participle

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Published: Nov 26, 2020 License: MIT Imports: 10 Imported by: 126

README

A dead simple parser package for Go

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Old version

This is an outdated version of Participle. See here for a full list of available versions.

Introduction

The goal of this package is to provide a simple, idiomatic and elegant way of defining parsers in Go.

Participle's method of defining grammars should be familiar to any Go programmer who has used the encoding/json package: struct field tags define what and how input is mapped to those same fields. This is not unusual for Go encoders, but is unusual for a parser.

Limitations

Participle grammars are LL(k). Among other things, this means that they do not support left recursion.

The default value of K is 1 but this can be controlled with participle.UseLookahead(k).

Left recursion must be eliminated by restructuring your grammar.

Tutorial

A tutorial is available, walking through the creation of an .ini parser.

Overview

A grammar is an annotated Go structure used to both define the parser grammar, and be the AST output by the parser. As an example, following is the final INI parser from the tutorial.

type INI struct {
  Properties []*Property `{ @@ }`
  Sections   []*Section  `{ @@ }`
}

type Section struct {
  Identifier string      `"[" @Ident "]"`
  Properties []*Property `{ @@ }`
}

type Property struct {
  Key   string `@Ident "="`
  Value *Value `@@`
}

type Value struct {
  String *string  `  @String`
  Number *float64 `| @Float`
}

Note: Participle also supports named struct tags (eg. Hello string `parser:"@Ident"`).

A parser is constructed from a grammar and a lexer:

parser, err := participle.Build(&INI{})

Once constructed, the parser is applied to input to produce an AST:

ast := &INI{}
err := parser.ParseString("size = 10", ast)
// ast == &INI{
//   Properties: []*Property{
//     {Key: "size", Value: &Value{Number: &10}},
//   },
// }

Annotation syntax

  • @<expr> Capture expression into the field.
  • @@ Recursively capture using the fields own type.
  • <identifier> Match named lexer token.
  • ( ... ) Group.
  • "..." Match the literal (note that the lexer must emit tokens matching this literal exactly).
  • "...":<identifier> Match the literal, specifying the exact lexer token type to match.
  • <expr> <expr> ... Match expressions.
  • <expr> | <expr> Match one of the alternatives.
  • !<expr> Match any token that is not the start of the expression (eg: @!";" matches anything but the ; character into the field).

The following modifiers can be used after any expression:

  • * Expression can match zero or more times.
  • + Expression must match one or more times.
  • ? Expression can match zero or once.
  • ! Require a non-empty match (this is useful with a sequence of optional matches eg. ("a"? "b"? "c"?)!).

Supported but deprecated:

  • { ... } Match 0 or more times (DEPRECATED - prefer ( ... )*).
  • [ ... ] Optional (DEPRECATED - prefer ( ... )?).

Notes:

  • Each struct is a single production, with each field applied in sequence.
  • @<expr> is the mechanism for capturing matches into the field.
  • if a struct field is not keyed with "parser", the entire struct tag will be used as the grammar fragment. This allows the grammar syntax to remain clear and simple to maintain.

Capturing

Prefixing any expression in the grammar with @ will capture matching values for that expression into the corresponding field.

For example:

// The grammar definition.
type Grammar struct {
  Hello string `@Ident`
}

// The source text to parse.
source := "world"

// After parsing, the resulting AST.
result == &Grammar{
  Hello: "world",
}

For slice and string fields, each instance of @ will accumulate into the field (including repeated patterns). Accumulation into other types is not supported.

A successful capture match into a boolean field will set the field to true.

For integer and floating point types, a successful capture will be parsed with strconv.ParseInt() and strconv.ParseBool() respectively.

Custom control of how values are captured into fields can be achieved by a field type implementing the Capture interface (Capture(values []string) error).

Additionally, any field implementing the encoding.TextUnmarshaler interface will be capturable too. One caveat is that UnmarshalText() will be called once for each captured token, so eg. @(Ident Ident Ident) will be called three times.

