pgzip

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Published: Sep 2, 2020 License: MIT Imports: 11 Imported by: 464

README

pgzip

Go parallel gzip compression/decompression. This is a fully gzip compatible drop in replacement for "compress/gzip".

This will split compression into blocks that are compressed in parallel. This can be useful for compressing big amounts of data. The output is a standard gzip file.

The gzip decompression is modified so it decompresses ahead of the current reader. This means that reads will be non-blocking if the decompressor can keep ahead of your code reading from it. CRC calculation also takes place in a separate goroutine.

You should only use this if you are (de)compressing big amounts of data, say more than 1MB at the time, otherwise you will not see any benefit, and it will likely be faster to use the internal gzip library or this package.

It is important to note that this library creates and reads standard gzip files. You do not have to match the compressor/decompressor to get the described speedups, and the gzip files are fully compatible with other gzip readers/writers.

A golang variant of this is bgzf, which has the same feature, as well as seeking in the resulting file. The only drawback is a slightly bigger overhead compared to this and pure gzip. See a comparison below.

GoDoc Build Status

Installation

go get github.com/klauspost/pgzip/...

You might need to get/update the dependencies:

go get -u github.com/klauspost/compress

Usage

Godoc Doumentation

To use as a replacement for gzip, exchange

import "compress/gzip" with import gzip "github.com/klauspost/pgzip".

Changes

  • Oct 6, 2016: Fixed an issue if the destination writer returned an error.
  • Oct 6, 2016: Better buffer reuse, should now generate less garbage.
  • Oct 6, 2016: Output does not change based on write sizes.
  • Dec 8, 2015: Decoder now supports the io.WriterTo interface, giving a speedup and less GC pressure.
  • Oct 9, 2015: Reduced allocations by ~35 by using sync.Pool. ~15% overall speedup.

Changes in github.com/klauspost/compress are also carried over, so see that for more changes.

Compression

The simplest way to use this is to simply do the same as you would when using compress/gzip.

To change the block size, use the added (*pgzip.Writer).SetConcurrency(blockSize, blocks int) function. With this you can control the approximate size of your blocks, as well as how many you want to be processing in parallel. Default values for this is SetConcurrency(1MB, runtime.GOMAXPROCS(0)), meaning blocks are split at 1 MB and up to the number of CPU threads blocks can be processing at once before the writer blocks.

Example:

var b bytes.Buffer
w := gzip.NewWriter(&b)
w.SetConcurrency(100000, 10)
w.Write([]byte("hello, world\n"))
w.Close()

To get any performance gains, you should at least be compressing more than 1 megabyte of data at the time.

You should at least have a block size of 100k and at least a number of blocks that match the number of cores your would like to utilize, but about twice the number of blocks would be the best.

Another side effect of this is, that it is likely to speed up your other code, since writes to the compressor only blocks if the compressor is already compressing the number of blocks you have specified. This also means you don't have worry about buffering input to the compressor.

Decompression

Decompression works similar to compression. That means that you simply call pgzip the same way as you would call compress/gzip.

The only difference is that if you want to specify your own readahead, you have to use pgzip.NewReaderN(r io.Reader, blockSize, blocks int) to get a reader with your custom blocksizes. The blockSize is the size of each block decoded, and blocks is the maximum number of blocks that is decoded ahead.

See Example on playground

Performance

Compression

See my blog post in Benchmarks of Golang Gzip.

Compression cost is usually about 0.2% with default settings with a block size of 250k.

Example with GOMAXPROC set to 32 (16 core CPU)

Content is Matt Mahoneys 10GB corpus. Compression level 6.

Compressor MB/sec speedup size size overhead (lower=better)
gzip (golang) 15.44MB/s (1 thread) 1.0x 4781329307 0%
gzip (klauspost) 135.04MB/s (1 thread) 8.74x 4894858258 +2.37%
pgzip (klauspost) 1573.23MB/s 101.9x 4902285651 +2.53%
bgzf (biogo) 361.40MB/s 23.4x 4869686090 +1.85%
pargzip (builder) 306.01MB/s 19.8x 4786890417 +0.12%

pgzip also contains a linear time compression mode, that will allow compression at ~250MB per core per second, independent of the content.

