aws

package
Version: v0.3.7 Latest Latest
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Published: Aug 2, 2015 License: MIT Imports: 21 Imported by: 0

Documentation

Overview

goamz - Go packages to interact with the Amazon Web Services.

https://wiki.ubuntu.com/goamz

Copyright (c) 2011 Canonical Ltd.

Written by Gustavo Niemeyer <gustavo.niemeyer@canonical.com>

Index

Examples

Constants

View Source
const (
	V2Signature      = iota
	V4Signature      = iota
	Route53Signature = iota
)

Defines the valid signers

View Source
const (
	ISO8601BasicFormat      = "20060102T150405Z"
	ISO8601BasicFormatShort = "20060102"
)

Common date formats for signing requests

Variables

View Source
var APNortheast = Region{
	"ap-northeast-1",
	"https://ec2.ap-northeast-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://s3-ap-northeast-1.amazonaws.com",
	"",
	true,
	true,
	"https://sdb.ap-northeast-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://sns.ap-northeast-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://sqs.ap-northeast-1.amazonaws.com",
	"",
	"https://iam.amazonaws.com",
	"https://elasticloadbalancing.ap-northeast-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://dynamodb.ap-northeast-1.amazonaws.com",
	ServiceInfo{"https://monitoring.ap-northeast-1.amazonaws.com", V2Signature},
	"https://autoscaling.ap-northeast-1.amazonaws.com",
	ServiceInfo{"https://rds.ap-northeast-1.amazonaws.com", V2Signature},
	"https://kinesis.ap-northeast-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://sts.amazonaws.com",
	"https://cloudformation.ap-northeast-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://elasticache.ap-northeast-1.amazonaws.com",
}
View Source
var APSoutheast = Region{
	"ap-southeast-1",
	"https://ec2.ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://s3-ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com",
	"",
	true,
	true,
	"https://sdb.ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://sns.ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://sqs.ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com",
	"",
	"https://iam.amazonaws.com",
	"https://elasticloadbalancing.ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://dynamodb.ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com",
	ServiceInfo{"https://monitoring.ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com", V2Signature},
	"https://autoscaling.ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com",
	ServiceInfo{"https://rds.ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com", V2Signature},
	"https://kinesis.ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://sts.amazonaws.com",
	"https://cloudformation.ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://elasticache.ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com",
}
View Source
var APSoutheast2 = Region{
	"ap-southeast-2",
	"https://ec2.ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com",
	"https://s3-ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com",
	"",
	true,
	true,
	"https://sdb.ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com",
	"https://sns.ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com",
	"https://sqs.ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com",
	"",
	"https://iam.amazonaws.com",
	"https://elasticloadbalancing.ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com",
	"https://dynamodb.ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com",
	ServiceInfo{"https://monitoring.ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com", V2Signature},
	"https://autoscaling.ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com",
	ServiceInfo{"https://rds.ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com", V2Signature},
	"https://kinesis.ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com",
	"https://sts.amazonaws.com",
	"https://cloudformation.ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com",
	"https://elasticache.ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com",
}
View Source
var EUCentral = Region{
	"eu-central-1",
	"https://ec2.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://s3-eu-central-1.amazonaws.com",
	"",
	true,
	true,
	"https://sdb.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://sns.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://sqs.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com",
	"",
	"https://iam.amazonaws.com",
	"https://elasticloadbalancing.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://dynamodb.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com",
	ServiceInfo{"https://monitoring.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com", V2Signature},
	"https://autoscaling.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com",
	ServiceInfo{"https://rds.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com", V2Signature},
	"https://kinesis.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://sts.amazonaws.com",
	"https://cloudformation.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com",
	"",
}
View Source
var EUWest = Region{
	"eu-west-1",
	"https://ec2.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com",
	"",
	true,
	true,
	"https://sdb.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://sns.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://sqs.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://email.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://iam.amazonaws.com",
	"https://elasticloadbalancing.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://dynamodb.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com",
	ServiceInfo{"https://monitoring.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com", V2Signature},
	"https://autoscaling.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com",
	ServiceInfo{"https://rds.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com", V2Signature},
	"https://kinesis.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://sts.amazonaws.com",
	"https://cloudformation.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://elasticache.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com",
}
View Source
var RetryingClient = NewClient(retryingTransport)

Exported default client

View Source
var SAEast = Region{
	"sa-east-1",
	"https://ec2.sa-east-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://s3-sa-east-1.amazonaws.com",
	"",
	true,
	true,
	"https://sdb.sa-east-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://sns.sa-east-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://sqs.sa-east-1.amazonaws.com",
	"",
	"https://iam.amazonaws.com",
	"https://elasticloadbalancing.sa-east-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://dynamodb.sa-east-1.amazonaws.com",
	ServiceInfo{"https://monitoring.sa-east-1.amazonaws.com", V2Signature},
	"https://autoscaling.sa-east-1.amazonaws.com",
	ServiceInfo{"https://rds.sa-east-1.amazonaws.com", V2Signature},
	"",
	"https://sts.amazonaws.com",
	"https://cloudformation.sa-east-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://elasticache.sa-east-1.amazonaws.com",
}
View Source
var USEast = Region{
	"us-east-1",
	"https://ec2.us-east-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://s3.amazonaws.com",
	"",
	false,
	false,
	"https://sdb.amazonaws.com",
	"https://sns.us-east-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://sqs.us-east-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://email.us-east-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://iam.amazonaws.com",
	"https://elasticloadbalancing.us-east-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://dynamodb.us-east-1.amazonaws.com",
	ServiceInfo{"https://monitoring.us-east-1.amazonaws.com", V2Signature},
	"https://autoscaling.us-east-1.amazonaws.com",
	ServiceInfo{"https://rds.us-east-1.amazonaws.com", V2Signature},
	"https://kinesis.us-east-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://sts.amazonaws.com",
	"https://cloudformation.us-east-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://elasticache.us-east-1.amazonaws.com",
}
View Source
var USGovWest = Region{
	"us-gov-west-1",
	"https://ec2.us-gov-west-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://s3-fips-us-gov-west-1.amazonaws.com",
	"",
	true,
	true,
	"",
	"https://sns.us-gov-west-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://sqs.us-gov-west-1.amazonaws.com",
	"",
	"https://iam.us-gov.amazonaws.com",
	"https://elasticloadbalancing.us-gov-west-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://dynamodb.us-gov-west-1.amazonaws.com",
	ServiceInfo{"https://monitoring.us-gov-west-1.amazonaws.com", V2Signature},
	"https://autoscaling.us-gov-west-1.amazonaws.com",
	ServiceInfo{"https://rds.us-gov-west-1.amazonaws.com", V2Signature},
	"",
	"https://sts.amazonaws.com",
	"https://cloudformation.us-gov-west-1.amazonaws.com",
	"",
}
View Source
var USWest = Region{
	"us-west-1",
	"https://ec2.us-west-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://s3-us-west-1.amazonaws.com",
	"",
	true,
	true,
	"https://sdb.us-west-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://sns.us-west-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://sqs.us-west-1.amazonaws.com",
	"",
	"https://iam.amazonaws.com",
	"https://elasticloadbalancing.us-west-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://dynamodb.us-west-1.amazonaws.com",
	ServiceInfo{"https://monitoring.us-west-1.amazonaws.com", V2Signature},
	"https://autoscaling.us-west-1.amazonaws.com",
	ServiceInfo{"https://rds.us-west-1.amazonaws.com", V2Signature},
	"",
	"https://sts.amazonaws.com",
	"https://cloudformation.us-west-1.amazonaws.com",
	"https://elasticache.us-west-1.amazonaws.com",
}
View Source
var USWest2 = Region{
	"us-west-2",
	"https://ec2.us-west-2.amazonaws.com",
	"https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com",
	"",
	true,
	true,
	"https://sdb.us-west-2.amazonaws.com",
	"https://sns.us-west-2.amazonaws.com",
	"https://sqs.us-west-2.amazonaws.com",
	"https://email.us-west-2.amazonaws.com",
	"https://iam.amazonaws.com",
	"https://elasticloadbalancing.us-west-2.amazonaws.com",
	"https://dynamodb.us-west-2.amazonaws.com",
	ServiceInfo{"https://monitoring.us-west-2.amazonaws.com", V2Signature},
	"https://autoscaling.us-west-2.amazonaws.com",
	ServiceInfo{"https://rds.us-west-2.amazonaws.com", V2Signature},
	"https://kinesis.us-west-2.amazonaws.com",
	"https://sts.amazonaws.com",
	"https://cloudformation.us-west-2.amazonaws.com",
	"https://elasticache.us-west-2.amazonaws.com",
}