Streaming

Participle supports streaming parsing. Simply pass a channel of your grammar into Parse*(). The grammar will be repeatedly parsed and sent to the channel. Note that the Parse*() call will not return until parsing completes, so it should generally be started in a goroutine.

type token struct {
  Str string `  @Ident`
  Num int    `| @Int`
}

parser, err := participle.Build(&token{})

tokens := make(chan *token, 128)
err := parser.ParseString(`hello 10 11 12 world`, tokens)
for token := range tokens {
  fmt.Printf("%#v\n", token)
}

Lexing

Participle operates on tokens and thus relies on a lexer to convert character streams to tokens.

Four lexers are provided, varying in speed and flexibility. Configure your parser with a lexer via participle.Lexer().

The best combination of speed, flexibility and usability is lexer/regex.New().

Ordered by speed they are:

  1. lexer.DefaultDefinition is based on the text/scanner package and only allows tokens provided by that package. This is the default lexer.
  2. lexer.Regexp() (legacy) maps regular expression named subgroups to lexer symbols.
  3. lexer/regex.New() is a more readable regex lexer, with each rule in the form <name> = <regex>.
  4. lexer/ebnf.New() is a lexer based on the Go EBNF package. It has a large potential for optimisation through code generation, but that is not implemented yet.

To use your own Lexer you will need to implement two interfaces: Definition and Lexer.

Options

The Parser's behaviour can be configured via Options.

Examples

There are several examples included:

Example Description
BASIC A lexer, parser and interpreter for a rudimentary dialect of BASIC.
EBNF Parser for the form of EBNF used by Go.
Expr A basic mathematical expression parser and evaluator.
GraphQL Lexer+parser for GraphQL schemas
HCL A parser for the HashiCorp Configuration Language.
INI An INI file parser.
Protobuf A full Protobuf version 2 and 3 parser.
SQL A very rudimentary SQL SELECT parser.
Thrift A full Thrift parser.
TOML A TOML parser.

Included below is a full GraphQL lexer and parser:

package main

import (
  "os"

  "github.com/alecthomas/kong"
  "github.com/alecthomas/repr"

  "github.com/alecthomas/participle"
  "github.com/alecthomas/participle/lexer"
  "github.com/alecthomas/participle/lexer/ebnf"
)

type File struct {
  Entries []*Entry `@@*`
}

type Entry struct {
  Type   *Type   `  @@`
  Schema *Schema `| @@`
  Enum   *Enum   `| @@`
  Scalar string  `| "scalar" @Ident`
}

type Enum struct {
  Name  string   `"enum" @Ident`
  Cases []string `"{" @Ident* "}"`
}

type Schema struct {
  Fields []*Field `"schema" "{" @@* "}"`
}

type Type struct {
  Name       string   `"type" @Ident`
  Implements string   `("implements" @Ident)?`
  Fields     []*Field `"{" @@* "}"`
}

type Field struct {
  Name       string      `@Ident`
  Arguments  []*Argument `("(" (@@ ("," @@)*)? ")")?`
  Type       *TypeRef    `":" @@`
  Annotation string      `("@" @Ident)?`
}

type Argument struct {
  Name    string   `@Ident`
  Type    *TypeRef `":" @@`
  Default *Value   `("=" @@)?`
}

type TypeRef struct {
  Array       *TypeRef `(   "[" @@ "]"`
  Type        string   `  | @Ident )`
  NonNullable bool     `@"!"?`
}

type Value struct {
  Symbol string `@Ident`
}

var (
  graphQLLexer = lexer.Must(ebnf.New(`
    Comment = ("#" | "//") { "\u0000"…"\uffff"-"\n" } .
    Ident = (alpha | "_") { "_" | alpha | digit } .
    Number = ("." | digit) {"." | digit} .
    Whitespace = " " | "\t" | "\n" | "\r" .
    Punct = "!"…"/" | ":"…"@" | "["…`+"\"`\""+` | "{"…"~" .

