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Published: Aug 17, 2021 License: Apache-2.0

README

Examples

Traversal

For the purpose of the example, we'll generate the following graph:

er-traversal-graph

The first step is to generate the 3 schemas: Pet, User, Group.

ent init Pet User Group

Add the necessary fields and edges for the schemas:

ent/schema/pet.go

// Pet holds the schema definition for the Pet entity.
type Pet struct {
	ent.Schema
}

// Fields of the Pet.
func (Pet) Fields() []ent.Field {
	return []ent.Field{
		field.String("name"),
	}
}

// Edges of the Pet.
func (Pet) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
		edge.To("friends", Pet.Type),
		edge.From("owner", User.Type).
			Ref("pets").
			Unique(),
	}
}

ent/schema/user.go

// User holds the schema definition for the User entity.
type User struct {
	ent.Schema
}

// Fields of the User.
func (User) Fields() []ent.Field {
	return []ent.Field{
		field.Int("age"),
		field.String("name"),
	}
}

// Edges of the User.
func (User) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
		edge.To("pets", Pet.Type),
		edge.To("friends", User.Type),
		edge.From("groups", Group.Type).
			Ref("users"),
	}
}

ent/schema/group.go

// Group holds the schema definition for the Group entity.
type Group struct {
	ent.Schema
}

// Fields of the Group.
func (Group) Fields() []ent.Field {
	return []ent.Field{
		field.String("name"),
	}
}

// Edges of the Group.
func (Group) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
		edge.To("users", User.Type),
		edge.To("admin", User.Type).
			Unique(),
	}
}

Let's write the code for populating the vertices and the edges to the graph:

func Gen(ctx context.Context, client *ent.Client) error {
	hub, err := client.Group.
		Create().
		SetName("Github").
		Save(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("failed creating the group: %w", err)
	}
	// Create the admin of the group.
	// Unlike `Save`, `SaveX` panics if an error occurs.
	dan := client.User.
		Create().
		SetAge(29).
		SetName("Dan").
		AddManage(hub).
		SaveX(ctx)

	// Create "Ariel" and its pets.
	a8m := client.User.
		Create().
		SetAge(30).
		SetName("Ariel").
		AddGroups(hub).
		AddFriends(dan).
		SaveX(ctx)
	pedro := client.Pet.
		Create().
		SetName("Pedro").
		SetOwner(a8m).
		SaveX(ctx)
	xabi := client.Pet.
		Create().
		SetName("Xabi").
		SetOwner(a8m).
		SaveX(ctx)

	// Create "Alex" and its pets.
	alex := client.User.
		Create().
		SetAge(37).
		SetName("Alex").
		SaveX(ctx)
	coco := client.Pet.
		Create().
		SetName("Coco").
		SetOwner(alex).
		AddFriends(pedro).
		SaveX(ctx)

	fmt.Println("Pets created:", pedro, xabi, coco)
	// Output:
	// Pets created: Pet(id=1, name=Pedro) Pet(id=2, name=Xabi) Pet(id=3, name=Coco)
	return nil
}

Let's go over a few traversals, and show the code for them:

er-traversal-graph-gopher

The traversal above starts from a Group entity, continues to its admin (edge), continues to its friends (edge), gets their pets (edge), gets each pet's friends (edge), and requests their owners.

func Traverse(ctx context.Context, client *ent.Client) error {
	owner, err := client.Group.			// GroupClient.
		Query().                     	// Query builder.
		Where(group.Name("Github")). 	// Filter only Github group (only 1).
		QueryAdmin().                	// Getting Dan.
		QueryFriends().              	// Getting Dan's friends: [Ariel].
		QueryPets().                 	// Their pets: [Pedro, Xabi].
		QueryFriends().              	// Pedro's friends: [Coco], Xabi's friends: [].
		QueryOwner().                	// Coco's owner: Alex.
		Only(ctx)                    	// Expect only one entity to return in the query.
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("failed querying the owner: %w", err)
	}
	fmt.Println(owner)
	// Output:
	// User(id=3, age=37, name=Alex)
	return nil
}

What about the following traversal?

er-traversal-graph-gopher-query

We want to get all pets (entities) that have an owner (edge) that is a friend (edge) of some group admin (edge).

func Traverse(ctx context.Context, client *ent.Client) error {
	pets, err := client.Pet.
		Query().
		Where(
			pet.HasOwnerWith(
				user.HasFriendsWith(
					user.HasManage(),
				),
			),
		).
		All(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("failed querying the pets: %w", err)
	}
	fmt.Println(pets)
	// Output:
	// [Pet(id=1, name=Pedro) Pet(id=2, name=Xabi)]
	return nil
}

The full example exists in GitHub.