Functions

func AvailabilityZone

func AvailabilityZone() string

func Encode

func Encode(s string) string

Encode takes a string and URI-encodes it in a way suitable to be used in AWS signatures.

func ExpBackoff

func ExpBackoff(try int)

func GetInstanceCredentials

func GetInstanceCredentials() (cred credentials, err error)

GetInstanceCredentials creates an Auth based on the instance's role credentials. If the running instance is not in EC2 or does not have a valid IAM role, an error will be returned. For more info about setting up IAM roles, see http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/iam-roles-for-amazon-ec2.html

func GetMetaData

func GetMetaData(path string) (contents []byte, err error)

GetMetaData retrieves instance metadata about the current machine.

See http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/AESDG-chapter-instancedata.html for more details.

func InstanceId

func InstanceId() string

func InstanceRegion

func InstanceRegion() string

func InstanceType

func InstanceType() string

func LinearBackoff

func LinearBackoff(try int)

func MakeParams

func MakeParams(action string) map[string]string

Create a base set of params for an action

func NewClient

func NewClient(rt *ResilientTransport) *http.Client

Convenience method for creating an http client

func ServerLocalIp

func ServerLocalIp() string

func ServerPublicIp

func ServerPublicIp() string

Types

type AWSService

type AWSService interface {
	// Queries the AWS service at a given method/path with the params and
	// returns an http.Response and error
	Query(method, path string, params map[string]string) (*http.Response, error)
	// Builds an error given an XML payload in the http.Response, can be used
	// to process an error if the status code is not 200 for example.
	BuildError(r *http.Response) error
}

An AWS Service interface with the API to query the AWS service

Supplied as an easy way to mock out service calls during testing.

type Attempt

type Attempt struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

func (*Attempt) HasNext

func (a *Attempt) HasNext() bool

HasNext returns whether another attempt will be made if the current one fails. If it returns true, the following call to Next is guaranteed to return true.

func (*Attempt) Next

func (a *Attempt) Next() bool

Next waits until it is time to perform the next attempt or returns false if it is time to stop trying.

type AttemptStrategy

type AttemptStrategy struct {
	Total time.Duration // total duration of attempt.
	Delay time.Duration // interval between each try in the burst.
	Min   int           // minimum number of retries; overrides Total
}

AttemptStrategy represents a strategy for waiting for an action to complete successfully. This is an internal type used by the implementation of other goamz packages.

func (AttemptStrategy) Start

func (s AttemptStrategy) Start() *Attempt

Start begins a new sequence of attempts for the given strategy.

type Auth

type Auth struct {
	AccessKey, SecretKey string
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

func CredentialFileAuth

func CredentialFileAuth(filePath string, profile string, expiration time.Duration) (auth Auth, err error)

CredentialFileAuth creates and Auth based on a credentials file. The file contains various authentication profiles for use with AWS.

The credentials file, which is used by other AWS SDKs, is documented at http://blogs.aws.amazon.com/security/post/Tx3D6U6WSFGOK2H/A-New-and-Standardized-Way-to-Manage-Credentials-in-the-AWS-SDKs

func EnvAuth

func EnvAuth() (auth Auth, err error)

EnvAuth creates an Auth based on environment information. The AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID and AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY environment variables are used.

func GetAuth

func GetAuth(accessKey string, secretKey, token string, expiration time.Time) (auth Auth, err error)

GetAuth creates an Auth based on either passed in credentials, environment information or instance based role credentials.

func NewAuth

func NewAuth(accessKey, secretKey, token string, expiration time.Time) *Auth

To be used with other APIs that return auth credentials such as STS

func (*Auth) Expiration

func (a *Auth) Expiration() time.Time

func (*Auth) Token

func (a *Auth) Token() string

type BaseResponse

type BaseResponse struct {
	ResponseMetadata ResponseMetadata
}

type DeadlineFunc

type DeadlineFunc func() time.Time

type DefaultRetryPolicy

type DefaultRetryPolicy struct {
}

DefaultRetryPolicy implements the AWS SDK default retry policy.

It will retry up to 3 times, and uses an exponential backoff with a scale factor of 300ms (300ms, 600ms, 1200ms). If the retry is because of throttling, the delay will also include some randomness.

See https://github.com/aws/aws-sdk-java/blob/master/aws-java-sdk-core/src/main/java/com/amazonaws/retry/PredefinedRetryPolicies.java#L90.

func (DefaultRetryPolicy) Delay

func (policy DefaultRetryPolicy) Delay(target string, r *http.Response, err error, numRetries int) time.Duration

Delay implements the RetryPolicy Delay method.

func (DefaultRetryPolicy) ShouldRetry

func (policy DefaultRetryPolicy) ShouldRetry(target string, r *http.Response, err error, numRetries int) bool

ShouldRetry implements the RetryPolicy ShouldRetry method.

type DynamoDBRetryPolicy

type DynamoDBRetryPolicy struct {
}

DynamoDBRetryPolicy implements the AWS SDK DynamoDB retry policy.

