Package layout implements layouts common to GUI programs.

Constraints and dimensions

Constraints and dimensions form the interface between layouts and interface child elements. This package operates on Widgets, functions that compute Dimensions from a a set of constraints for acceptable widths and heights. Both the constraints and dimensions are maintained in an implicit Context to keep the Widget declaration short.

For example, to add space above a widget:

var gtx layout.Context

// Configure a top inset.
inset := layout.Inset{Top: unit.Dp(8), ...}
// Use the inset to lay out a widget.
inset.Layout(gtx, func() {
	// Lay out widget and determine its size given the constraints
	// in gtx.Constraints.
	return layout.Dimensions{...}

Note that the example does not generate any garbage even though the Inset is transient. Layouts that don't accept user input are designed to not escape to the heap during their use.

Layout operations are recursive: a child in a layout operation can itself be another layout. That way, complex user interfaces can be created from a few generic layouts.

This example both aligns and insets a child:

inset := layout.Inset{...}
inset.Layout(gtx, func(gtx layout.Context) layout.Dimensions {
	align := layout.Align(...)
	return align.Layout(gtx, func(gtx layout.Context) layout.Dimensions {
		return widget.Layout(gtx, ...)

More complex layouts such as Stack and Flex lay out multiple children, and stateful layouts such as List accept user input.




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func FPt

func FPt(p image.Point) f32.Point

    FPt converts an point to a f32.Point.

    func FRect

    func FRect(r image.Rectangle) f32.Rectangle

      FRect converts a rectangle to a f32.Rectangle.


      type Alignment

      type Alignment uint8

        Alignment is the mutual alignment of a list of widgets.

        const (
        	Start Alignment = iota

        func (Alignment) String

        func (a Alignment) String() string

        type Axis

        type Axis uint8

          Axis is the Horizontal or Vertical direction.

          const (
          	Horizontal Axis = iota

          func (Axis) Convert

          func (a Axis) Convert(pt image.Point) image.Point

            Convert a point in (x, y) coordinates to (main, cross) coordinates, or vice versa. Specifically, Convert((x, y)) returns (x, y) unchanged for the horizontal axis, or (y, x) for the vertical axis.

            func (Axis) String

            func (a Axis) String() string

            type Constraints

            type Constraints struct {
            	Min, Max image.Point

              Constraints represent the minimum and maximum size of a widget.

              A widget does not have to treat its constraints as "hard". For example, if it's passed a constraint with a minimum size that's smaller than its actual minimum size, it should return its minimum size dimensions instead. Parent widgets should deal appropriately with child widgets that return dimensions that do not fit their constraints (for example, by clipping).

              func Exact

              func Exact(size image.Point) Constraints

                Exact returns the Constraints with the minimum and maximum size set to size.

                func (Constraints) Constrain

                func (c Constraints) Constrain(size image.Point) image.Point

                  Constrain a size so each dimension is in the range [min;max].

                  type Context

                  type Context struct {
                  	// Constraints track the constraints for the active widget or
                  	// layout.
                  	Constraints Constraints
                  	Metric unit.Metric
                  	// By convention, a nil Queue is a signal to widgets to draw themselves
                  	// in a disabled state.
                  	Queue event.Queue
                  	// Now is the animation time.
                  	Now time.Time

                    Context carries the state needed by almost all layouts and widgets. A zero value Context never returns events, map units to pixels with a scale of 1.0, and returns the zero time from Now.

                    func NewContext

                    func NewContext(ops *op.Ops, e system.FrameEvent) Context

                      NewContext is a shorthand for

                        Ops: ops,
                        Now: e.Now,
                        Queue: e.Queue,
                        Config: e.Config,
                        Constraints: Exact(e.Size),

                      NewContext calls ops.Reset.

                      func (Context) Disabled

                      func (c Context) Disabled() Context

                        Disabled returns a copy of this context with a nil Queue, blocking events to widgets using it.