Relationship

O2O Two Types

er-user-card

In this example, a user has only one credit-card, and a card has only one owner.

The User schema defines an edge.To card named card, and the Card schema defines a back-reference to this edge using edge.From named owner.

ent/schema/user.go

// Edges of the user.
func (User) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
		edge.To("card", Card.Type).
			Unique(),
	}
}

ent/schema/card.go

// Edges of the user.
func (Card) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
		edge.From("owner", User.Type).
			Ref("card").
			Unique().
			// We add the "Required" method to the builder
			// to make this edge required on entity creation.
			// i.e. Card cannot be created without its owner.
			Required(),
	}
}

The API for interacting with these edges is as follows:

func Do(ctx context.Context, client *ent.Client) error {
	a8m, err := client.User.
		Create().
		SetAge(30).
		SetName("Mashraki").
		Save(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("creating user: %w", err)
	}
	log.Println("user:", a8m)
	card1, err := client.Card.
		Create().
		SetOwner(a8m).
		SetNumber("1020").
		SetExpired(time.Now().Add(time.Minute)).
		Save(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("creating card: %w", err)
	}
	log.Println("card:", card1)
	// Only returns the card of the user,
	// and expects that there's only one.
	card2, err := a8m.QueryCard().Only(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("querying card: %w", err)
    }
	log.Println("card:", card2)
	// The Card entity is able to query its owner using
	// its back-reference.
	owner, err := card2.QueryOwner().Only(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("querying owner: %w", err)
    }
	log.Println("owner:", owner)
	return nil
}

The full example exists in GitHub.

O2O Same Type

er-linked-list

In this linked-list example, we have a recursive relation named next/prev. Each node in the list can have only one next node. If a node A points (using next) to node B, B can get its pointer using prev (the back-reference edge).

ent/schema/node.go

// Edges of the Node.
func (Node) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
		edge.To("next", Node.Type).
			Unique().
			From("prev").
			Unique(),
	}
}

As you can see, in cases of relations of the same type, you can declare the edge and its reference in the same builder.

func (Node) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
+		edge.To("next", Node.Type).
+			Unique().
+			From("prev").
+			Unique(),

-		edge.To("next", Node.Type).
-			Unique(),
-		edge.From("prev", Node.Type).
-			Ref("next").
-			Unique(),
	}
}

The API for interacting with these edges is as follows:

func Do(ctx context.Context, client *ent.Client) error {
	head, err := client.Node.
		Create().
		SetValue(1).
		Save(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("creating the head: %w", err)
	}
	curr := head
	// Generate the following linked-list: 1<->2<->3<->4<->5.
	for i := 0; i < 4; i++ {
		curr, err = client.Node.
			Create().
			SetValue(curr.Value + 1).
			SetPrev(curr).
			Save(ctx)
		if err != nil {
			return err
		}
	}

	// Loop over the list and print it. `FirstX` panics if an error occur.
	for curr = head; curr != nil; curr = curr.QueryNext().FirstX(ctx) {
		fmt.Printf("%d ", curr.Value)
	}
	// Output: 1 2 3 4 5

	// Make the linked-list circular:
	// The tail of the list, has no "next".
	tail, err := client.Node.
		Query().
		Where(node.Not(node.HasNext())).
		Only(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("getting the tail of the list: %v", tail)
	}
	tail, err = tail.Update().SetNext(head).Save(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	// Check that the change actually applied:
	prev, err := head.QueryPrev().Only(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("getting head's prev: %w", err)
	}
	fmt.Printf("\n%v", prev.Value == tail.Value)
	// Output: true
	return nil
}

The full example exists in GitHub.

O2O Bidirectional

er-user-spouse

In this user-spouse example, we have a symmetric O2O relation named spouse. Each user can have only one spouse. If user A sets its spouse (using spouse) to B, B can get its spouse using the spouse edge.

