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Published: Jan 22, 2019 License: GPL-3.0 Imports: 10 Imported by: 0



Package rlp implements the RLP serialization format.

The purpose of RLP (Recursive Linear Prefix) is to encode arbitrarily nested arrays of binary data, and RLP is the main encoding method used to serialize objects in Ethereum. The only purpose of RLP is to encode structure; encoding specific atomic data types (eg. strings, ints, floats) is left up to higher-order protocols; in Ethereum integers must be represented in big endian binary form with no leading zeroes (thus making the integer value zero equivalent to the empty byte array).

RLP values are distinguished by a type tag. The type tag precedes the value in the input stream and defines the size and kind of the bytes that follow.




View Source
const (
	// MaxHeadSize is the maximum size for a header, in bytes.
	MaxHeadSize = 9

	// MaxBigIntSize is the maximum size for a BigInt, in bytes.
	// This is used so we don't have to fully compute big.Int.Bytes().
	// We determine this value by using total currency in circulation plus
	// additional padding. This can hold 10^77.
	MaxBigIntSize = 32


View Source
var (
	// EOL is returned when the end of the current list
	// has been reached during streaming.
	EOL = errors.New("rlp: end of list")

	// Actual Errors
	ErrExpectedString = errors.New("rlp: expected String or Byte")
	ErrExpectedList   = errors.New("rlp: expected List")
	ErrCanonInt       = errors.New("rlp: non-canonical integer format")
	ErrCanonSize      = errors.New("rlp: non-canonical size information")
	ErrElemTooLarge   = errors.New("rlp: element is larger than containing list")
	ErrValueTooLarge  = errors.New("rlp: value size exceeds available input length")

	// This error is reported by DecodeBytes if the slice contains
	// additional data after the first RLP value.
	ErrMoreThanOneValue = errors.New("rlp: input contains more than one value")
View Source
var (
	// Common encoded values.
	// These are useful when implementing EncodeRLP.
	EmptyString = []byte{0x80}
	EmptyList   = []byte{0xC0}


func AppendBigInt

func AppendBigInt(b []byte, v *big.Int) ([]byte, error)

func AppendBool

func AppendBool(b []byte, v bool) []byte

func AppendBytes

func AppendBytes(b, v []byte) []byte

func AppendHead

func AppendHead(b []byte, prefix byte, v uint64) []byte

func AppendUint64

func AppendUint64(b []byte, v uint64) []byte

func BigIntSize

func BigIntSize(v *big.Int) int

func BoolSize

func BoolSize(v uint64) int

func BytesSize

func BytesSize(v []byte) int

func CountValues

func CountValues(b []byte) (int, error)

CountValues counts the number of encoded values in b.

func Decode

func Decode(r io.Reader, val interface{}) error

Decode parses RLP-encoded data from r and stores the result in the value pointed to by val. Val must be a non-nil pointer. If r does not implement ByteReader, Decode will do its own buffering.

Decode uses the following type-dependent decoding rules:

If the type implements the Decoder interface, decode calls DecodeRLP.

To decode into a pointer, Decode will decode into the value pointed to. If the pointer is nil, a new value of the pointer's element type is allocated. If the pointer is non-nil, the existing value will be reused.

To decode into a struct, Decode expects the input to be an RLP list. The decoded elements of the list are assigned to each public field in the order given by the struct's definition. The input list must contain an element for each decoded field. Decode returns an error if there are too few or too many elements.

The decoding of struct fields honours certain struct tags, "tail", "nil" and "-".

The "-" tag ignores fields.

For an explanation of "tail", see the example.

The "nil" tag applies to pointer-typed fields and changes the decoding rules for the field such that input values of size zero decode as a nil pointer. This tag can be useful when decoding recursive types.

type StructWithEmptyOK struct {
    Foo *[20]byte `rlp:"nil"`

To decode into a slice, the input must be a list and the resulting slice will contain the input elements in order. For byte slices, the input must be an RLP string. Array types decode similarly, with the additional restriction that the number of input elements (or bytes) must match the array's length.

To decode into a Go string, the input must be an RLP string. The input bytes are taken as-is and will not necessarily be valid UTF-8.

To decode into an unsigned integer type, the input must also be an RLP string. The bytes are interpreted as a big endian representation of the integer. If the RLP string is larger than the bit size of the type, Decode will return an error. Decode also supports *big.Int. There is no size limit for big integers.

To decode into an interface value, Decode stores one of these in the value:

[]interface{}, for RLP lists
[]byte, for RLP strings

Non-empty interface types are not supported, nor are booleans, signed integers, floating point numbers, maps, channels and functions.