                        By convention, a nil Queue is a signal to widgets to draw themselves in a disabled state.

                        func (Context) Events

                        func (c Context) Events(k event.Tag) []event.Event

                          Events returns the events available for the key. If no queue is configured, Events returns nil.

                          func (Context) Px

                          func (c Context) Px(v unit.Value) int

                            Px maps the value to pixels.

                            type Dimensions

                            type Dimensions struct {
                            	Size     image.Point
                            	Baseline int

                              Dimensions are the resolved size and baseline for a widget.

                              Baseline is the distance from the bottom of a widget to the baseline of any text it contains (or 0). The purpose is to be able to align text that span multiple widgets.

                              type Direction

                              type Direction uint8

                                Direction is the alignment of widgets relative to a containing space.

                                const (
                                	NW Direction = iota

                                func (Direction) Layout

                                func (d Direction) Layout(gtx Context, w Widget) Dimensions

                                  Layout a widget according to the direction. The widget is called with the context constraints minimum cleared.

                                  func (Direction) String

                                  func (d Direction) String() string

                                  type Flex

                                  type Flex struct {
                                  	// Axis is the main axis, either Horizontal or Vertical.
                                  	Axis Axis
                                  	// Spacing controls the distribution of space left after
                                  	// layout.
                                  	Spacing Spacing
                                  	// Alignment is the alignment in the cross axis.
                                  	Alignment Alignment
                                  	// WeightSum is the sum of weights used for the weighted
                                  	// size of Flexed children. If WeightSum is zero, the sum
                                  	// of all Flexed weights is used.
                                  	WeightSum float32

                                    Flex lays out child elements along an axis, according to alignment and weights.

                                    Rigid: {(0,100) (100,100)}
                                    50%: {(45,100) (45,100)}

                                    func (Flex) Layout

                                    func (f Flex) Layout(gtx Context, children ...FlexChild) Dimensions

                                      Layout a list of children. The position of the children are determined by the specified order, but Rigid children are laid out before Flexed children.

                                      type FlexChild

                                      type FlexChild struct {
                                      	// contains filtered or unexported fields

                                        FlexChild is the descriptor for a Flex child.

                                        func Flexed

                                        func Flexed(weight float32, widget Widget) FlexChild

                                          Flexed returns a Flex child forced to take up weight fraction of the space left over from Rigid children. The fraction is weight divided by either the weight sum of all Flexed children or the Flex WeightSum if non zero.

                                          func Rigid

                                          func Rigid(widget Widget) FlexChild

                                            Rigid returns a Flex child with a maximal constraint of the remaining space.

                                            type Inset

                                            type Inset struct {
                                            	Top, Right, Bottom, Left unit.Value

                                              Inset adds space around a widget by decreasing its maximum constraints. The minimum constraints will be adjusted to ensure they do not exceed the maximum.


                                              func UniformInset

                                              func UniformInset(v unit.Value) Inset

                                                UniformInset returns an Inset with a single inset applied to all edges.

                                                func (Inset) Layout

                                                func (in Inset) Layout(gtx Context, w Widget) Dimensions

                                                  Layout a widget.

                                                  type List

                                                  type List struct {
                                                  	Axis Axis
                                                  	// ScrollToEnd instructs the list to stay scrolled to the far end position
                                                  	// once reached. A List with ScrollToEnd == true and Position.BeforeEnd ==
                                                  	// false draws its content with the last item at the bottom of the list
                                                  	// area.
                                                  	ScrollToEnd bool
                                                  	// Alignment is the cross axis alignment of list elements.
                                                  	Alignment Alignment
                                                  	// Position is updated during Layout. To save the list scroll position,
                                                  	// just save Position after Layout finishes. To scroll the list
                                                  	// programmatically, update Position (e.g. restore it from a saved value)
                                                  	// before calling Layout.
                                                  	Position Position
                                                  	// contains filtered or unexported fields

                                                    List displays a subsection of a potentially infinitely large underlying list. List accepts user input to scroll the subsection.