    alpha = "a"…"z" | "A"…"Z" .
    digit = "0"…"9" .
`))

  parser = participle.MustBuild(&File{},
    participle.Lexer(graphQLLexer),
    participle.Elide("Comment", "Whitespace"),
    )

  cli struct {
    Files []string `arg:"" type:"existingfile" required:"" help:"GraphQL schema files to parse."`
  }
)

func main() {
  ctx := kong.Parse(&cli)
  for _, file := range cli.Files {
    ast := &File{}
    r, err := os.Open(file)
    ctx.FatalIfErrorf(err)
    err = parser.Parse(r, ast)
    r.Close()
    repr.Println(ast)
    ctx.FatalIfErrorf(err)
  }
}

Performance

One of the included examples is a complete Thrift parser (shell-style comments are not supported). This gives a convenient baseline for comparing to the PEG based pigeon, which is the parser used by go-thrift. Additionally, the pigeon parser is utilising a generated parser, while the participle parser is built at run time.

You can run the benchmarks yourself, but here's the output on my machine:

BenchmarkParticipleThrift-4        10000      221818 ns/op     48880 B/op     1240 allocs/op
BenchmarkGoThriftParser-4           2000      804709 ns/op    170301 B/op     3086 allocs/op

On a real life codebase of 47K lines of Thrift, Participle takes 200ms and go- thrift takes 630ms, which aligns quite closely with the benchmarks.

Concurrency

A compiled Parser instance can be used concurrently. A LexerDefinition can be used concurrently. A Lexer instance cannot be used concurrently.

Error reporting

There are a few areas where Participle can provide useful feedback to users of your parser.

  1. Errors returned by Parser.Parse() will be of type Error. This will contain positional information where available. If the source io.Reader includes a Name() string method (as os.File does), the filename will be included.
  2. Participle will make a best effort to return as much of the AST up to the error location as possible.
  3. Any node in the AST containing a field Pos lexer.Position or Tok lexer.Token will be automatically populated from the nearest matching token.
  4. Any node in the AST containing a field EndPos lexer.Position or EndTok lexer.Token will be automatically populated with the token at the end of the node.

These related pieces of information can be combined to provide fairly comprehensive error reporting.

EBNF

Participle supports outputting an EBNF grammar from a Participle parser. Once the parser is constructed simply call String().

eg. The GraphQL example gives in the following EBNF:

File = Entry* .
Entry = Type | Schema | Enum | "scalar" ident .
Type = "type" ident ("implements" ident)? "{" Field* "}" .
Field = ident ("(" (Argument ("," Argument)*)? ")")? ":" TypeRef ("@" ident)? .
Argument = ident ":" TypeRef ("=" Value)? .
TypeRef = "[" TypeRef "]" | ident "!"? .
Value = ident .
Schema = "schema" "{" Field* "}" .
Enum = "enum" ident "{" ident* "}" .

Documentation

Overview

Package participle constructs parsers from definitions in struct tags and parses directly into those structs. The approach is philosophically similar to how other marshallers work in Go, "unmarshalling" an instance of a grammar into a struct.

The supported annotation syntax is:

  • `@<expr>` Capture expression into the field.
  • `@@` Recursively capture using the fields own type.
  • `<identifier>` Match named lexer token.
  • `( ... )` Group.
  • `"..."` Match the literal (note that the lexer must emit tokens matching this literal exactly).
  • `"...":<identifier>` Match the literal, specifying the exact lexer token type to match.
  • `<expr> <expr> ...` Match expressions.
  • `<expr> | <expr>` Match one of the alternatives.

The following modifiers can be used after any expression:

  • `*` Expression can match zero or more times.
  • `+` Expression must match one or more times.
  • `?` Expression can match zero or once.
  • `!` Require a non-empty match (this is useful with a sequence of optional matches eg. `("a"? "b"? "c"?)!`).

