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Published: Oct 22, 2019 License: MIT Imports: 8 Imported by: 0


JWT Middleware for Gin Framework

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This is a middleware for Gin framework.

It uses jwt-go to provide a jwt authentication middleware. It provides additional handler functions to provide the login api that will generate the token and an additional refresh handler that can be used to refresh tokens.


Download and install it:

$ go get github.com/appleboy/gin-jwt

Import it in your code:

import "github.com/appleboy/gin-jwt"


Please see the example file and you can use ExtractClaims to fetch user data.

package main

import (


type login struct {
	Username string `form:"username" json:"username" binding:"required"`
	Password string `form:"password" json:"password" binding:"required"`

var identityKey = "id"

func helloHandler(c *gin.Context) {
	claims := jwt.ExtractClaims(c)
	user, _ := c.Get(identityKey)
	c.JSON(200, gin.H{
		"userID":   claims["id"],
		"userName": user.(*User).UserName,
		"text":     "Hello World.",

// User demo
type User struct {
	UserName  string
	FirstName string
	LastName  string

func main() {
	port := os.Getenv("PORT")
	r := gin.New()

	if port == "" {
		port = "8000"

	// the jwt middleware
	authMiddleware, err := jwt.New(&jwt.GinJWTMiddleware{
		Realm:       "test zone",
		Key:         []byte("secret key"),
		Timeout:     time.Hour,
		MaxRefresh:  time.Hour,
		IdentityKey: identityKey,
		PayloadFunc: func(data interface{}) jwt.MapClaims {
			if v, ok := data.(*User); ok {
				return jwt.MapClaims{
					identityKey: v.UserName,
			return jwt.MapClaims{}
		IdentityHandler: func(c *gin.Context) interface{} {
			claims := jwt.ExtractClaims(c)
			return &User{
				UserName: claims["id"].(string),
		Authenticator: func(c *gin.Context) (interface{}, error) {
			var loginVals login
			if err := c.ShouldBind(&loginVals); err != nil {
				return "", jwt.ErrMissingLoginValues
			userID := loginVals.Username
			password := loginVals.Password

			if (userID == "admin" && password == "admin") || (userID == "test" && password == "test") {
				return &User{
					UserName:  userID,
					LastName:  "Bo-Yi",
					FirstName: "Wu",
				}, nil

			return nil, jwt.ErrFailedAuthentication
		Authorizator: func(data interface{}, c *gin.Context) bool {
			if v, ok := data.(*User); ok && v.UserName == "admin" {
				return true

			return false
		Unauthorized: func(c *gin.Context, code int, message string) {
			c.JSON(code, gin.H{
				"code":    code,
				"message": message,
		// TokenLookup is a string in the form of "<source>:<name>" that is used
		// to extract token from the request.
		// Optional. Default value "header:Authorization".
		// Possible values:
		// - "header:<name>"
		// - "query:<name>"
		// - "cookie:<name>"
		// - "param:<name>"
		TokenLookup: "header: Authorization, query: token, cookie: jwt",
		// TokenLookup: "query:token",
		// TokenLookup: "cookie:token",

		// TokenHeadName is a string in the header. Default value is "Bearer"
		TokenHeadName: "Bearer",

		// TimeFunc provides the current time. You can override it to use another time value. This is useful for testing or if your server uses a different time zone than your tokens.
		TimeFunc: time.Now,

	if err != nil {
		log.Fatal("JWT Error:" + err.Error())

	r.POST("/login", authMiddleware.LoginHandler)

	r.NoRoute(authMiddleware.MiddlewareFunc(), func(c *gin.Context) {
		claims := jwt.ExtractClaims(c)
		log.Printf("NoRoute claims: %#v\n", claims)
		c.JSON(404, gin.H{"code": "PAGE_NOT_FOUND", "message": "Page not found"})

	auth := r.Group("/auth")
	// Refresh time can be longer than token timeout
	auth.GET("/refresh_token", authMiddleware.RefreshHandler)
		auth.GET("/hello", helloHandler)

	if err := http.ListenAndServe(":"+port, r); err != nil {


Please run example/server.go file and listen 8000 port.

$ go run example/server.go

Download and install httpie CLI HTTP client.

Login API:
$ http -v --json POST localhost:8000/login username=admin password=admin

Output screenshot

api screenshot

Refresh token API:
$ http -v -f GET localhost:8000/auth/refresh_token "Authorization:Bearer xxxxxxxxx"  "Content-Type: application/json"

Output screenshot

api screenshot

Hello world

Please login as admin and password as admin

$ http -f GET localhost:8000/auth/hello "Authorization:Bearer xxxxxxxxx"  "Content-Type: application/json"

Response message 200 OK:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Length: 24
Content-Type: application/json; charset=utf-8
Date: Sat, 19 Mar 2016 03:02:57 GMT

  "text": "Hello World.",
  "userID": "admin"

Please login as test and password as test

$ http -f GET localhost:8000/auth/hello "Authorization:Bearer xxxxxxxxx"  "Content-Type: application/json"

Response message 403 Forbidden:

HTTP/1.1 403 Forbidden
Content-Length: 62
Content-Type: application/json; charset=utf-8
Date: Sat, 19 Mar 2016 03:05:40 GMT
Www-Authenticate: JWT realm=test zone

  "code": 403,
  "message": "You don't have permission to access."