See the complete sheet for different content types and compression settings.

Decompression

The decompression speedup is there because it allows you to do other work while the decompression is taking place.

In the example above, the numbers are as follows on a 4 CPU machine:

Decompressor Time Speedup
gzip (golang) 1m28.85s 0%
pgzip (golang) 43.48s 104%

But wait, since gzip decompression is inherently singlethreaded (aside from CRC calculation) how can it be more than 100% faster? Because pgzip due to its design also acts as a buffer. When using unbuffered gzip, you are also waiting for io when you are decompressing. If the gzip decoder can keep up, it will always have data ready for your reader, and you will not be waiting for input to the gzip decompressor to complete.

This is pretty much an optimal situation for pgzip, but it reflects most common usecases for CPU intensive gzip usage.

I haven't included bgzf in this comparison, since it only can decompress files created by a compatible encoder, and therefore cannot be considered a generic gzip decompressor. But if you are able to compress your files with a bgzf compatible program, you can expect it to scale beyond 100%.

License

This contains large portions of code from the go repository - see GO_LICENSE for more information. The changes are released under MIT License. See LICENSE for more information.

Documentation

Overview

Package pgzip implements reading and writing of gzip format compressed files, as specified in RFC 1952.

This is a drop in replacement for "compress/gzip". This will split compression into blocks that are compressed in parallel. This can be useful for compressing big amounts of data. The gzip decompression has not been modified, but remains in the package, so you can use it as a complete replacement for "compress/gzip".

See more at https://github.com/klauspost/pgzip

Index

Constants

View Source
const (
	NoCompression       = flate.NoCompression
	BestSpeed           = flate.BestSpeed
	BestCompression     = flate.BestCompression
	DefaultCompression  = flate.DefaultCompression
	ConstantCompression = flate.ConstantCompression
	HuffmanOnly         = flate.HuffmanOnly
)

These constants are copied from the flate package, so that code that imports "compress/gzip" does not also have to import "compress/flate".

Variables

View Source
var (
	// ErrChecksum is returned when reading GZIP data that has an invalid checksum.
	ErrChecksum = errors.New("gzip: invalid checksum")
	// ErrHeader is returned when reading GZIP data that has an invalid header.
	ErrHeader = errors.New("gzip: invalid header")
)

Functions

This section is empty.

Types

type Header struct {
	Comment string    // comment
	Extra   []byte    // "extra data"
	ModTime time.Time // modification time
	Name    string    // file name
	OS      byte      // operating system type
}

The gzip file stores a header giving metadata about the compressed file. That header is exposed as the fields of the Writer and Reader structs.

type Reader

type Reader struct {
	Header
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

A Reader is an io.Reader that can be read to retrieve uncompressed data from a gzip-format compressed file.

In general, a gzip file can be a concatenation of gzip files, each with its own header. Reads from the Reader return the concatenation of the uncompressed data of each. Only the first header is recorded in the Reader fields.

Gzip files store a length and checksum of the uncompressed data. The Reader will return a ErrChecksum when Read reaches the end of the uncompressed data if it does not have the expected length or checksum. Clients should treat data returned by Read as tentative until they receive the io.EOF marking the end of the data.

func NewReader

func NewReader(r io.Reader) (*Reader, error)

NewReader creates a new Reader reading the given reader. The implementation buffers input and may read more data than necessary from r. It is the caller's responsibility to call Close on the Reader when done.

func NewReaderN

func NewReaderN(r io.Reader, blockSize, blocks int) (*Reader, error)

NewReaderN creates a new Reader reading the given reader. The implementation buffers input and may read more data than necessary from r. It is the caller's responsibility to call Close on the Reader when done.

With this you can control the approximate size of your blocks, as well as how many blocks you want to have prefetched.

Default values for this is blockSize = 250000, blocks = 16, meaning up to 16 blocks of maximum 250000 bytes will be prefetched.

func (*Reader) Close

func (z *Reader) Close() error

Close closes the Reader. It does not close the underlying io.Reader.

func (*Reader) Multistream

func (z *Reader) Multistream(ok bool)

Multistream controls whether the reader supports multistream files.