It will retry up to 10 times, and uses an exponential backoff with a scale factor of 25ms (25ms, 50ms, 100ms, ...).

See https://github.com/aws/aws-sdk-java/blob/master/aws-java-sdk-core/src/main/java/com/amazonaws/retry/PredefinedRetryPolicies.java#L103.

func (DynamoDBRetryPolicy) Delay

func (policy DynamoDBRetryPolicy) Delay(target string, r *http.Response, err error, numRetries int) time.Duration

Delay implements the RetryPolicy Delay method.

func (DynamoDBRetryPolicy) ShouldRetry

func (policy DynamoDBRetryPolicy) ShouldRetry(target string, r *http.Response, err error, numRetries int) bool

ShouldRetry implements the RetryPolicy ShouldRetry method.

type Error

type Error struct {
	StatusCode int
	Type       string
	Code       string
	Message    string
	RequestId  string
}

func (*Error) Error

func (err *Error) Error() string

func (*Error) ErrorCode

func (err *Error) ErrorCode() string

type ErrorResponse

type ErrorResponse struct {
	Errors    Error  `xml:"Error"`
	RequestId string // A unique ID for tracking the request
}

type NeverRetryPolicy

type NeverRetryPolicy struct {
}

NeverRetryPolicy never retries requests and returns immediately on failure.

func (NeverRetryPolicy) Delay

func (policy NeverRetryPolicy) Delay(target string, r *http.Response, err error, numRetries int) time.Duration

Delay implements the RetryPolicy Delay method.

func (NeverRetryPolicy) ShouldRetry

func (policy NeverRetryPolicy) ShouldRetry(target string, r *http.Response, err error, numRetries int) bool

ShouldRetry implements the RetryPolicy ShouldRetry method.

type Region

type Region struct {
	Name                   string // the canonical name of this region.
	EC2Endpoint            string
	S3Endpoint             string
	S3BucketEndpoint       string // Not needed by AWS S3. Use ${bucket} for bucket name.
	S3LocationConstraint   bool   // true if this region requires a LocationConstraint declaration.
	S3LowercaseBucket      bool   // true if the region requires bucket names to be lower case.
	SDBEndpoint            string
	SNSEndpoint            string
	SQSEndpoint            string
	SESEndpoint            string
	IAMEndpoint            string
	ELBEndpoint            string
	DynamoDBEndpoint       string
	CloudWatchServicepoint ServiceInfo
	AutoScalingEndpoint    string
	RDSEndpoint            ServiceInfo
	KinesisEndpoint        string
	STSEndpoint            string
	CloudFormationEndpoint string
	ElastiCacheEndpoint    string
}

Region defines the URLs where AWS services may be accessed.

See http://goo.gl/d8BP1 for more details.

func GetRegion

func GetRegion(regionName string) (region Region)

type ResilientTransport

type ResilientTransport struct {
	// Timeout is the maximum amount of time a dial will wait for
	// a connect to complete.
	//
	// The default is no timeout.
	//
	// With or without a timeout, the operating system may impose
	// its own earlier timeout. For instance, TCP timeouts are
	// often around 3 minutes.
	DialTimeout time.Duration

	// MaxTries, if non-zero, specifies the number of times we will retry on
	// failure. Retries are only attempted for temporary network errors or known
	// safe failures.
	MaxTries    int
	Deadline    DeadlineFunc
	ShouldRetry RetryableFunc
	Wait        WaitFunc
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

func (*ResilientTransport) RoundTrip

func (t *ResilientTransport) RoundTrip(req *http.Request) (*http.Response, error)

type ResponseMetadata

type ResponseMetadata struct {
	RequestId string // A unique ID for tracking the request
}

ResponseMetadata

type RetryPolicy

type RetryPolicy interface {
	// ShouldRetry returns whether a client should retry a failed request.
	ShouldRetry(target string, r *http.Response, err error, numRetries int) bool

	// Delay returns the time a client should wait before issuing a retry.
	Delay(target string, r *http.Response, err error, numRetries int) time.Duration
}

A RetryPolicy encapsulates a strategy for implementing client retries.

Default implementations are provided which match the AWS SDKs.

type RetryableFunc

type RetryableFunc func(*http.Request, *http.Response, error) bool

type Route53Signer

type Route53Signer struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

func NewRoute53Signer

func NewRoute53Signer(auth Auth) *Route53Signer

func (*Route53Signer) Sign

func (s *Route53Signer) Sign(req *http.Request)

Adds all the required headers for AWS Route53 API to the request including the authorization

type Service

type Service struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

Implements a Server Query/Post API to easily query AWS services and build errors when desired

func NewService

func NewService(auth Auth, service ServiceInfo) (s *Service, err error)

Create a new AWS server to handle making requests

func (*Service) BuildError

func (s *Service) BuildError(r *http.Response) error

func (*Service) Query

func (s *Service) Query(method, path string, params map[string]string) (resp *http.Response, err error)

type ServiceError

type ServiceError interface {
	error
	ErrorCode() string
}

type ServiceInfo

type ServiceInfo struct {
	Endpoint string
	Signer   uint
}

Defines the service endpoint and correct Signer implementation to use to sign requests for this endpoint

type Signer

type Signer interface {
	Sign(method, path string, params map[string]string)
}

Designates a signer interface suitable for signing AWS requests, params should be appropriately encoded for the request before signing.

A signer should be initialized with Auth and the appropriate endpoint.

type V2Signer

type V2Signer struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

func NewV2Signer

func NewV2Signer(auth Auth, service ServiceInfo) (*V2Signer, error)

func (*V2Signer) Sign

func (s *V2Signer) Sign(method, path string, params map[string]string)

type V4Signer

type V4Signer struct {

	// Add the x-amz-content-sha256 header
	IncludeXAmzContentSha256 bool
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

The V4Signer encapsulates all of the functionality to sign a request with the AWS Signature Version 4 Signing Process. (http://goo.gl/u1OWZz)

Example
package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"github.com/ipfs/go-ipfs/Godeps/_workspace/src/github.com/crowdmob/goamz/aws"
	"gopkg.in/check.v1"
	"net/http"
	"strings"
	"time"
)

var _ = check.Suite(&V4SignerSuite{})

type V4SignerSuite struct {
	auth   aws.Auth
	region aws.Region
	cases  []V4SignerSuiteCase
}

type V4SignerSuiteCase struct {
	label            string
	request          V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest
	canonicalRequest string
	stringToSign     string
	signature        string
	authorization    string
}

type V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest struct {
	method  string
	host    string
	url     string
	headers []string
	body    string
}

func (s *V4SignerSuite) SetUpSuite(c *check.C) {
	s.auth = aws.Auth{AccessKey: "AKIDEXAMPLE", SecretKey: "wJalrXUtnFEMI/K7MDENG+bPxRfiCYEXAMPLEKEY"}
	s.region = aws.USEast