Supported but deprecated:

  • `{ ... }` Match 0 or more times (**DEPRECATED** - prefer `( ... )*`).
  • `[ ... ]` Optional (**DEPRECATED** - prefer `( ... )?`).

Here's an example of an EBNF grammar.

type Group struct {
    Expression *Expression `"(" @@ ")"`
}

type Option struct {
    Expression *Expression `"[" @@ "]"`
}

type Repetition struct {
    Expression *Expression `"{" @@ "}"`
}

type Literal struct {
    Start string `@String` // lexer.Lexer token "String"
    End   string `("…" @String)?`
}

type Term struct {
    Name       string      `  @Ident`
    Literal    *Literal    `| @@`
    Group      *Group      `| @@`
    Option     *Option     `| @@`
    Repetition *Repetition `| @@`
}

type Sequence struct {
    Terms []*Term `@@+`
}

type Expression struct {
    Alternatives []*Sequence `@@ ("|" @@)*`
}

type Expressions []*Expression

type Production struct {
    Name        string      `@Ident "="`
    Expressions Expressions `@@+ "."`
}

type EBNF struct {
    Productions []*Production `@@*`
}

Index

Constants

This section is empty.

Variables

View Source
var (
	// MaxIterations limits the number of elements capturable by {}.
	MaxIterations = 1000000

	// NextMatch should be returned by Parseable.Parse() method implementations to indicate
	// that the node did not match and that other matches should be attempted, if appropriate.
	NextMatch = errors.New("no match") // nolint: golint
)
View Source
var DropToken = errors.New("drop token") // nolint: golint

DropToken can be returned by a Mapper to remove a token from the stream.

Functions

func AnnotateError added in v0.4.0

func AnnotateError(pos lexer.Position, err error) error

AnnotateError wraps an existing error with a position.

If the existing error is a lexer.Error or participle.Error it will be returned unmodified.

func ErrorWithTokenf added in v0.4.2

func ErrorWithTokenf(tok lexer.Token, format string, args ...interface{}) error

ErrorWithTokenf creats a new Error with the given token as context.

func Errorf added in v0.4.0

func Errorf(pos lexer.Position, format string, args ...interface{}) error

Errorf creats a new Error at the given position.

func Wrapf added in v0.4.2

func Wrapf(pos lexer.Position, err error, format string, args ...interface{}) error

Wrapf attempts to wrap an existing participle.Error in a new message.

Types

type Capture

type Capture interface {
	Capture(values []string) error
}

Capture can be implemented by fields in order to transform captured tokens into field values.

type Error

type Error interface {
	error
	// Unadorned message.
	Message() string
	// Closest token to error location.
	Token() lexer.Token
}

Error represents an error while parsing.

The error will contain positional information if available.

type Mapper

type Mapper func(token lexer.Token) (lexer.Token, error)

Mapper function for mutating tokens before being applied to the AST.

If the Mapper func returns an error of DropToken, the token will be removed from the stream.

type Option

type Option func(p *Parser) error

An Option to modify the behaviour of the Parser.

func CaseInsensitive added in v0.2.0

func CaseInsensitive(tokens ...string) Option

CaseInsensitive allows the specified token types to be matched case-insensitively.

func Elide added in v0.2.0

func Elide(types ...string) Option

Elide drops tokens of the specified types.

func Lexer

func Lexer(def lexer.Definition) Option

Lexer is an Option that sets the lexer to use with the given grammar.

func Map

func Map(mapper Mapper, symbols ...string) Option

Map is an Option that configures the Parser to apply a mapping function to each Token from the lexer.

This can be useful to eg. upper-case all tokens of a certain type, or dequote strings.

"symbols" specifies the token symbols that the Mapper will be applied to. If empty, all tokens will be mapped.

func Unquote

func Unquote(types ...string) Option

Unquote applies strconv.Unquote() to tokens of the given types.

Tokens of type "String" will be unquoted if no other types are provided.

func Upper

func Upper(types ...string) Option

Upper is an Option that upper-cases all tokens of the given type. Useful for case normalisation.

func UseLookahead

func UseLookahead(n int) Option

UseLookahead allows branch lookahead up to "n" tokens.