Note that there are no owner/inverse terms in cases of bidirectional edges.

ent/schema/user.go

// Edges of the User.
func (User) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
		edge.To("spouse", User.Type).
			Unique(),
	}
}

The API for interacting with this edge is as follows:

func Do(ctx context.Context, client *ent.Client) error {
	a8m, err := client.User.
		Create().
		SetAge(30).
		SetName("a8m").
		Save(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("creating user: %w", err)
	}
	nati, err := client.User.
		Create().
		SetAge(28).
		SetName("nati").
		SetSpouse(a8m).
		Save(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("creating user: %w", err)
	}

	// Query the spouse edge.
	// Unlike `Only`, `OnlyX` panics if an error occurs.
	spouse := nati.QuerySpouse().OnlyX(ctx)
	fmt.Println(spouse.Name)
	// Output: a8m

	spouse = a8m.QuerySpouse().OnlyX(ctx)
	fmt.Println(spouse.Name)
	// Output: nati

	// Query how many users have a spouse.
	// Unlike `Count`, `CountX` panics if an error occurs.
	count := client.User.
		Query().
		Where(user.HasSpouse()).
		CountX(ctx)
	fmt.Println(count)
	// Output: 2

	// Get the user, that has a spouse with name="a8m".
	spouse = client.User.
		Query().
		Where(user.HasSpouseWith(user.Name("a8m"))).
		OnlyX(ctx)
	fmt.Println(spouse.Name)
	// Output: nati
	return nil
}

The full example exists in GitHub.

O2M Two Types

er-user-pets

In this user-pets example, we have a O2M relation between user and its pets. Each user has many pets, and a pet has one owner. If user A adds a pet B using the pets edge, B can get its owner using the owner edge (the back-reference edge).

Note that this relation is also a M2O (many-to-one) from the point of view of the Pet schema.

ent/schema/user.go

// Edges of the User.
func (User) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
		edge.To("pets", Pet.Type),
	}
}

ent/schema/pet.go

// Edges of the Pet.
func (Pet) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
		edge.From("owner", User.Type).
			Ref("pets").
			Unique(),
	}
}

The API for interacting with these edges is as follows:

func Do(ctx context.Context, client *ent.Client) error {
	// Create the 2 pets.
	pedro, err := client.Pet.
		Create().
		SetName("pedro").
		Save(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("creating pet: %w", err)
	}
	lola, err := client.Pet.
		Create().
		SetName("lola").
		Save(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("creating pet: %w", err)
	}
	// Create the user, and add its pets on the creation.
	a8m, err := client.User.
		Create().
		SetAge(30).
		SetName("a8m").
		AddPets(pedro, lola).
		Save(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("creating user: %w", err)
	}
	fmt.Println("User created:", a8m)
	// Output: User(id=1, age=30, name=a8m)

	// Query the owner. Unlike `Only`, `OnlyX` panics if an error occurs.
	owner := pedro.QueryOwner().OnlyX(ctx)
	fmt.Println(owner.Name)
	// Output: a8m

	// Traverse the sub-graph. Unlike `Count`, `CountX` panics if an error occurs.
	count := pedro.
		QueryOwner(). // a8m
		QueryPets().  // pedro, lola
		CountX(ctx)   // count
	fmt.Println(count)
	// Output: 2
	return nil
}

The full example exists in GitHub.

O2M Same Type

er-tree

In this example, we have a recursive O2M relation between tree's nodes and their children (or their parent).
Each node in the tree has many children, and has one parent. If node A adds B to its children, B can get its owner using the owner edge.

ent/schema/node.go

// Edges of the Node.
func (Node) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
		edge.To("children", Node.Type).
			From("parent").
			Unique(),
	}
}

As you can see, in cases of relations of the same type, you can declare the edge and its reference in the same builder.

func (Node) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
+		edge.To("children", Node.Type).
+			From("parent").
+			Unique(),

-		edge.To("children", Node.Type),
-		edge.From("parent", Node.Type).
-			Ref("children").
-			Unique(),
	}
}

The API for interacting with these edges is as follows:

func Do(ctx context.Context, client *ent.Client) error {
	root, err := client.Node.
		Create().
		SetValue(2).
		Save(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("creating the root: %w", err)
	}
	// Add additional nodes to the tree:
	//
	//       2
	//     /   \
	//    1     4
	//        /   \
	//       3     5
	//
	// Unlike `Save`, `SaveX` panics if an error occurs.
	n1 := client.Node.
		Create().
		SetValue(1).
		SetParent(root).
		SaveX(ctx)
	n4 := client.Node.
		Create().
		SetValue(4).
		SetParent(root).
		SaveX(ctx)
	n3 := client.Node.
		Create().
		SetValue(3).
		SetParent(n4).
		SaveX(ctx)
	n5 := client.Node.
		Create().
		SetValue(5).
		SetParent(n4).
		SaveX(ctx)

	fmt.Println("Tree leafs", []int{n1.Value, n3.Value, n5.Value})
	// Output: Tree leafs [1 3 5]

