forward

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Version: v1.2.6 Latest Latest
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Published: Nov 4, 2018 License: Apache-2.0 Imports: 27 Imported by: 0

README

forward

Name

forward - facilitates proxying DNS messages to upstream resolvers.

Description

The forward plugin re-uses already opened sockets to the upstreams. It supports UDP, TCP and DNS-over-TLS and uses in band health checking.

When it detects an error a health check is performed. This checks runs in a loop, every 0.5s, for as long as the upstream reports unhealthy. Once healthy we stop health checking (until the next error). The health checks use a recursive DNS query (. IN NS) to get upstream health. Any response that is not a network error (REFUSED, NOTIMPL, SERVFAIL, etc) is taken as a healthy upstream. The health check uses the same protocol as specified in TO. If max_fails is set to 0, no checking is performed and upstreams will always be considered healthy.

When all upstreams are down it assumes health checking as a mechanism has failed and will try to connect to a random upstream (which may or may not work).

This plugin can only be used once per Server Block.

How does forward relate to proxy? This plugin is the "new" version of proxy and is faster because it re-uses connections to the upstreams. It also does in-band health checks - using DNS instead of HTTP. Since it is newer it has a little less (production) mileage on it.

Syntax

In its most basic form, a simple forwarder uses this syntax:

forward FROM TO...
  • FROM is the base domain to match for the request to be forwarded.
  • TO... are the destination endpoints to forward to. The TO syntax allows you to specify a protocol, tls://9.9.9.9 or dns:// (or no protocol) for plain DNS. The number of upstreams is limited to 15.

Multiple upstreams are randomized (see policy) on first use. When a healthy proxy returns an error during the exchange the next upstream in the list is tried.

Extra knobs are available with an expanded syntax:

forward FROM TO... {
    except IGNORED_NAMES...
    force_tcp
    prefer_udp
    expire DURATION
    max_fails INTEGER
    tls CERT KEY CA
    tls_servername NAME
    policy random|round_robin|sequential
    health_check DURATION
}
  • FROM and TO... as above.

  • IGNORED_NAMES in except is a space-separated list of domains to exclude from forwarding. Requests that match none of these names will be passed through.

  • force_tcp, use TCP even when the request comes in over UDP.

  • prefer_udp, try first using UDP even when the request comes in over TCP. If response is truncated (TC flag set in response) then do another attempt over TCP. In case if both force_tcp and prefer_udp options specified the force_tcp takes precedence.

  • max_fails is the number of subsequent failed health checks that are needed before considering an upstream to be down. If 0, the upstream will never be marked as down (nor health checked). Default is 2.

  • expire DURATION, expire (cached) connections after this time, the default is 10s.

  • tls CERT KEY CA define the TLS properties for TLS connection. From 0 to 3 arguments can be provided with the meaning as described below

    • tls - no client authentication is used, and the system CAs are used to verify the server certificate
    • tls CA - no client authentication is used, and the file CA is used to verify the server certificate
    • tls CERT KEY - client authentication is used with the specified cert/key pair. The server certificate is verified with the system CAs
    • tls CERT KEY CA - client authentication is used with the specified cert/key pair. The server certificate is verified using the specified CA file
  • tls_servername NAME allows you to set a server name in the TLS configuration; for instance 9.9.9.9 needs this to be set to dns.quad9.net.

  • policy specifies the policy to use for selecting upstream servers. The default is random.

  • health_check, use a different DURATION for health checking, the default duration is 0.5s.

Also note the TLS config is "global" for the whole forwarding proxy if you need a different tls-name for different upstreams you're out of luck.

On each endpoint, the timeouts of the communication are set by default and automatically tuned depending early results.

  • dialTimeout by default is 30 sec, and can decrease automatically down to 100ms
  • readTimeout by default is 2 sec, and can decrease automatically down to 200ms

Metrics

If monitoring is enabled (via the prometheus directive) then the following metric are exported:

  • coredns_forward_request_duration_seconds{to} - duration per upstream interaction.
  • coredns_forward_request_count_total{to} - query count per upstream.
  • coredns_forward_response_rcode_total{to, rcode} - count of RCODEs per upstream.
  • coredns_forward_healthcheck_failure_count_total{to} - number of failed health checks per upstream.
  • coredns_forward_healthcheck_broken_count_total{} - counter of when all upstreams are unhealthy, and we are randomly (this always uses the random policy) spraying to an upstream.
  • coredns_forward_socket_count_total{to} - number of cached sockets per upstream.

Where to is one of the upstream servers (TO from the config), proto is the protocol used by the incoming query ("tcp" or "udp"), and family the transport family ("1" for IPv4, and "2" for IPv6).