	// Test cases from the Signature Version 4 Test Suite (http://goo.gl/nguvs0)
	s.cases = append(s.cases,

		// get-header-key-duplicate
		V4SignerSuiteCase{
			label: "get-header-key-duplicate",
			request: V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest{
				method:  "POST",
				host:    "host.foo.com",
				url:     "/",
				headers: []string{"DATE:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT", "ZOO:zoobar", "zoo:foobar", "zoo:zoobar"},
			},
			canonicalRequest: "POST\n/\n\ndate:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT\nhost:host.foo.com\nzoo:foobar,zoobar,zoobar\n\ndate;host;zoo\ne3b0c44298fc1c149afbf4c8996fb92427ae41e4649b934ca495991b7852b855",
			stringToSign:     "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\n20110909T233600Z\n20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request\n3c52f0eaae2b61329c0a332e3fa15842a37bc5812cf4d80eb64784308850e313",
			signature:        "54afcaaf45b331f81cd2edb974f7b824ff4dd594cbbaa945ed636b48477368ed",
			authorization:    "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AKIDEXAMPLE/20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=date;host;zoo, Signature=54afcaaf45b331f81cd2edb974f7b824ff4dd594cbbaa945ed636b48477368ed",
		},

		// get-header-value-order
		V4SignerSuiteCase{
			label: "get-header-value-order",
			request: V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest{
				method:  "POST",
				host:    "host.foo.com",
				url:     "/",
				headers: []string{"DATE:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT", "p:z", "p:a", "p:p", "p:a"},
			},
			canonicalRequest: "POST\n/\n\ndate:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT\nhost:host.foo.com\np:a,a,p,z\n\ndate;host;p\ne3b0c44298fc1c149afbf4c8996fb92427ae41e4649b934ca495991b7852b855",
			stringToSign:     "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\n20110909T233600Z\n20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request\n94c0389fefe0988cbbedc8606f0ca0b485b48da010d09fc844b45b697c8924fe",
			signature:        "d2973954263943b11624a11d1c963ca81fb274169c7868b2858c04f083199e3d",
			authorization:    "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AKIDEXAMPLE/20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=date;host;p, Signature=d2973954263943b11624a11d1c963ca81fb274169c7868b2858c04f083199e3d",
		},

		// get-header-value-trim
		V4SignerSuiteCase{
			label: "get-header-value-trim",
			request: V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest{
				method:  "POST",
				host:    "host.foo.com",
				url:     "/",
				headers: []string{"DATE:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT", "p: phfft "},
			},
			canonicalRequest: "POST\n/\n\ndate:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT\nhost:host.foo.com\np:phfft\n\ndate;host;p\ne3b0c44298fc1c149afbf4c8996fb92427ae41e4649b934ca495991b7852b855",
			stringToSign:     "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\n20110909T233600Z\n20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request\ndddd1902add08da1ac94782b05f9278c08dc7468db178a84f8950d93b30b1f35",
			signature:        "debf546796015d6f6ded8626f5ce98597c33b47b9164cf6b17b4642036fcb592",
			authorization:    "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AKIDEXAMPLE/20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=date;host;p, Signature=debf546796015d6f6ded8626f5ce98597c33b47b9164cf6b17b4642036fcb592",
		},

		// get-empty
		V4SignerSuiteCase{
			label: "get-relative-relative",
			request: V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest{
				method:  "GET",
				host:    "host.foo.com",
				url:     "",
				headers: []string{"Date:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT"},
			},
			canonicalRequest: "GET\n/\n\ndate:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT\nhost:host.foo.com\n\ndate;host\ne3b0c44298fc1c149afbf4c8996fb92427ae41e4649b934ca495991b7852b855",
			stringToSign:     "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\n20110909T233600Z\n20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request\n366b91fb121d72a00f46bbe8d395f53a102b06dfb7e79636515208ed3fa606b1",
			signature:        "b27ccfbfa7df52a200ff74193ca6e32d4b48b8856fab7ebf1c595d0670a7e470",
			authorization:    "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AKIDEXAMPLE/20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=date;host, Signature=b27ccfbfa7df52a200ff74193ca6e32d4b48b8856fab7ebf1c595d0670a7e470",
		},

		// get-single-relative
		V4SignerSuiteCase{
			label: "get-relative-relative",
			request: V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest{
				method:  "GET",
				host:    "host.foo.com",
				url:     "/.",
				headers: []string{"Date:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT"},
			},
			canonicalRequest: "GET\n/\n\ndate:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT\nhost:host.foo.com\n\ndate;host\ne3b0c44298fc1c149afbf4c8996fb92427ae41e4649b934ca495991b7852b855",
			stringToSign:     "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\n20110909T233600Z\n20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request\n366b91fb121d72a00f46bbe8d395f53a102b06dfb7e79636515208ed3fa606b1",
			signature:        "b27ccfbfa7df52a200ff74193ca6e32d4b48b8856fab7ebf1c595d0670a7e470",
			authorization:    "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AKIDEXAMPLE/20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=date;host, Signature=b27ccfbfa7df52a200ff74193ca6e32d4b48b8856fab7ebf1c595d0670a7e470",
		},

		// get-multiple-relative
		V4SignerSuiteCase{
			label: "get-relative-relative",
			request: V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest{
				method:  "GET",
				host:    "host.foo.com",
				url:     "/./././",
				headers: []string{"Date:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT"},
			},
			canonicalRequest: "GET\n/\n\ndate:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT\nhost:host.foo.com\n\ndate;host\ne3b0c44298fc1c149afbf4c8996fb92427ae41e4649b934ca495991b7852b855",
			stringToSign:     "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\n20110909T233600Z\n20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request\n366b91fb121d72a00f46bbe8d395f53a102b06dfb7e79636515208ed3fa606b1",
			signature:        "b27ccfbfa7df52a200ff74193ca6e32d4b48b8856fab7ebf1c595d0670a7e470",
			authorization:    "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AKIDEXAMPLE/20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=date;host, Signature=b27ccfbfa7df52a200ff74193ca6e32d4b48b8856fab7ebf1c595d0670a7e470",
		},

		// get-relative-relative
		V4SignerSuiteCase{
			label: "get-relative-relative",
			request: V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest{
				method:  "GET",
				host:    "host.foo.com",
				url:     "/foo/bar/../..",
				headers: []string{"Date:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT"},
			},
			canonicalRequest: "GET\n/\n\ndate:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT\nhost:host.foo.com\n\ndate;host\ne3b0c44298fc1c149afbf4c8996fb92427ae41e4649b934ca495991b7852b855",
			stringToSign:     "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\n20110909T233600Z\n20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request\n366b91fb121d72a00f46bbe8d395f53a102b06dfb7e79636515208ed3fa606b1",
			signature:        "b27ccfbfa7df52a200ff74193ca6e32d4b48b8856fab7ebf1c595d0670a7e470",
			authorization:    "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AKIDEXAMPLE/20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=date;host, Signature=b27ccfbfa7df52a200ff74193ca6e32d4b48b8856fab7ebf1c595d0670a7e470",
		},