Use these options for setting the JWT in a cookie. See the Mozilla documentation for more information on these options.

	SendCookie:       true,
	SecureCookie:     false, //non HTTPS dev environments
	CookieHTTPOnly:   true,  // JS can't modify
	CookieDomain:     "localhost:8080",
	CookieName:       "token", // default jwt
	TokenLookup: "cookie:token",
Login Flow
  1. Authenticator: handles the login logic. On success LoginResponse is called, on failure Unauthorized is called.
  2. LoginResponse: optional, allows setting a custom response such as a redirect.
JWT Flow
  1. PayloadFunc: maps the claims in the JWT.
  2. IdentityHandler: extracts identity from claims.
  3. Authorizator: receives identity and handles authorization logic.
  4. Unauthorized: handles unauthorized logic.




This section is empty.


View Source
var (
	// ErrMissingSecretKey indicates Secret key is required
	ErrMissingSecretKey = errors.New("secret key is required")

	// ErrForbidden when HTTP status 403 is given
	ErrForbidden = errors.New("you don't have permission to access this resource")

	// ErrMissingAuthenticatorFunc indicates Authenticator is required
	ErrMissingAuthenticatorFunc = errors.New("ginJWTMiddleware.Authenticator func is undefined")

	// ErrMissingLoginValues indicates a user tried to authenticate without username or password
	ErrMissingLoginValues = errors.New("missing Username or Password")

	// ErrFailedAuthentication indicates authentication failed, could be faulty username or password
	ErrFailedAuthentication = errors.New("incorrect Username or Password")

	// ErrFailedTokenCreation indicates JWT Token failed to create, reason unknown
	ErrFailedTokenCreation = errors.New("failed to create JWT Token")

	// ErrExpiredToken indicates JWT token has expired. Can't refresh.
	ErrExpiredToken = errors.New("token is expired")

	// ErrEmptyAuthHeader can be thrown if authing with a HTTP header, the Auth header needs to be set
	ErrEmptyAuthHeader = errors.New("auth header is empty")

	// ErrInvalidAuthHeader indicates auth header is invalid, could for example have the wrong Realm name
	ErrInvalidAuthHeader = errors.New("auth header is invalid")

	// ErrEmptyQueryToken can be thrown if authing with URL Query, the query token variable is empty
	ErrEmptyQueryToken = errors.New("query token is empty")

	// ErrEmptyCookieToken can be thrown if authing with a cookie, the token cokie is empty
	ErrEmptyCookieToken = errors.New("cookie token is empty")

	// ErrEmptyParamToken can be thrown if authing with parameter in path, the parameter in path is empty
	ErrEmptyParamToken = errors.New("parameter token is empty")

	// ErrInvalidSigningAlgorithm indicates signing algorithm is invalid, needs to be HS256, HS384, HS512, RS256, RS384 or RS512
	ErrInvalidSigningAlgorithm = errors.New("invalid signing algorithm")

	// ErrNoPrivKeyFile indicates that the given private key is unreadable
	ErrNoPrivKeyFile = errors.New("private key file unreadable")

	// ErrNoPubKeyFile indicates that the given public key is unreadable
	ErrNoPubKeyFile = errors.New("public key file unreadable")

	// ErrInvalidPrivKey indicates that the given private key is invalid
	ErrInvalidPrivKey = errors.New("private key invalid")

	// ErrInvalidPubKey indicates the the given public key is invalid
	ErrInvalidPubKey = errors.New("public key invalid")

	// IdentityKey default identity key
	IdentityKey = "identity"


func GetToken

func GetToken(c *gin.Context) string

GetToken help to get the JWT token string


type GinJWTMiddleware

type GinJWTMiddleware struct {
	// Realm name to display to the user. Required.
	Realm string

	// signing algorithm - possible values are HS256, HS384, HS512
	// Optional, default is HS256.
	SigningAlgorithm string

	// Secret key used for signing. Required.
	Key []byte

	// Duration that a jwt token is valid. Optional, defaults to one hour.
	Timeout time.Duration

	// This field allows clients to refresh their token until MaxRefresh has passed.
	// Note that clients can refresh their token in the last moment of MaxRefresh.
	// This means that the maximum validity timespan for a token is TokenTime + MaxRefresh.
	// Optional, defaults to 0 meaning not refreshable.
	MaxRefresh time.Duration

	// Callback function that should perform the authentication of the user based on login info.
	// Must return user data as user identifier, it will be stored in Claim Array. Required.
	// Check error (e) to determine the appropriate error message.
	Authenticator func(c *gin.Context) (interface{}, error)

	// Callback function that should perform the authorization of the authenticated user. Called
	// only after an authentication success. Must return true on success, false on failure.
	// Optional, default to success.
	Authorizator func(data interface{}, c *gin.Context) bool