Examples

Proxy all requests within example.org. to a nameserver running on a different port:

example.org {
    forward . 127.0.0.1:9005
}

Load balance all requests between three resolvers, one of which has a IPv6 address.

. {
    forward . 10.0.0.10:53 10.0.0.11:1053 [2003::1]:53
}

Forward everything except requests to example.org

. {
    forward . 10.0.0.10:1234 {
        except example.org
    }
}

Proxy everything except example.org using the host's resolv.conf's nameservers:

. {
    forward . /etc/resolv.conf {
        except example.org
    }
}

Proxy all requests to 9.9.9.9 using the DNS-over-TLS protocol, and cache every answer for up to 30 seconds. Note the tls_servername is mandatory if you want a working setup, as 9.9.9.9 can't be used in the TLS negotiation. Also set the health check duration to 5s to not completely swamp the service with health checks.

. {
    forward . tls://9.9.9.9 {
       tls_servername dns.quad9.net
       health_check 5s
    }
    cache 30
}

Bugs

The TLS config is global for the whole forwarding proxy if you need a different tls_servername for different upstreams you're out of luck.

Also See

RFC 7858 for DNS over TLS.

Documentation

Overview

Package forward implements a forwarding proxy. It caches an upstream net.Conn for some time, so if the same client returns the upstream's Conn will be precached. Depending on how you benchmark this looks to be 50% faster than just opening a new connection for every client. It works with UDP and TCP and uses inband healthchecking.

Package forward implements a forwarding proxy. It caches an upstream net.Conn for some time, so if the same client returns the upstream's Conn will be precached. Depending on how you benchmark this looks to be 50% faster than just opening a new connection for every client. It works with UDP and TCP and uses inband healthchecking.

Package forward implements a forwarding proxy. It caches an upstream net.Conn for some time, so if the same client returns the upstream's Conn will be precached. Depending on how you benchmark this looks to be 50% faster than just opening a new connection for every client. It works with UDP and TCP and uses inband healthchecking.

Index

Constants

This section is empty.

Variables

View Source
var (
	// ErrNoHealthy means no healthy proxies left.
	ErrNoHealthy = errors.New("no healthy proxies")
	// ErrNoForward means no forwarder defined.
	ErrNoForward = errors.New("no forwarder defined")
	// ErrCachedClosed means cached connection was closed by peer.
	ErrCachedClosed = errors.New("cached connection was closed by peer")
)
View Source
var (
	RequestCount = prometheus.NewCounterVec(prometheus.CounterOpts{
		Namespace: plugin.Namespace,
		Subsystem: "forward",
		Name:      "request_count_total",
		Help:      "Counter of requests made per upstream.",
	}, []string{"to"})
	RcodeCount = prometheus.NewCounterVec(prometheus.CounterOpts{
		Namespace: plugin.Namespace,
		Subsystem: "forward",
		Name:      "response_rcode_count_total",
		Help:      "Counter of requests made per upstream.",
	}, []string{"rcode", "to"})
	RequestDuration = prometheus.NewHistogramVec(prometheus.HistogramOpts{
		Namespace: plugin.Namespace,
		Subsystem: "forward",
		Name:      "request_duration_seconds",
		Buckets:   plugin.TimeBuckets,
		Help:      "Histogram of the time each request took.",
	}, []string{"to"})
	HealthcheckFailureCount = prometheus.NewCounterVec(prometheus.CounterOpts{
		Namespace: plugin.Namespace,
		Subsystem: "forward",
		Name:      "healthcheck_failure_count_total",
		Help:      "Counter of the number of failed healtchecks.",
	}, []string{"to"})
	HealthcheckBrokenCount = prometheus.NewCounter(prometheus.CounterOpts{
		Namespace: plugin.Namespace,
		Subsystem: "forward",
		Name:      "healthcheck_broken_count_total",
		Help:      "Counter of the number of complete failures of the healtchecks.",
	})
	SocketGauge = prometheus.NewGaugeVec(prometheus.GaugeOpts{
		Namespace: plugin.Namespace,
		Subsystem: "forward",
		Name:      "sockets_open",
		Help:      "Gauge of open sockets per upstream.",
	}, []string{"to"})
)

Variables declared for monitoring.

Functions

This section is empty.