		// get-relative
		V4SignerSuiteCase{
			label: "get-relative",
			request: V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest{
				method:  "GET",
				host:    "host.foo.com",
				url:     "/foo/..",
				headers: []string{"Date:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT"},
			},
			canonicalRequest: "GET\n/\n\ndate:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT\nhost:host.foo.com\n\ndate;host\ne3b0c44298fc1c149afbf4c8996fb92427ae41e4649b934ca495991b7852b855",
			stringToSign:     "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\n20110909T233600Z\n20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request\n366b91fb121d72a00f46bbe8d395f53a102b06dfb7e79636515208ed3fa606b1",
			signature:        "b27ccfbfa7df52a200ff74193ca6e32d4b48b8856fab7ebf1c595d0670a7e470",
			authorization:    "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AKIDEXAMPLE/20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=date;host, Signature=b27ccfbfa7df52a200ff74193ca6e32d4b48b8856fab7ebf1c595d0670a7e470",
		},

		// get-slash-dot-slash
		V4SignerSuiteCase{
			label: "get-slash-dot-slash",
			request: V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest{
				method:  "GET",
				host:    "host.foo.com",
				url:     "/./",
				headers: []string{"Date:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT"},
			},
			canonicalRequest: "GET\n/\n\ndate:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT\nhost:host.foo.com\n\ndate;host\ne3b0c44298fc1c149afbf4c8996fb92427ae41e4649b934ca495991b7852b855",
			stringToSign:     "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\n20110909T233600Z\n20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request\n366b91fb121d72a00f46bbe8d395f53a102b06dfb7e79636515208ed3fa606b1",
			signature:        "b27ccfbfa7df52a200ff74193ca6e32d4b48b8856fab7ebf1c595d0670a7e470",
			authorization:    "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AKIDEXAMPLE/20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=date;host, Signature=b27ccfbfa7df52a200ff74193ca6e32d4b48b8856fab7ebf1c595d0670a7e470",
		},

		// get-slash-pointless-dot
		V4SignerSuiteCase{
			label: "get-slash-pointless-dot",
			request: V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest{
				method:  "GET",
				host:    "host.foo.com",
				url:     "/./foo",
				headers: []string{"Date:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT"},
			},
			canonicalRequest: "GET\n/foo\n\ndate:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT\nhost:host.foo.com\n\ndate;host\ne3b0c44298fc1c149afbf4c8996fb92427ae41e4649b934ca495991b7852b855",
			stringToSign:     "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\n20110909T233600Z\n20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request\n8021a97572ee460f87ca67f4e8c0db763216d84715f5424a843a5312a3321e2d",
			signature:        "910e4d6c9abafaf87898e1eb4c929135782ea25bb0279703146455745391e63a",
			authorization:    "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AKIDEXAMPLE/20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=date;host, Signature=910e4d6c9abafaf87898e1eb4c929135782ea25bb0279703146455745391e63a",
		},

		// get-slash
		V4SignerSuiteCase{
			label: "get-slash",
			request: V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest{
				method:  "GET",
				host:    "host.foo.com",
				url:     "//",
				headers: []string{"Date:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT"},
			},
			canonicalRequest: "GET\n/\n\ndate:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT\nhost:host.foo.com\n\ndate;host\ne3b0c44298fc1c149afbf4c8996fb92427ae41e4649b934ca495991b7852b855",
			stringToSign:     "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\n20110909T233600Z\n20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request\n366b91fb121d72a00f46bbe8d395f53a102b06dfb7e79636515208ed3fa606b1",
			signature:        "b27ccfbfa7df52a200ff74193ca6e32d4b48b8856fab7ebf1c595d0670a7e470",
			authorization:    "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AKIDEXAMPLE/20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=date;host, Signature=b27ccfbfa7df52a200ff74193ca6e32d4b48b8856fab7ebf1c595d0670a7e470",
		},

		// get-slashes
		V4SignerSuiteCase{
			label: "get-slashes",
			request: V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest{
				method:  "GET",
				host:    "host.foo.com",
				url:     "//foo//",
				headers: []string{"Date:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT"},
			},
			canonicalRequest: "GET\n/foo/\n\ndate:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT\nhost:host.foo.com\n\ndate;host\ne3b0c44298fc1c149afbf4c8996fb92427ae41e4649b934ca495991b7852b855",
			stringToSign:     "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\n20110909T233600Z\n20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request\n6bb4476ee8745730c9cb79f33a0c70baa6d8af29c0077fa12e4e8f1dd17e7098",
			signature:        "b00392262853cfe3201e47ccf945601079e9b8a7f51ee4c3d9ee4f187aa9bf19",
			authorization:    "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AKIDEXAMPLE/20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=date;host, Signature=b00392262853cfe3201e47ccf945601079e9b8a7f51ee4c3d9ee4f187aa9bf19",
		},

		// get-space
		V4SignerSuiteCase{
			label: "get-space",
			request: V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest{
				method:  "GET",
				host:    "host.foo.com",
				url:     "/%20/foo",
				headers: []string{"Date:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT"},
			},
			canonicalRequest: "GET\n/%20/foo\n\ndate:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT\nhost:host.foo.com\n\ndate;host\ne3b0c44298fc1c149afbf4c8996fb92427ae41e4649b934ca495991b7852b855",
			stringToSign:     "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\n20110909T233600Z\n20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request\n69c45fb9fe3fd76442b5086e50b2e9fec8298358da957b293ef26e506fdfb54b",
			signature:        "f309cfbd10197a230c42dd17dbf5cca8a0722564cb40a872d25623cfa758e374",
			authorization:    "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AKIDEXAMPLE/20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=date;host, Signature=f309cfbd10197a230c42dd17dbf5cca8a0722564cb40a872d25623cfa758e374",
		},

		// get-unreserved
		V4SignerSuiteCase{
			label: "get-unreserved",
			request: V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest{
				method:  "GET",
				host:    "host.foo.com",
				url:     "/-._~0123456789ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz",
				headers: []string{"Date:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT"},
			},
			canonicalRequest: "GET\n/-._~0123456789ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz\n\ndate:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT\nhost:host.foo.com\n\ndate;host\ne3b0c44298fc1c149afbf4c8996fb92427ae41e4649b934ca495991b7852b855",
			stringToSign:     "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\n20110909T233600Z\n20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request\ndf63ee3247c0356c696a3b21f8d8490b01fa9cd5bc6550ef5ef5f4636b7b8901",
			signature:        "830cc36d03f0f84e6ee4953fbe701c1c8b71a0372c63af9255aa364dd183281e",
			authorization:    "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AKIDEXAMPLE/20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=date;host, Signature=830cc36d03f0f84e6ee4953fbe701c1c8b71a0372c63af9255aa364dd183281e",
		},