	// Get all leafs (nodes without children).
	// Unlike `Int`, `IntX` panics if an error occurs.
	ints := client.Node.
		Query().                             // All nodes.
		Where(node.Not(node.HasChildren())). // Only leafs.
		Order(ent.Asc(node.FieldValue)).     // Order by their `value` field.
		GroupBy(node.FieldValue).            // Extract only the `value` field.
		IntsX(ctx)
	fmt.Println(ints)
	// Output: [1 3 5]

	// Get orphan nodes (nodes without parent).
	// Unlike `Only`, `OnlyX` panics if an error occurs.
	orphan := client.Node.
		Query().
		Where(node.Not(node.HasParent())).
		OnlyX(ctx)
	fmt.Println(orphan)
	// Output: Node(id=1, value=2)

	return nil
}

The full example exists in GitHub.

M2M Two Types

er-user-groups

In this groups-users example, we have a M2M relation between groups and their users. Each group has many users, and each user can be joined to many groups.

ent/schema/group.go

// Edges of the Group.
func (Group) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
		edge.To("users", User.Type),
	}
}

ent/schema/user.go

// Edges of the User.
func (User) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
		edge.From("groups", Group.Type).
			Ref("users"),
	}
}

The API for interacting with these edges is as follows:

func Do(ctx context.Context, client *ent.Client) error {
	// Unlike `Save`, `SaveX` panics if an error occurs.
	hub := client.Group.
		Create().
		SetName("GitHub").
		SaveX(ctx)
	lab := client.Group.
		Create().
		SetName("GitLab").
		SaveX(ctx)
	a8m := client.User.
		Create().
		SetAge(30).
		SetName("a8m").
		AddGroups(hub, lab).
		SaveX(ctx)
	nati := client.User.
		Create().
		SetAge(28).
		SetName("nati").
		AddGroups(hub).
		SaveX(ctx)

	// Query the edges.
	groups, err := a8m.
		QueryGroups().
		All(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("querying a8m groups: %w", err)
	}
	fmt.Println(groups)
	// Output: [Group(id=1, name=GitHub) Group(id=2, name=GitLab)]

	groups, err = nati.
		QueryGroups().
		All(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("querying nati groups: %w", err)
	}
	fmt.Println(groups)
	// Output: [Group(id=1, name=GitHub)]

	// Traverse the graph.
	users, err := a8m.
		QueryGroups().                                           // [hub, lab]
		Where(group.Not(group.HasUsersWith(user.Name("nati")))). // [lab]
		QueryUsers().                                            // [a8m]
		QueryGroups().                                           // [hub, lab]
		QueryUsers().                                            // [a8m, nati]
		All(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("traversing the graph: %w", err)
	}
	fmt.Println(users)
	// Output: [User(id=1, age=30, name=a8m) User(id=2, age=28, name=nati)]
	return nil
}

The full example exists in GitHub.

M2M Same Type

er-following-followers

In this following-followers example, we have a M2M relation between users to their followers. Each user can follow many users, and can have many followers.

ent/schema/user.go

// Edges of the User.
func (User) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
		edge.To("following", User.Type).
			From("followers"),
	}
}

As you can see, in cases of relations of the same type, you can declare the edge and its reference in the same builder.

func (User) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
+		edge.To("following", User.Type).
+			From("followers"),

-		edge.To("following", User.Type),
-		edge.From("followers", User.Type).
-			Ref("following"),
	}
}

The API for interacting with these edges is as follows:

func Do(ctx context.Context, client *ent.Client) error {
	// Unlike `Save`, `SaveX` panics if an error occurs.
	a8m := client.User.
		Create().
		SetAge(30).
		SetName("a8m").
		SaveX(ctx)
	nati := client.User.
		Create().
		SetAge(28).
		SetName("nati").
		AddFollowers(a8m).
		SaveX(ctx)

	// Query following/followers:

	flw := a8m.QueryFollowing().AllX(ctx)
	fmt.Println(flw)
	// Output: [User(id=2, age=28, name=nati)]

	flr := a8m.QueryFollowers().AllX(ctx)
	fmt.Println(flr)
	// Output: []

	flw = nati.QueryFollowing().AllX(ctx)
	fmt.Println(flw)
	// Output: []

	flr = nati.QueryFollowers().AllX(ctx)
	fmt.Println(flr)
	// Output: [User(id=1, age=30, name=a8m)]

	// Traverse the graph:

	ages := nati.
		QueryFollowers().       // [a8m]
		QueryFollowing().       // [nati]
		GroupBy(user.FieldAge). // [28]
		IntsX(ctx)
	fmt.Println(ages)
	// Output: [28]

	names := client.User.
		Query().
		Where(user.Not(user.HasFollowers())).
		GroupBy(user.FieldName).
		StringsX(ctx)
	fmt.Println(names)
	// Output: [a8m]
	return nil
}

The full example exists in GitHub.