If enabled (the default), the Reader expects the input to be a sequence of individually gzipped data streams, each with its own header and trailer, ending at EOF. The effect is that the concatenation of a sequence of gzipped files is treated as equivalent to the gzip of the concatenation of the sequence. This is standard behavior for gzip readers.

Calling Multistream(false) disables this behavior; disabling the behavior can be useful when reading file formats that distinguish individual gzip data streams or mix gzip data streams with other data streams. In this mode, when the Reader reaches the end of the data stream, Read returns io.EOF. If the underlying reader implements io.ByteReader, it will be left positioned just after the gzip stream. To start the next stream, call z.Reset(r) followed by z.Multistream(false). If there is no next stream, z.Reset(r) will return io.EOF.

func (*Reader) Read

func (z *Reader) Read(p []byte) (n int, err error)

func (*Reader) Reset

func (z *Reader) Reset(r io.Reader) error

Reset discards the Reader z's state and makes it equivalent to the result of its original state from NewReader, but reading from r instead. This permits reusing a Reader rather than allocating a new one.

func (*Reader) WriteTo

func (z *Reader) WriteTo(w io.Writer) (n int64, err error)

type Writer

type Writer struct {
	Header
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

A Writer is an io.WriteCloser. Writes to a Writer are compressed and written to w.

func NewWriter

func NewWriter(w io.Writer) *Writer

NewWriter returns a new Writer. Writes to the returned writer are compressed and written to w.

It is the caller's responsibility to call Close on the WriteCloser when done. Writes may be buffered and not flushed until Close.

Callers that wish to set the fields in Writer.Header must do so before the first call to Write or Close. The Comment and Name header fields are UTF-8 strings in Go, but the underlying format requires NUL-terminated ISO 8859-1 (Latin-1). NUL or non-Latin-1 runes in those strings will lead to an error on Write.

func NewWriterLevel

func NewWriterLevel(w io.Writer, level int) (*Writer, error)

NewWriterLevel is like NewWriter but specifies the compression level instead of assuming DefaultCompression.

The compression level can be DefaultCompression, NoCompression, or any integer value between BestSpeed and BestCompression inclusive. The error returned will be nil if the level is valid.

func (*Writer) Close

func (z *Writer) Close() error

Close closes the Writer, flushing any unwritten data to the underlying io.Writer, but does not close the underlying io.Writer.

func (*Writer) Flush

func (z *Writer) Flush() error

Flush flushes any pending compressed data to the underlying writer.

It is useful mainly in compressed network protocols, to ensure that a remote reader has enough data to reconstruct a packet. Flush does not return until the data has been written. If the underlying writer returns an error, Flush returns that error.

In the terminology of the zlib library, Flush is equivalent to Z_SYNC_FLUSH.

func (*Writer) Reset

func (z *Writer) Reset(w io.Writer)

Reset discards the Writer z's state and makes it equivalent to the result of its original state from NewWriter or NewWriterLevel, but writing to w instead. This permits reusing a Writer rather than allocating a new one.

func (*Writer) SetConcurrency

func (z *Writer) SetConcurrency(blockSize, blocks int) error

Use SetConcurrency to finetune the concurrency level if needed.

With this you can control the approximate size of your blocks, as well as how many you want to be processing in parallel.

Default values for this is SetConcurrency(defaultBlockSize, runtime.GOMAXPROCS(0)), meaning blocks are split at 1 MB and up to the number of CPU threads can be processing at once before the writer blocks.

func (*Writer) UncompressedSize

func (z *Writer) UncompressedSize() int

UncompressedSize will return the number of bytes written. pgzip only, not a function in the official gzip package.

func (*Writer) Write

func (z *Writer) Write(p []byte) (int, error)

Write writes a compressed form of p to the underlying io.Writer. The compressed bytes are not necessarily flushed to output until the Writer is closed or Flush() is called.

The function will return quickly, if there are unused buffers. The sent slice (p) is copied, and the caller is free to re-use the buffer when the function returns.

Errors that occur during compression will be reported later, and a nil error does not signify that the compression succeeded (since it is most likely still running) That means that the call that returns an error may not be the call that caused it. Only Flush and Close functions are guaranteed to return any errors up to that point.

Source Files

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