		// get-utf8
		V4SignerSuiteCase{
			label: "get-utf8",
			request: V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest{
				method:  "GET",
				host:    "host.foo.com",
				url:     "/%E1%88%B4",
				headers: []string{"Date:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT"},
			},
			canonicalRequest: "GET\n/%E1%88%B4\n\ndate:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT\nhost:host.foo.com\n\ndate;host\ne3b0c44298fc1c149afbf4c8996fb92427ae41e4649b934ca495991b7852b855",
			stringToSign:     "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\n20110909T233600Z\n20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request\n27ba31df5dbc6e063d8f87d62eb07143f7f271c5330a917840586ac1c85b6f6b",
			signature:        "8d6634c189aa8c75c2e51e106b6b5121bed103fdb351f7d7d4381c738823af74",
			authorization:    "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AKIDEXAMPLE/20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=date;host, Signature=8d6634c189aa8c75c2e51e106b6b5121bed103fdb351f7d7d4381c738823af74",
		},

		// get-vanilla-empty-query-key
		V4SignerSuiteCase{
			label: "get-vanilla-empty-query-key",
			request: V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest{
				method:  "GET",
				host:    "host.foo.com",
				url:     "/?foo=bar",
				headers: []string{"Date:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT"},
			},
			canonicalRequest: "GET\n/\nfoo=bar\ndate:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT\nhost:host.foo.com\n\ndate;host\ne3b0c44298fc1c149afbf4c8996fb92427ae41e4649b934ca495991b7852b855",
			stringToSign:     "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\n20110909T233600Z\n20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request\n0846c2945b0832deb7a463c66af5c4f8bd54ec28c438e67a214445b157c9ddf8",
			signature:        "56c054473fd260c13e4e7393eb203662195f5d4a1fada5314b8b52b23f985e9f",
			authorization:    "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AKIDEXAMPLE/20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=date;host, Signature=56c054473fd260c13e4e7393eb203662195f5d4a1fada5314b8b52b23f985e9f",
		},

		// get-vanilla-query-order-key-case
		V4SignerSuiteCase{
			label: "get-vanilla-query-order-key-case",
			request: V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest{
				method:  "GET",
				host:    "host.foo.com",
				url:     "/?foo=Zoo&foo=aha",
				headers: []string{"Date:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT"},
			},
			canonicalRequest: "GET\n/\nfoo=Zoo&foo=aha\ndate:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT\nhost:host.foo.com\n\ndate;host\ne3b0c44298fc1c149afbf4c8996fb92427ae41e4649b934ca495991b7852b855",
			stringToSign:     "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\n20110909T233600Z\n20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request\ne25f777ba161a0f1baf778a87faf057187cf5987f17953320e3ca399feb5f00d",
			signature:        "be7148d34ebccdc6423b19085378aa0bee970bdc61d144bd1a8c48c33079ab09",
			authorization:    "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AKIDEXAMPLE/20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=date;host, Signature=be7148d34ebccdc6423b19085378aa0bee970bdc61d144bd1a8c48c33079ab09",
		},

		// get-vanilla-query-order-key
		V4SignerSuiteCase{
			label: "get-vanilla-query-order-key",
			request: V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest{
				method:  "GET",
				host:    "host.foo.com",
				url:     "/?a=foo&b=foo",
				headers: []string{"Date:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT"},
			},
			canonicalRequest: "GET\n/\na=foo&b=foo\ndate:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT\nhost:host.foo.com\n\ndate;host\ne3b0c44298fc1c149afbf4c8996fb92427ae41e4649b934ca495991b7852b855",
			stringToSign:     "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\n20110909T233600Z\n20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request\n2f23d14fe13caebf6dfda346285c6d9c14f49eaca8f5ec55c627dd7404f7a727",
			signature:        "0dc122f3b28b831ab48ba65cb47300de53fbe91b577fe113edac383730254a3b",
			authorization:    "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AKIDEXAMPLE/20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=date;host, Signature=0dc122f3b28b831ab48ba65cb47300de53fbe91b577fe113edac383730254a3b",
		},

		// get-vanilla-query-order-value
		V4SignerSuiteCase{
			label: "get-vanilla-query-order-value",
			request: V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest{
				method:  "GET",
				host:    "host.foo.com",
				url:     "/?foo=b&foo=a",
				headers: []string{"Date:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT"},
			},
			canonicalRequest: "GET\n/\nfoo=a&foo=b\ndate:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT\nhost:host.foo.com\n\ndate;host\ne3b0c44298fc1c149afbf4c8996fb92427ae41e4649b934ca495991b7852b855",
			stringToSign:     "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\n20110909T233600Z\n20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request\n33dffc220e89131f8f6157a35c40903daa658608d9129ff9489e5cf5bbd9b11b",
			signature:        "feb926e49e382bec75c9d7dcb2a1b6dc8aa50ca43c25d2bc51143768c0875acc",
			authorization:    "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AKIDEXAMPLE/20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=date;host, Signature=feb926e49e382bec75c9d7dcb2a1b6dc8aa50ca43c25d2bc51143768c0875acc",
		},

		// get-vanilla-query-unreserved
		V4SignerSuiteCase{
			label: "get-vanilla-query-unreserved",
			request: V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest{
				method:  "GET",
				host:    "host.foo.com",
				url:     "/?-._~0123456789ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz=-._~0123456789ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz",
				headers: []string{"Date:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT"},
			},
			canonicalRequest: "GET\n/\n-._~0123456789ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz=-._~0123456789ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz\ndate:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT\nhost:host.foo.com\n\ndate;host\ne3b0c44298fc1c149afbf4c8996fb92427ae41e4649b934ca495991b7852b855",
			stringToSign:     "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\n20110909T233600Z\n20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request\nd2578f3156d4c9d180713d1ff20601d8a3eed0dd35447d24603d7d67414bd6b5",
			signature:        "f1498ddb4d6dae767d97c466fb92f1b59a2c71ca29ac954692663f9db03426fb",
			authorization:    "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AKIDEXAMPLE/20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=date;host, Signature=f1498ddb4d6dae767d97c466fb92f1b59a2c71ca29ac954692663f9db03426fb",
		},

		// get-vanilla-query
		V4SignerSuiteCase{
			label: "get-vanilla-query",
			request: V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest{
				method:  "GET",
				host:    "host.foo.com",
				url:     "/",
				headers: []string{"Date:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT"},
			},
			canonicalRequest: "GET\n/\n\ndate:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT\nhost:host.foo.com\n\ndate;host\ne3b0c44298fc1c149afbf4c8996fb92427ae41e4649b934ca495991b7852b855",
			stringToSign:     "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\n20110909T233600Z\n20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request\n366b91fb121d72a00f46bbe8d395f53a102b06dfb7e79636515208ed3fa606b1",
			signature:        "b27ccfbfa7df52a200ff74193ca6e32d4b48b8856fab7ebf1c595d0670a7e470",
			authorization:    "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AKIDEXAMPLE/20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=date;host, Signature=b27ccfbfa7df52a200ff74193ca6e32d4b48b8856fab7ebf1c595d0670a7e470",
		},