If parsing cannot be disambiguated before "n" tokens of lookahead, parsing will fail.

Note that increasing lookahead has a minor performance impact, but also reduces the accuracy of error reporting.

type ParseOption added in v0.4.0

type ParseOption func(p *parseContext)

ParseOption modifies how an individual parse is applied.

func AllowTrailing added in v0.4.0

func AllowTrailing(ok bool) ParseOption

AllowTrailing tokens without erroring.

That is, do not error if a full parse completes but additional tokens remain.

type Parseable

type Parseable interface {
	// Parse into the receiver.
	//
	// Should return NextMatch if no tokens matched and parsing should continue.
	// Nil should be returned if parsing was successful.
	Parse(lex *lexer.PeekingLexer) error
}

The Parseable interface can be implemented by any element in the grammar to provide custom parsing.

type Parser

type Parser struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

A Parser for a particular grammar and lexer.

func Build

func Build(grammar interface{}, options ...Option) (parser *Parser, err error)

Build constructs a parser for the given grammar.

If "Lexer()" is not provided as an option, a default lexer based on text/scanner will be used. This scans typical Go- like tokens.

See documentation for details

func MustBuild

func MustBuild(grammar interface{}, options ...Option) *Parser

MustBuild calls Build(grammar, options...) and panics if an error occurs.

func (*Parser) Lex

func (p *Parser) Lex(r io.Reader) ([]lexer.Token, error)

Lex uses the parser's lexer to tokenise input.

func (*Parser) Lexer added in v0.4.2

func (p *Parser) Lexer() lexer.Definition

Lexer returns the parser's builtin lexer.

func (*Parser) Parse

func (p *Parser) Parse(r io.Reader, v interface{}, options ...ParseOption) (err error)

Parse from r into grammar v which must be of the same type as the grammar passed to participle.Build().

This may return a participle.Error.

func (*Parser) ParseBytes

func (p *Parser) ParseBytes(b []byte, v interface{}, options ...ParseOption) error

ParseBytes is a convenience around Parse().

This may return a participle.Error.

func (*Parser) ParseFromLexer added in v0.4.0

func (p *Parser) ParseFromLexer(lex *lexer.PeekingLexer, v interface{}, options ...ParseOption) error

ParseFromLexer into grammar v which must be of the same type as the grammar passed to participle.Build().

This may return a participle.Error.

func (*Parser) ParseString

func (p *Parser) ParseString(s string, v interface{}, options ...ParseOption) error

ParseString is a convenience around Parse().

This may return a participle.Error.

func (*Parser) String

func (p *Parser) String() string

String returns the EBNF for the grammar.

Productions are always upper case. Lexer tokens are always lower case.

type UnexpectedTokenError added in v0.4.0

type UnexpectedTokenError struct {
	Unexpected lexer.Token
	Expected   string
}

UnexpectedTokenError is returned by Parse when an unexpected token is encountered.

This is useful for composing parsers in order to detect when a sub-parser has terminated.

func (UnexpectedTokenError) Error added in v0.4.0

func (u UnexpectedTokenError) Error() string

func (UnexpectedTokenError) Message added in v0.4.2

func (u UnexpectedTokenError) Message() string

func (UnexpectedTokenError) Token added in v0.4.2

func (u UnexpectedTokenError) Token() lexer.Token

Directories

Path Synopsis
_examples module
Package lexer defines interfaces and implementations used by Participle to perform lexing.
Package lexer defines interfaces and implementations used by Participle to perform lexing.
ebnf
Package ebnf is an EBNF lexer for Participle.
Package ebnf is an EBNF lexer for Participle.
regex
Package regex provides a regex based lexer using a readable list of named patterns.
Package regex provides a regex based lexer using a readable list of named patterns.
stateful
Package stateful defines a nested stateful lexer.
Package stateful defines a nested stateful lexer.

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