Types

type Forward

type Forward struct {
	Next plugin.Handler
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

Forward represents a plugin instance that can proxy requests to another (DNS) server. It has a list of proxies each representing one upstream proxy.

func New

func New() *Forward

New returns a new Forward.

func NewLookup

func NewLookup(addr []string) *Forward

NewLookup returns a Forward that can be used for plugin that need an upstream to resolve external names. Note that the caller must run Close on the forward to stop the health checking goroutines.

func ParseForwardStanza added in v1.2.1

func ParseForwardStanza(c *caddyfile.Dispenser) (*Forward, error)

ParseForwardStanza parses one forward stanza

func (*Forward) Close

func (f *Forward) Close()

Close is a synonym for OnShutdown().

func (*Forward) ForceTCP added in v1.1.3

func (f *Forward) ForceTCP() bool

ForceTCP returns if TCP is forced to be used even when the request comes in over UDP.

func (*Forward) Forward

func (f *Forward) Forward(state request.Request) (*dns.Msg, error)

Forward forward the request in state as-is. Unlike Lookup that adds EDNS0 suffix to the message. Forward may be called with a nil f, an error is returned in that case.

func (*Forward) Len

func (f *Forward) Len() int

Len returns the number of configured proxies.

func (*Forward) List added in v1.1.3

func (f *Forward) List() []*Proxy

List returns a set of proxies to be used for this client depending on the policy in f.

func (*Forward) Lookup

func (f *Forward) Lookup(state request.Request, name string, typ uint16) (*dns.Msg, error)

Lookup will use name and type to forge a new message and will send that upstream. It will set any EDNS0 options correctly so that downstream will be able to process the reply. Lookup may be called with a nil f, an error is returned in that case.

func (*Forward) Name

func (f *Forward) Name() string

Name implements plugin.Handler.

func (*Forward) OnShutdown

func (f *Forward) OnShutdown() error

OnShutdown stops all configured proxies.

func (*Forward) OnStartup

func (f *Forward) OnStartup() (err error)

OnStartup starts a goroutines for all proxies.

func (*Forward) PreferUDP added in v1.2.0

func (f *Forward) PreferUDP() bool

PreferUDP returns if UDP is preferred to be used even when the request comes in over TCP.

func (*Forward) ServeDNS

func (f *Forward) ServeDNS(ctx context.Context, w dns.ResponseWriter, r *dns.Msg) (int, error)

ServeDNS implements plugin.Handler.

func (*Forward) SetProxy

func (f *Forward) SetProxy(p *Proxy)

SetProxy appends p to the proxy list and starts healthchecking.

type HealthChecker added in v1.2.0

type HealthChecker interface {
	Check(*Proxy) error
	SetTLSConfig(*tls.Config)
}

HealthChecker checks the upstream health.

func NewHealthChecker added in v1.2.0

func NewHealthChecker(trans string) HealthChecker

NewHealthChecker returns a new HealthChecker based on transport.

type Policy

type Policy interface {
	List([]*Proxy) []*Proxy
	String() string
}

Policy defines a policy we use for selecting upstreams.

type Proxy

type Proxy struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

Proxy defines an upstream host.

func NewProxy

func NewProxy(addr, trans string) *Proxy

NewProxy returns a new proxy.

func (*Proxy) Connect added in v1.1.3

func (p *Proxy) Connect(ctx context.Context, state request.Request, opts options) (*dns.Msg, error)

Connect selects an upstream, sends the request and waits for a response.

func (*Proxy) Down

func (p *Proxy) Down(maxfails uint32) bool

Down returns true if this proxy is down, i.e. has *more* fails than maxfails.

func (*Proxy) Healthcheck

func (p *Proxy) Healthcheck()

Healthcheck kicks of a round of health checks for this proxy.

func (*Proxy) SetExpire

func (p *Proxy) SetExpire(expire time.Duration)

SetExpire sets the expire duration in the lower p.transport.

func (*Proxy) SetTLSConfig

func (p *Proxy) SetTLSConfig(cfg *tls.Config)

SetTLSConfig sets the TLS config in the lower p.transport and in the healthchecking client.

type Transport added in v1.2.3

type Transport struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

Transport hold the persistent cache.

func (*Transport) Dial added in v1.2.3

func (t *Transport) Dial(proto string) (*dns.Conn, bool, error)

Dial dials the address configured in transport, potentially reusing a connection or creating a new one.

func (*Transport) SetExpire added in v1.2.3

func (t *Transport) SetExpire(expire time.Duration)

SetExpire sets the connection expire time in transport.

func (*Transport) SetTLSConfig added in v1.2.3

func (t *Transport) SetTLSConfig(cfg *tls.Config)

SetTLSConfig sets the TLS config in transport.

func (*Transport) Start added in v1.2.3

func (t *Transport) Start()

Start starts the transport's connection manager.

func (*Transport) Stop added in v1.2.3

func (t *Transport) Stop()

Stop stops the transport's connection manager.

func (*Transport) Yield added in v1.2.3

func (t *Transport) Yield(c *dns.Conn)

Yield return the connection to transport for reuse.

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