Note that Decode does not set an input limit for all readers and may be vulnerable to panics cause by huge value sizes. If you need an input limit, use

NewStream(r, limit).Decode(val)
input, _ := hex.DecodeString("C90A1486666F6F626172")

type example struct {
	A, B    uint
	private uint // private fields are ignored
	String  string

var s example
err := Decode(bytes.NewReader(input), &s)
if err != nil {
	fmt.Printf("Error: %v\n", err)
} else {
	fmt.Printf("Decoded value: %#v\n", s)

Decoded value: rlp.example{A:0xa, B:0x14, private:0x0, String:"foobar"}
Example (StructTagNil)
// In this example, we'll use the "nil" struct tag to change
// how a pointer-typed field is decoded. The input contains an RLP
// list of one element, an empty string.
input := []byte{0xC1, 0x80}

// This type uses the normal rules.
// The empty input string is decoded as a pointer to an empty Go string.
var normalRules struct {
	String *string
Decode(bytes.NewReader(input), &normalRules)
fmt.Printf("normal: String = %q\n", *normalRules.String)

// This type uses the struct tag.
// The empty input string is decoded as a nil pointer.
var withEmptyOK struct {
	String *string `rlp:"nil"`
Decode(bytes.NewReader(input), &withEmptyOK)
fmt.Printf("with nil tag: String = %v\n", withEmptyOK.String)

normal: String = ""
with nil tag: String = <nil>
Example (StructTagTail)
package main

import (

type structWithTail struct {
	A, B uint
	C    []uint `rlp:"tail"`

func main() {
	// In this example, the "tail" struct tag is used to decode lists of
	// differing length into a struct.
	var val structWithTail

	err := Decode(bytes.NewReader([]byte{0xC4, 0x01, 0x02, 0x03, 0x04}), &val)
	fmt.Printf("with 4 elements: err=%v val=%v\n", err, val)

	err = Decode(bytes.NewReader([]byte{0xC6, 0x01, 0x02, 0x03, 0x04, 0x05, 0x06}), &val)
	fmt.Printf("with 6 elements: err=%v val=%v\n", err, val)

	// Note that at least two list elements must be present to
	// fill fields A and B:
	err = Decode(bytes.NewReader([]byte{0xC1, 0x01}), &val)
	fmt.Printf("with 1 element: err=%q\n", err)


with 4 elements: err=<nil> val={1 2 [3 4]}
with 6 elements: err=<nil> val={1 2 [3 4 5 6]}
with 1 element: err="rlp: too few elements for rlp.structWithTail"

func DecodeBytes

func DecodeBytes(b []byte, val interface{}) error

DecodeBytes parses RLP data from b into val. Please see the documentation of Decode for the decoding rules. The input must contain exactly one value and no trailing data.

func Discard

func Discard(s *Stream)

Discard returns s to the pool.

func Encode

func Encode(w io.Writer, val interface{}) error

Encode writes the RLP encoding of val to w. Note that Encode may perform many small writes in some cases. Consider making w buffered.

Encode uses the following type-dependent encoding rules:

If the type implements the Encoder interface, Encode calls EncodeRLP. This is true even for nil pointers, please see the documentation for Encoder.

To encode a pointer, the value being pointed to is encoded. For nil pointers, Encode will encode the zero value of the type. A nil pointer to a struct type always encodes as an empty RLP list. A nil pointer to an array encodes as an empty list (or empty string if the array has element type byte).

Struct values are encoded as an RLP list of all their encoded public fields. Recursive struct types are supported.

To encode slices and arrays, the elements are encoded as an RLP list of the value's elements. Note that arrays and slices with element type uint8 or byte are always encoded as an RLP string.

A Go string is encoded as an RLP string.

An unsigned integer value is encoded as an RLP string. Zero always encodes as an empty RLP string. Encode also supports *big.Int.

An interface value encodes as the value contained in the interface.

Boolean values are not supported, nor are signed integers, floating point numbers, maps, channels and functions.

func EncodeToBytes

func EncodeToBytes(val interface{}) ([]byte, error)

EncodeBytes returns the RLP encoding of val. Please see the documentation of Encode for the encoding rules.

func EncodeToReader

func EncodeToReader(val interface{}) (size int, r io.Reader, err error)

EncodeReader returns a reader from which the RLP encoding of val can be read. The returned size is the total size of the encoded data.

Please see the documentation of Encode for the encoding rules.

func ListHeaderSize

func ListHeaderSize(sz int) int

func ListSize

func ListSize(contentSize uint64) uint64

ListSize returns the encoded size of an RLP list with the given content size.

func PrependListHeader

func PrependListHeader(b []byte) []byte

PrependListHeader writes the list header to the beginning of b. This function assumes that MaxHeadSize has been allocated at the beginning already. Returns the byte slice starting from the beginning of the header.

func RawValueSize

func RawValueSize(v RawValue) int

func SplitList

func SplitList(b []byte) (content, rest []byte, err error)

SplitList splits b into the content of a list and any remaining bytes after the list.

func SplitString

func SplitString(b []byte) (content, rest []byte, err error)

SplitString splits b into the content of an RLP string and any remaining bytes after the string.

func Uint64Size

func Uint64Size(v uint64) int

func WriteBigIntTo

func WriteBigIntTo(w io.Writer, v *big.Int) (n int64, err error)

func WriteBoolTo

func WriteBoolTo(w io.Writer, v bool) (n int64, err error)

func WriteBytesTo

func WriteBytesTo(w io.Writer, v []byte) (n int64, err error)

func WriteListHeaderTo

func WriteListHeaderTo(w io.Writer, v int) (n int64, err error)

func WriteRawValueTo

func WriteRawValueTo(w io.Writer, v RawValue) (n int64, err error)

func WriteUint64To

func WriteUint64To(w io.Writer, v uint64) (n int64, err error)


type ByteReader

type ByteReader interface {

ByteReader must be implemented by any input reader for a Stream. It is implemented by e.g. bufio.Reader and bytes.Reader.

type Decoder

type Decoder interface {
	DecodeRLP(*Stream) error

Decoder is implemented by types that require custom RLP decoding rules or need to decode into private fields.

