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Package snapshot

v1.0.0-beta.2
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Published: Oct 12, 2017 | Licenses: Apache-2.0 , CC-BY-SA-4.0 | Module: github.com/containerd/containerd

Index

type Info

type Info struct {
	Kind    Kind              // active or committed snapshot
	Name    string            // name or key of snapshot
	Parent  string            `json:",omitempty"` // name of parent snapshot
	Labels  map[string]string `json:",omitempty"` // Labels for snapshot
	Created time.Time         `json:",omitempty"` // Created time
	Updated time.Time         `json:",omitempty"` // Last update time
}

Info provides information about a particular snapshot. JSON marshallability is supported for interactive with tools like ctr,

type Kind

type Kind uint8

Kind identifies the kind of snapshot.

const (
	KindUnknown Kind = iota
	KindView
	KindActive
	KindCommitted
)

definitions of snapshot kinds

func ParseKind

func ParseKind(s string) Kind

func (Kind) MarshalJSON

func (k Kind) MarshalJSON() ([]byte, error)

func (Kind) String

func (k Kind) String() string

func (*Kind) UnmarshalJSON

func (k *Kind) UnmarshalJSON(b []byte) error

type Opt

type Opt func(info *Info) error

Opt allows setting mutable snapshot properties on creation

func WithLabels

func WithLabels(labels map[string]string) Opt

WithLabels adds labels to a created snapshot

type Snapshotter

type Snapshotter interface {
	// Stat returns the info for an active or committed snapshot by name or
	// key.
	//
	// Should be used for parent resolution, existence checks and to discern
	// the kind of snapshot.
	Stat(ctx context.Context, key string) (Info, error)

	// Update updates the infor for a snapshot.
	//
	// Only mutable properties of a snapshot may be updated.
	Update(ctx context.Context, info Info, fieldpaths ...string) (Info, error)

	// Usage returns the resource usage of an active or committed snapshot
	// excluding the usage of parent snapshots.
	//
	// The running time of this call for active snapshots is dependent on
	// implementation, but may be proportional to the size of the resource.
	// Callers should take this into consideration. Implementations should
	// attempt to honer context cancellation and avoid taking locks when making
	// the calculation.
	Usage(ctx context.Context, key string) (Usage, error)

	// Mounts returns the mounts for the active snapshot transaction identified
	// by key. Can be called on an read-write or readonly transaction. This is
	// available only for active snapshots.
	//
	// This can be used to recover mounts after calling View or Prepare.
	Mounts(ctx context.Context, key string) ([]mount.Mount, error)

	// Prepare creates an active snapshot identified by key descending from the
	// provided parent.  The returned mounts can be used to mount the snapshot
	// to capture changes.
	//
	// If a parent is provided, after performing the mounts, the destination
	// will start with the content of the parent. The parent must be a
	// committed snapshot. Changes to the mounted destination will be captured
	// in relation to the parent. The default parent, "", is an empty
	// directory.
	//
	// The changes may be saved to a committed snapshot by calling Commit. When
	// one is done with the transaction, Remove should be called on the key.
	//
	// Multiple calls to Prepare or View with the same key should fail.
	Prepare(ctx context.Context, key, parent string, opts ...Opt) ([]mount.Mount, error)

	// View behaves identically to Prepare except the result may not be
	// committed back to the snapshot snapshotter. View returns a readonly view on
	// the parent, with the active snapshot being tracked by the given key.
	//
	// This method operates identically to Prepare, except that Mounts returned
	// may have the readonly flag set. Any modifications to the underlying
	// filesystem will be ignored. Implementations may perform this in a more
	// efficient manner that differs from what would be attempted with
	// `Prepare`.
	//
	// Commit may not be called on the provided key and will return an error.
	// To collect the resources associated with key, Remove must be called with
	// key as the argument.
	View(ctx context.Context, key, parent string, opts ...Opt) ([]mount.Mount, error)

	// Commit captures the changes between key and its parent into a snapshot
	// identified by name.  The name can then be used with the snapshotter's other
	// methods to create subsequent snapshots.
	//
	// A committed snapshot will be created under name with the parent of the
	// active snapshot.
	//
	// Commit may be called multiple times on the same key. Snapshots created
	// in this manner will all reference the parent used to start the
	// transaction.
	Commit(ctx context.Context, name, key string, opts ...Opt) error

	// Remove the committed or active snapshot by the provided key.
	//
	// All resources associated with the key will be removed.
	//
	// If the snapshot is a parent of another snapshot, its children must be
	// removed before proceeding.
	Remove(ctx context.Context, key string) error

	// Walk all snapshots in the snapshotter. For each snapshot in the
	// snapshotter, the function will be called.
	Walk(ctx context.Context, fn func(context.Context, Info) error) error
}

Snapshotter defines the methods required to implement a snapshot snapshotter for allocating, snapshotting and mounting filesystem changesets. The model works by building up sets of changes with parent-child relationships.