	// Callback function that will be called during login.
	// Using this function it is possible to add additional payload data to the webtoken.
	// The data is then made available during requests via c.Get("JWT_PAYLOAD").
	// Note that the payload is not encrypted.
	// The attributes mentioned on jwt.io can't be used as keys for the map.
	// Optional, by default no additional data will be set.
	PayloadFunc func(data interface{}) MapClaims

	// User can define own Unauthorized func.
	Unauthorized func(*gin.Context, int, string)

	// User can define own LoginResponse func.
	LoginResponse func(*gin.Context, int, string, time.Time)

	// User can define own RefreshResponse func.
	RefreshResponse func(*gin.Context, int, string, time.Time)

	// Set the identity handler function
	IdentityHandler func(*gin.Context) interface{}

	// Set the identity key
	IdentityKey string

	// TokenLookup is a string in the form of "<source>:<name>" that is used
	// to extract token from the request.
	// Optional. Default value "header:Authorization".
	// Possible values:
	// - "header:<name>"
	// - "query:<name>"
	// - "cookie:<name>"
	TokenLookup string

	// TokenHeadName is a string in the header. Default value is "Bearer"
	TokenHeadName string

	// TimeFunc provides the current time. You can override it to use another time value. This is useful for testing or if your server uses a different time zone than your tokens.
	TimeFunc func() time.Time

	// HTTP Status messages for when something in the JWT middleware fails.
	// Check error (e) to determine the appropriate error message.
	HTTPStatusMessageFunc func(e error, c *gin.Context) string

	// Private key file for asymmetric algorithms
	PrivKeyFile string

	// Public key file for asymmetric algorithms
	PubKeyFile string

	// Optionally return the token as a cookie
	SendCookie bool

	// Allow insecure cookies for development over http
	SecureCookie bool

	// Allow cookies to be accessed client side for development
	CookieHTTPOnly bool

	// Allow cookie domain change for development
	CookieDomain string

	// SendAuthorization allow return authorization header for every request
	SendAuthorization bool

	// Disable abort() of context.
	DisabledAbort bool

	// CookieName allow cookie name change for development
	CookieName string
	// contains filtered or unexported fields

GinJWTMiddleware provides a Json-Web-Token authentication implementation. On failure, a 401 HTTP response is returned. On success, the wrapped middleware is called, and the userID is made available as c.Get("userID").(string). Users can get a token by posting a json request to LoginHandler. The token then needs to be passed in the Authentication header. Example: Authorization:Bearer XXX_TOKEN_XXX

func New

New for check error with GinJWTMiddleware

func (*GinJWTMiddleware) CheckIfTokenExpire

func (mw *GinJWTMiddleware) CheckIfTokenExpire(c *gin.Context) (jwt.MapClaims, error)

CheckIfTokenExpire check if token expire

func (*GinJWTMiddleware) GetClaimsFromJWT

func (mw *GinJWTMiddleware) GetClaimsFromJWT(c *gin.Context) (MapClaims, error)

GetClaimsFromJWT get claims from JWT token

func (*GinJWTMiddleware) LoginHandler

func (mw *GinJWTMiddleware) LoginHandler(c *gin.Context)

LoginHandler can be used by clients to get a jwt token. Payload needs to be json in the form of {"username": "USERNAME", "password": "PASSWORD"}. Reply will be of the form {"token": "TOKEN"}.

func (*GinJWTMiddleware) MiddlewareFunc

func (mw *GinJWTMiddleware) MiddlewareFunc() gin.HandlerFunc

MiddlewareFunc makes GinJWTMiddleware implement the Middleware interface.

func (*GinJWTMiddleware) MiddlewareInit

func (mw *GinJWTMiddleware) MiddlewareInit() error

MiddlewareInit initialize jwt configs.

func (*GinJWTMiddleware) ParseToken

func (mw *GinJWTMiddleware) ParseToken(c *gin.Context) (*jwt.Token, error)

ParseToken parse jwt token

func (*GinJWTMiddleware) RefreshHandler

func (mw *GinJWTMiddleware) RefreshHandler(c *gin.Context)

RefreshHandler can be used to refresh a token. The token still needs to be valid on refresh. Shall be put under an endpoint that is using the GinJWTMiddleware. Reply will be of the form {"token": "TOKEN"}.

func (*GinJWTMiddleware) RefreshToken

func (mw *GinJWTMiddleware) RefreshToken(c *gin.Context) (string, time.Time, error)

RefreshToken refresh token and check if token is expired

func (*GinJWTMiddleware) TokenGenerator

func (mw *GinJWTMiddleware) TokenGenerator(data interface{}) (string, time.Time, error)

TokenGenerator method that clients can use to get a jwt token.

type MapClaims

type MapClaims map[string]interface{}

MapClaims type that uses the map[string]interface{} for JSON decoding This is the default claims type if you don't supply one

func ExtractClaims

func ExtractClaims(c *gin.Context) MapClaims

ExtractClaims help to extract the JWT claims

Source Files

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