M2M Bidirectional

er-user-friends

In this user-friends example, we have a symmetric M2M relation named friends. Each user can have many friends. If user A becomes a friend of B, B is also a friend of A.

Note that there are no owner/inverse terms in cases of bidirectional edges.

ent/schema/user.go

// Edges of the User.
func (User) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
		edge.To("friends", User.Type),
	}
}

The API for interacting with these edges is as follows:

func Do(ctx context.Context, client *ent.Client) error {
	// Unlike `Save`, `SaveX` panics if an error occurs.
	a8m := client.User.
		Create().
		SetAge(30).
		SetName("a8m").
		SaveX(ctx)
	nati := client.User.
		Create().
		SetAge(28).
		SetName("nati").
		AddFriends(a8m).
		SaveX(ctx)

	// Query friends. Unlike `All`, `AllX` panics if an error occurs.
	friends := nati.
		QueryFriends().
		AllX(ctx)
	fmt.Println(friends)
	// Output: [User(id=1, age=30, name=a8m)]

	friends = a8m.
		QueryFriends().
		AllX(ctx)
	fmt.Println(friends)
	// Output: [User(id=2, age=28, name=nati)]

	// Query the graph:
	friends = client.User.
		Query().
		Where(user.HasFriends()).
		AllX(ctx)
	fmt.Println(friends)
	// Output: [User(id=1, age=30, name=a8m) User(id=2, age=28, name=nati)]
	return nil
}

The full example exists in GitHub.

Indexes

Index On Edges

Indexes can be configured on composition of fields and edges. The main use-case is setting uniqueness on fields under a specific relation. Let's take an example:

er-city-streets

In the example above, we have a City with many Streets, and we want to set the street name to be unique under each city.

ent/schema/city.go

// City holds the schema definition for the City entity.
type City struct {
	ent.Schema
}

// Fields of the City.
func (City) Fields() []ent.Field {
	return []ent.Field{
		field.String("name"),
	}
}

// Edges of the City.
func (City) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
		edge.To("streets", Street.Type),
	}
}

ent/schema/street.go

// Street holds the schema definition for the Street entity.
type Street struct {
	ent.Schema
}

// Fields of the Street.
func (Street) Fields() []ent.Field {
	return []ent.Field{
		field.String("name"),
	}
}

// Edges of the Street.
func (Street) Edges() []ent.Edge {
	return []ent.Edge{
		edge.From("city", City.Type).
			Ref("streets").
			Unique(),
	}
}

// Indexes of the Street.
func (Street) Indexes() []ent.Index {
	return []ent.Index{
		index.Fields("name").
			Edges("city").
			Unique(),
	}
}

example.go

func Do(ctx context.Context, client *ent.Client) error {
	// Unlike `Save`, `SaveX` panics if an error occurs.
	tlv := client.City.
		Create().
		SetName("TLV").
		SaveX(ctx)
	nyc := client.City.
		Create().
		SetName("NYC").
		SaveX(ctx)
	// Add a street "ST" to "TLV".
	client.Street.
		Create().
		SetName("ST").
		SetCity(tlv).
		SaveX(ctx)
	// This operation will fail because "ST"
	// is already created under "TLV".
	_, err := client.Street.
		Create().
		SetName("ST").
		SetCity(tlv).
		Save(ctx)
	if err == nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("expecting creation to fail")
	}
	// Add a street "ST" to "NYC".
	client.Street.
		Create().
		SetName("ST").
		SetCity(nyc).
		SaveX(ctx)
	return nil
}

The full example exists in GitHub.

Directories

Path Synopsis
edgeindex
ent
entcpkg
ent
fs
ent
m2m2types
ent
m2mbidi
ent
m2mrecur
ent
o2m2types
ent
o2mrecur
ent
o2o2types
ent
o2obidi
ent
o2orecur
ent
privacyadmin
ent
privacytenant
ent
ent
traversal
ent
version
ent

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