A snapshot represents a filesystem state. Every snapshot has a parent, where the empty parent is represented by the empty string. A diff can be taken between a parent and its snapshot to generate a classic layer.

An active snapshot is created by calling `Prepare`. After mounting, changes can be made to the snapshot. The act of committing creates a committed snapshot. The committed snapshot will get the parent of active snapshot. The committed snapshot can then be used as a parent. Active snapshots can never act as a parent.

Snapshots are best understood by their lifecycle. Active snapshots are always created with Prepare or View. Committed snapshots are always created with Commit. Active snapshots never become committed snapshots and vice versa. All snapshots may be removed.

For consistency, we define the following terms to be used throughout this interface for snapshotter implementations:

`ctx` - refers to a context.Context
`key` - refers to an active snapshot
`name` - refers to a committed snapshot
`parent` - refers to the parent in relation

Most methods take various combinations of these identifiers. Typically, `name` and `parent` will be used in cases where a method *only* takes committed snapshots. `key` will be used to refer to active snapshots in most cases, except where noted. All variables used to access snapshots use the same key space. For example, an active snapshot may not share the same key with a committed snapshot.

We cover several examples below to demonstrate the utility of a snapshot snapshotter.

Importing a Layer

To import a layer, we simply have the Snapshotter provide a list of mounts to be applied such that our dst will capture a changeset. We start out by getting a path to the layer tar file and creating a temp location to unpack it to:

layerPath, tmpDir := getLayerPath(), mkTmpDir() // just a path to layer tar file.

We start by using a Snapshotter to Prepare a new snapshot transaction, using a key and descending from the empty parent "":

mounts, err := snapshotter.Prepare(ctx, key, "")
if err != nil { ... }

We get back a list of mounts from Snapshotter.Prepare, with the key identifying the active snapshot. Mount this to the temporary location with the following:

if err := mount.All(mounts, tmpDir); err != nil { ... }

Once the mounts are performed, our temporary location is ready to capture a diff. In practice, this works similar to a filesystem transaction. The next step is to unpack the layer. We have a special function unpackLayer that applies the contents of the layer to target location and calculates the DiffID of the unpacked layer (this is a requirement for docker implementation):

layer, err := os.Open(layerPath)
if err != nil { ... }
digest, err := unpackLayer(tmpLocation, layer) // unpack into layer location
if err != nil { ... }

When the above completes, we should have a filesystem the represents the contents of the layer. Careful implementations should verify that digest matches the expected DiffID. When completed, we unmount the mounts:

unmount(mounts) // optional, for now

Now that we've verified and unpacked our layer, we commit the active snapshot to a name. For this example, we are just going to use the layer digest, but in practice, this will probably be the ChainID:

if err := snapshotter.Commit(ctx, digest.String(), key); err != nil { ... }

Now, we have a layer in the Snapshotter that can be accessed with the digest provided during commit. Once you have committed the snapshot, the active snapshot can be removed with the following:

snapshotter.Remove(ctx, key)

Importing the Next Layer

Making a layer depend on the above is identical to the process described above except that the parent is provided as parent when calling Manager.Prepare, assuming a clean, unique key identifier:

mounts, err := snapshotter.Prepare(ctx, key, parentDigest)

We then mount, apply and commit, as we did above. The new snapshot will be based on the content of the previous one.

Running a Container

To run a container, we simply provide Snapshotter.Prepare the committed image snapshot as the parent. After mounting, the prepared path can be used directly as the container's filesystem:

mounts, err := snapshotter.Prepare(ctx, containerKey, imageRootFSChainID)

The returned mounts can then be passed directly to the container runtime. If one would like to create a new image from the filesystem, Manager.Commit is called:

if err := snapshotter.Commit(ctx, newImageSnapshot, containerKey); err != nil { ... }

Alternatively, for most container runs, Snapshotter.Remove will be called to signal the Snapshotter to abandon the changes.

type Usage

type Usage struct {
	Inodes int64 // number of inodes in use.
	Size   int64 // provides usage, in bytes, of snapshot
}

Usage defines statistics for disk resources consumed by the snapshot.

These resources only include the resources consumed by the snapshot itself and does not include resources usage by the parent.

func (*Usage) Add

func (u *Usage) Add(other Usage)

Package Files

Documentation was rendered with GOOS=linux and GOARCH=amd64.

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