		// get-vanilla-ut8-query
		V4SignerSuiteCase{
			label: "get-vanilla-ut8-query",
			request: V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest{
				method:  "GET",
				host:    "host.foo.com",
				url:     "/?ሴ=bar",
				headers: []string{"Date:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT"},
			},
			canonicalRequest: "GET\n/\n%E1%88%B4=bar\ndate:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT\nhost:host.foo.com\n\ndate;host\ne3b0c44298fc1c149afbf4c8996fb92427ae41e4649b934ca495991b7852b855",
			stringToSign:     "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\n20110909T233600Z\n20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request\nde5065ff39c131e6c2e2bd19cd9345a794bf3b561eab20b8d97b2093fc2a979e",
			signature:        "6fb359e9a05394cc7074e0feb42573a2601abc0c869a953e8c5c12e4e01f1a8c",
			authorization:    "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AKIDEXAMPLE/20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=date;host, Signature=6fb359e9a05394cc7074e0feb42573a2601abc0c869a953e8c5c12e4e01f1a8c",
		},

		// get-vanilla
		V4SignerSuiteCase{
			label: "get-vanilla",
			request: V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest{
				method:  "GET",
				host:    "host.foo.com",
				url:     "/",
				headers: []string{"Date:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT"},
			},
			canonicalRequest: "GET\n/\n\ndate:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT\nhost:host.foo.com\n\ndate;host\ne3b0c44298fc1c149afbf4c8996fb92427ae41e4649b934ca495991b7852b855",
			stringToSign:     "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\n20110909T233600Z\n20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request\n366b91fb121d72a00f46bbe8d395f53a102b06dfb7e79636515208ed3fa606b1",
			signature:        "b27ccfbfa7df52a200ff74193ca6e32d4b48b8856fab7ebf1c595d0670a7e470",
			authorization:    "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AKIDEXAMPLE/20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=date;host, Signature=b27ccfbfa7df52a200ff74193ca6e32d4b48b8856fab7ebf1c595d0670a7e470",
		},

		// post-header-key-case
		V4SignerSuiteCase{
			label: "post-header-key-case",
			request: V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest{
				method:  "POST",
				host:    "host.foo.com",
				url:     "/",
				headers: []string{"DATE:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT"},
			},
			canonicalRequest: "POST\n/\n\ndate:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT\nhost:host.foo.com\n\ndate;host\ne3b0c44298fc1c149afbf4c8996fb92427ae41e4649b934ca495991b7852b855",
			stringToSign:     "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\n20110909T233600Z\n20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request\n05da62cee468d24ae84faff3c39f1b85540de60243c1bcaace39c0a2acc7b2c4",
			signature:        "22902d79e148b64e7571c3565769328423fe276eae4b26f83afceda9e767f726",
			authorization:    "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AKIDEXAMPLE/20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=date;host, Signature=22902d79e148b64e7571c3565769328423fe276eae4b26f83afceda9e767f726",
		},

		// post-header-key-sort
		V4SignerSuiteCase{
			label: "post-header-key-sort",
			request: V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest{
				method:  "POST",
				host:    "host.foo.com",
				url:     "/",
				headers: []string{"DATE:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT", "ZOO:zoobar"},
			},
			canonicalRequest: "POST\n/\n\ndate:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT\nhost:host.foo.com\nzoo:zoobar\n\ndate;host;zoo\ne3b0c44298fc1c149afbf4c8996fb92427ae41e4649b934ca495991b7852b855",
			stringToSign:     "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\n20110909T233600Z\n20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request\n34e1bddeb99e76ee01d63b5e28656111e210529efeec6cdfd46a48e4c734545d",
			signature:        "b7a95a52518abbca0964a999a880429ab734f35ebbf1235bd79a5de87756dc4a",
			authorization:    "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AKIDEXAMPLE/20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=date;host;zoo, Signature=b7a95a52518abbca0964a999a880429ab734f35ebbf1235bd79a5de87756dc4a",
		},

		// post-header-value-case
		V4SignerSuiteCase{
			label: "post-header-value-case",
			request: V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest{
				method:  "POST",
				host:    "host.foo.com",
				url:     "/",
				headers: []string{"DATE:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT", "zoo:ZOOBAR"},
			},
			canonicalRequest: "POST\n/\n\ndate:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT\nhost:host.foo.com\nzoo:ZOOBAR\n\ndate;host;zoo\ne3b0c44298fc1c149afbf4c8996fb92427ae41e4649b934ca495991b7852b855",
			stringToSign:     "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\n20110909T233600Z\n20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request\n3aae6d8274b8c03e2cc96fc7d6bda4b9bd7a0a184309344470b2c96953e124aa",
			signature:        "273313af9d0c265c531e11db70bbd653f3ba074c1009239e8559d3987039cad7",
			authorization:    "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AKIDEXAMPLE/20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=date;host;zoo, Signature=273313af9d0c265c531e11db70bbd653f3ba074c1009239e8559d3987039cad7",
		},

		// post-vanilla-empty-query-value
		V4SignerSuiteCase{
			label: "post-vanilla-empty-query-value",
			request: V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest{
				method:  "POST",
				host:    "host.foo.com",
				url:     "/?foo=bar",
				headers: []string{"Date:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT"},
			},
			canonicalRequest: "POST\n/\nfoo=bar\ndate:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT\nhost:host.foo.com\n\ndate;host\ne3b0c44298fc1c149afbf4c8996fb92427ae41e4649b934ca495991b7852b855",
			stringToSign:     "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\n20110909T233600Z\n20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request\ncd4f39132d8e60bb388831d734230460872b564871c47f5de62e62d1a68dbe1e",
			signature:        "b6e3b79003ce0743a491606ba1035a804593b0efb1e20a11cba83f8c25a57a92",
			authorization:    "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AKIDEXAMPLE/20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=date;host, Signature=b6e3b79003ce0743a491606ba1035a804593b0efb1e20a11cba83f8c25a57a92",
		},