                                                    func (*List) Dragging

                                                    func (l *List) Dragging() bool

                                                      Dragging reports whether the List is being dragged.

                                                      func (*List) Layout

                                                      func (l *List) Layout(gtx Context, len int, w ListElement) Dimensions

                                                        Layout the List.

                                                        type ListElement

                                                        type ListElement func(gtx Context, index int) Dimensions

                                                          ListElement is a function that computes the dimensions of a list element.

                                                          type Position

                                                          type Position struct {
                                                          	// BeforeEnd tracks whether the List position is before the very end. We
                                                          	// use "before end" instead of "at end" so that the zero value of a
                                                          	// Position struct is useful.
                                                          	// When laying out a list, if ScrollToEnd is true and BeforeEnd is false,
                                                          	// then First and Offset are ignored, and the list is drawn with the last
                                                          	// item at the bottom. If ScrollToEnd is false then BeforeEnd is ignored.
                                                          	BeforeEnd bool
                                                          	// First is the index of the first visible child.
                                                          	First int
                                                          	// Offset is the distance in pixels from the top edge to the child at index
                                                          	// First.
                                                          	Offset int
                                                          	// OffsetLast is the signed distance in pixels from the bottom edge to the
                                                          	// bottom edge of the child at index First+Count.
                                                          	OffsetLast int
                                                          	// Count is the number of visible children.
                                                          	Count int

                                                            Position is a List scroll offset represented as an offset from the top edge of a child element.

                                                            type Spacer

                                                            type Spacer struct {
                                                            	Width, Height unit.Value

                                                              Spacer adds space between widgets.

                                                              func (Spacer) Layout

                                                              func (s Spacer) Layout(gtx Context) Dimensions

                                                              type Spacing

                                                              type Spacing uint8

                                                                Spacing determine the spacing mode for a Flex.

                                                                const (
                                                                	// SpaceEnd leaves space at the end.
                                                                	SpaceEnd Spacing = iota
                                                                	// SpaceStart leaves space at the start.
                                                                	// SpaceSides shares space between the start and end.
                                                                	// SpaceAround distributes space evenly between children,
                                                                	// with half as much space at the start and end.
                                                                	// SpaceBetween distributes space evenly between children,
                                                                	// leaving no space at the start and end.
                                                                	// SpaceEvenly distributes space evenly between children and
                                                                	// at the start and end.

                                                                func (Spacing) String

                                                                func (s Spacing) String() string

                                                                type Stack

                                                                type Stack struct {
                                                                	// Alignment is the direction to align children
                                                                	// smaller than the available space.
                                                                	Alignment Direction

                                                                  Stack lays out child elements on top of each other, according to an alignment direction.

                                                                  Expand: {(50,50) (100,100)}

                                                                  func (Stack) Layout

                                                                  func (s Stack) Layout(gtx Context, children ...StackChild) Dimensions

                                                                    Layout a stack of children. The position of the children are determined by the specified order, but Stacked children are laid out before Expanded children.

                                                                    type StackChild

                                                                    type StackChild struct {
                                                                    	// contains filtered or unexported fields

                                                                      StackChild represents a child for a Stack layout.

                                                                      func Expanded

                                                                      func Expanded(w Widget) StackChild

                                                                        Expanded returns a Stack child with the minimum constraints set to the largest Stacked child. The maximum constraints are set to the same as passed to Stack.Layout.

                                                                        func Stacked

                                                                        func Stacked(w Widget) StackChild

                                                                          Stacked returns a Stack child that is laid out with no minimum constraints and the maximum constraints passed to Stack.Layout.

                                                                          type Widget

                                                                          type Widget func(gtx Context) Dimensions

                                                                            Widget is a function scope for drawing, processing events and computing dimensions for a user interface element.