge.To("following", User.Type),
-		edge.From("followers", User.Type).
-			Ref("following"),
	}
}

The API for interacting with these edges is as follows:

func Do(ctx context.Context, client *ent.Client) error {
	// Unlike `Save`, `SaveX` panics if an error occurs.
	a8m := client.User.
		Create().
		SetAge(30).
		SetName("a8m").
		SaveX(ctx)
	nati := client.User.
		Create().
		SetAge(28).
		SetName("nati").
		AddFollowers(a8m).
		SaveX(ctx)

	// Query following/followers:

	flw := a8m.QueryFollowing().AllX(ctx)
	fmt.Println(flw)
	// Output: [User(id=2, age=28, name=nati)]

	flr := a8m.QueryFollowers().AllX(ctx)
	fmt.Println(flr)
	// Output: []

	flw = nati.QueryFollowing().AllX(ctx)
	fmt.Println(flw)
	// Output: []

	flr = nati.QueryFollowers().AllX(ctx)
	fmt.Println(flr)
	// Output: [User(id=1, age=30, name=a8m)]

	// Traverse the graph:

	ages := nati.
		QueryFollowers().       // [a8m]
		QueryFollowing().       // [nati]
		GroupBy(user.FieldAge). // [28]
		IntsX(ctx)
	fmt.Println(ages)
	// Output: [28]

	names := client.User.
		Query().
		Where(user.Not(user.HasFollowers())).
		GroupBy(user.FieldName).
		StringsX(ctx)
	fmt.Println(names)
	// Output: [a8m]
	return nil
}

The full example exists in GitHub.

M2M Bidirectional

er-user-friends

In this user-friends example, we have a symmetric M2M relation named friends. Each user can have many friends. If user A becomes a friend of B, B is also a friend of A.

Note that there are no owner/inverse terms in cases of bidirectional edges.

ent/schema/user.go

// Edges of the User.
func (User) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
		edge.To("friends", User.Type),
	}
}

The API for interacting with these edges is as follows:

func Do(ctx context.Context, client *ent.Client) error {
	// Unlike `Save`, `SaveX` panics if an error occurs.
	a8m := client.User.
		Create().
		SetAge(30).
		SetName("a8m").
		SaveX(ctx)
	nati := client.User.
		Create().
		SetAge(28).
		SetName("nati").
		AddFriends(a8m).
		SaveX(ctx)

	// Query friends. Unlike `All`, `AllX` panics if an error occurs.
	friends := nati.
		QueryFriends().
		AllX(ctx)
	fmt.Println(friends)
	// Output: [User(id=1, age=30, name=a8m)]

	friends = a8m.
		QueryFriends().
		AllX(ctx)
	fmt.Println(friends)
	// Output: [User(id=2, age=28, name=nati)]

	// Query the graph:
	friends = client.User.
		Query().
		Where(user.HasFriends()).
		AllX(ctx)
	fmt.Println(friends)
	// Output: [User(id=1, age=30, name=a8m) User(id=2, age=28, name=nati)]
	return nil
}

The full example exists in GitHub.

Indexes

Index On Edges

Indexes can be configured on composition of fields and edges. The main use-case is setting uniqueness on fields under a specific relation. Let's take an example:

er-city-streets

In the example above, we have a City with many Streets, and we want to set the street name to be unique under each city.

ent/schema/city.go

// City holds the schema definition for the City entity.
type City struct {
	ent.Schema
}

// Fields of the City.
func (City) Fields() []ent.Field {
	return []ent.Field{
		field.String("name"),
	}
}

// Edges of the City.
func (City) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
		edge.To("streets", Street.Type),
	}
}

ent/schema/street.go

// Street holds the schema definition for the Street entity.
type Street struct {
	ent.Schema
}

// Fields of the Street.
func (Street) Fields() []ent.Field {
	return []ent.Field{
		field.String("name"),
	}
}

// Edges of the Street.
func (Street) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
		edge.From("city", City.Type).
			Ref("streets").
			Unique(),
	}
}

// Indexes of the Street.
func (Street) Indexes() []ent.Index {
	return []ent.Index{
		index.Fields("name").
			Edges("city").
			Unique(),
	}
}

example.go

func Do(ctx context.Context, client *ent.Client) error {
	// Unlike `Save`, `SaveX` panics if an error occurs.
	tlv := client.City.
		Create().
		SetName("TLV").
		SaveX(ctx)
	nyc := client.City.
		Create().
		SetName("NYC").
		SaveX(ctx)
	// Add a street "ST" to "TLV".
	client.Street.
		Create().
		SetName("ST").
		SetCity(tlv).
		SaveX(ctx)
	// This operation will fail because "ST"
	// is already created under "TLV".
	_, err := client.Street.
		Create().
		SetName("ST").
		SetCity(tlv).
		Save(ctx)
	if err == nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("expecting creation to fail")
	}
	// Add a street "ST" to "NYC".
	client.Street.
		Create().
		SetName("ST").
		SetCity(nyc).
		SaveX(ctx)
	return nil
}

The full example exists in GitHub.

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