		// post-vanilla-query
		V4SignerSuiteCase{
			label: "post-vanilla-query",
			request: V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest{
				method:  "POST",
				host:    "host.foo.com",
				url:     "/?foo=bar",
				headers: []string{"Date:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT"},
			},
			canonicalRequest: "POST\n/\nfoo=bar\ndate:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT\nhost:host.foo.com\n\ndate;host\ne3b0c44298fc1c149afbf4c8996fb92427ae41e4649b934ca495991b7852b855",
			stringToSign:     "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\n20110909T233600Z\n20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request\ncd4f39132d8e60bb388831d734230460872b564871c47f5de62e62d1a68dbe1e",
			signature:        "b6e3b79003ce0743a491606ba1035a804593b0efb1e20a11cba83f8c25a57a92",
			authorization:    "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AKIDEXAMPLE/20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=date;host, Signature=b6e3b79003ce0743a491606ba1035a804593b0efb1e20a11cba83f8c25a57a92",
		},

		// post-vanilla
		V4SignerSuiteCase{
			label: "post-vanilla",
			request: V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest{
				method:  "POST",
				host:    "host.foo.com",
				url:     "/",
				headers: []string{"Date:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT"},
			},
			canonicalRequest: "POST\n/\n\ndate:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT\nhost:host.foo.com\n\ndate;host\ne3b0c44298fc1c149afbf4c8996fb92427ae41e4649b934ca495991b7852b855",
			stringToSign:     "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\n20110909T233600Z\n20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request\n05da62cee468d24ae84faff3c39f1b85540de60243c1bcaace39c0a2acc7b2c4",
			signature:        "22902d79e148b64e7571c3565769328423fe276eae4b26f83afceda9e767f726",
			authorization:    "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AKIDEXAMPLE/20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=date;host, Signature=22902d79e148b64e7571c3565769328423fe276eae4b26f83afceda9e767f726",
		},

		// post-x-www-form-urlencoded-parameters
		V4SignerSuiteCase{
			label: "post-x-www-form-urlencoded-parameters",
			request: V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest{
				method:  "POST",
				host:    "host.foo.com",
				url:     "/",
				headers: []string{"Content-Type:application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=utf8", "Date:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT"},
				body:    "foo=bar",
			},
			canonicalRequest: "POST\n/\n\ncontent-type:application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=utf8\ndate:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT\nhost:host.foo.com\n\ncontent-type;date;host\n3ba8907e7a252327488df390ed517c45b96dead033600219bdca7107d1d3f88a",
			stringToSign:     "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\n20110909T233600Z\n20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request\nc4115f9e54b5cecf192b1eaa23b8e88ed8dc5391bd4fde7b3fff3d9c9fe0af1f",
			signature:        "b105eb10c6d318d2294de9d49dd8b031b55e3c3fe139f2e637da70511e9e7b71",
			authorization:    "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AKIDEXAMPLE/20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=content-type;date;host, Signature=b105eb10c6d318d2294de9d49dd8b031b55e3c3fe139f2e637da70511e9e7b71",
		},

		// post-x-www-form-urlencoded
		V4SignerSuiteCase{
			label: "post-x-www-form-urlencoded",
			request: V4SignerSuiteCaseRequest{
				method:  "POST",
				host:    "host.foo.com",
				url:     "/",
				headers: []string{"Content-Type:application/x-www-form-urlencoded", "Date:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT"},
				body:    "foo=bar",
			},
			canonicalRequest: "POST\n/\n\ncontent-type:application/x-www-form-urlencoded\ndate:Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT\nhost:host.foo.com\n\ncontent-type;date;host\n3ba8907e7a252327488df390ed517c45b96dead033600219bdca7107d1d3f88a",
			stringToSign:     "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\n20110909T233600Z\n20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request\n4c5c6e4b52fb5fb947a8733982a8a5a61b14f04345cbfe6e739236c76dd48f74",
			signature:        "5a15b22cf462f047318703b92e6f4f38884e4a7ab7b1d6426ca46a8bd1c26cbc",
			authorization:    "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AKIDEXAMPLE/20110909/us-east-1/host/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=content-type;date;host, Signature=5a15b22cf462f047318703b92e6f4f38884e4a7ab7b1d6426ca46a8bd1c26cbc",
		},
	)
}

func (s *V4SignerSuite) TestCases(c *check.C) {
	signer := aws.NewV4Signer(s.auth, "host", s.region)

	for _, testCase := range s.cases {

		req, err := http.NewRequest(testCase.request.method, "http://"+testCase.request.host+testCase.request.url, strings.NewReader(testCase.request.body))
		c.Assert(err, check.IsNil, check.Commentf("Testcase: %s", testCase.label))
		for _, v := range testCase.request.headers {
			h := strings.SplitN(v, ":", 2)
			req.Header.Add(h[0], h[1])
		}
		req.Header.Set("host", req.Host)

		t := signer.RequestTime(req)

		canonicalRequest := signer.CanonicalRequest(req)
		c.Check(canonicalRequest, check.Equals, testCase.canonicalRequest, check.Commentf("Testcase: %s", testCase.label))

		stringToSign := signer.StringToSign(t, canonicalRequest)
		c.Check(stringToSign, check.Equals, testCase.stringToSign, check.Commentf("Testcase: %s", testCase.label))

		signature := signer.Signature(t, stringToSign)
		c.Check(signature, check.Equals, testCase.signature, check.Commentf("Testcase: %s", testCase.label))

		authorization := signer.Authorization(req.Header, t, signature)
		c.Check(authorization, check.Equals, testCase.authorization, check.Commentf("Testcase: %s", testCase.label))

		signer.Sign(req)
		c.Check(req.Header.Get("Authorization"), check.Equals, testCase.authorization, check.Commentf("Testcase: %s", testCase.label))
	}
}

func main() {
	// Get auth from env vars
	auth, err := aws.EnvAuth()
	if err != nil {
		fmt.Println(err)
	}

	// Create a signer with the auth, name of the service, and aws region
	signer := aws.NewV4Signer(auth, "dynamodb", aws.USEast)

	// Create a request
	req, err := http.NewRequest("POST", aws.USEast.DynamoDBEndpoint, strings.NewReader("sample_request"))
	if err != nil {
		fmt.Println(err)
	}

	// Date or x-amz-date header is required to sign a request
	req.Header.Add("Date", time.Now().UTC().Format(http.TimeFormat))

	// Sign the request
	signer.Sign(req)

	// Issue signed request
	http.DefaultClient.Do(req)
}
Output:

func NewV4Signer

func NewV4Signer(auth Auth, serviceName string, region Region) *V4Signer

Return a new instance of a V4Signer capable of signing AWS requests.

func (*V4Signer) Sign

func (s *V4Signer) Sign(req *http.Request)

Sign a request according to the AWS Signature Version 4 Signing Process. (http://goo.gl/u1OWZz)

The signed request will include an "x-amz-date" header with a current timestamp if a valid "x-amz-date" or "date" header was not available in the original request. In addition, AWS Signature Version 4 requires the "host" header to be a signed header, therefor the Sign method will manually set a "host" header from the request.Host.

The signed request will include a new "Authorization" header indicating that the request has been signed.

Any changes to the request after signing the request will invalidate the signature.

type WaitFunc

type WaitFunc func(try int)

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