The DecodeRLP method should read one value from the given Stream. It is not forbidden to read less or more, but it might be confusing.

type Encoder

type Encoder interface {
	// EncodeRLP should write the RLP encoding of its receiver to w.
	// If the implementation is a pointer method, it may also be
	// called for nil pointers.
	// Implementations should generate valid RLP. The data written is
	// not verified at the moment, but a future version might. It is
	// recommended to write only a single value but writing multiple
	// values or no value at all is also permitted.
	EncodeRLP(io.Writer) error

Encoder is implemented by types that require custom encoding rules or want to encode private fields.

package main

import (

type MyCoolType struct {
	Name string
	a, b uint

// EncodeRLP writes x as RLP list [a, b] that omits the Name field.
func (x *MyCoolType) EncodeRLP(w io.Writer) (err error) {
	// Note: the receiver can be a nil pointer. This allows you to
	// control the encoding of nil, but it also means that you have to
	// check for a nil receiver.
	if x == nil {
		err = Encode(w, []uint{0, 0})
	} else {
		err = Encode(w, []uint{x.a, x.b})
	return err

func main() {
	var t *MyCoolType // t is nil pointer to MyCoolType
	bytes, _ := EncodeToBytes(t)
	fmt.Printf("%v → %X\n", t, bytes)

	t = &MyCoolType{Name: "foobar", a: 5, b: 6}
	bytes, _ = EncodeToBytes(t)
	fmt.Printf("%v → %X\n", t, bytes)


<nil> → C28080
&{foobar 5 6} → C20506

type Kind

type Kind int

Kind represents the kind of value contained in an RLP stream.

const (
	Byte Kind = iota

func Split

func Split(b []byte) (k Kind, content, rest []byte, err error)

Split returns the content of first RLP value and any bytes after the value as subslices of b.

func (Kind) String

func (k Kind) String() string

type RawValue

type RawValue []byte

RawValue represents an encoded RLP value and can be used to delay RLP decoding or to precompute an encoding. Note that the decoder does not verify whether the content of RawValues is valid RLP.

type SliceDecoder

type SliceDecoder interface {
	// DecodeRLPElem decodes a single element from the stream and appends it.
	DecodeRLPElem(*Stream) error

SliceDecoder is implemented by types that require custom RLP decoding for their elements.

type SliceEncoder

type SliceEncoder interface {
	EncodeRLPElem(int, io.Writer) error

SliceEncoder is implemented by types that require custom encoding rules for their elements.

type Stream

type Stream struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields

Stream can be used for piecemeal decoding of an input stream. This is useful if the input is very large or if the decoding rules for a type depend on the input structure. Stream does not keep an internal buffer. After decoding a value, the input reader will be positioned just before the type information for the next value.

When decoding a list and the input position reaches the declared length of the list, all operations will return error EOL. The end of the list must be acknowledged using ListEnd to continue reading the enclosing list.

Stream is not safe for concurrent use.

input, _ := hex.DecodeString("C90A1486666F6F626172")
s := NewStream(bytes.NewReader(input), 0)

// Check what kind of value lies ahead
kind, size, _ := s.Kind()
fmt.Printf("Kind: %v size:%d\n", kind, size)

// Enter the list
if _, err := s.List(); err != nil {
	fmt.Printf("List error: %v\n", err)

// Decode elements

// Acknowledge end of list
if err := s.ListEnd(); err != nil {
	fmt.Printf("ListEnd error: %v\n", err)

Kind: List size:9
10 <nil>
20 <nil>
[102 111 111 98 97 114] <nil>

func NewListStream

func NewListStream(r io.Reader, len uint64) *Stream

NewListStream creates a new stream that pretends to be positioned at an encoded list of the given length.

func NewStream

func NewStream(r io.Reader, inputLimit uint64) *Stream

NewStream creates a new decoding stream reading from r.

If r implements the ByteReader interface, Stream will not introduce any buffering.

For non-toplevel values, Stream returns ErrElemTooLarge for values that do not fit into the enclosing list.

Stream supports an optional input limit. If a limit is set, the size of any toplevel value will be checked against the remaining input length. Stream operations that encounter a value exceeding the remaining input length will return ErrValueTooLarge. The limit can be set by passing a non-zero value for inputLimit.

If r is a bytes.Reader or strings.Reader, the input limit is set to the length of r's underlying data unless an explicit limit is provided.

Discarded Streams should be returned to the pool via Discard(*Stream).

func (*Stream) Bool

func (s *Stream) Bool() (bool, error)

Bool reads an RLP string of up to 1 byte and returns its contents as a boolean. If the input does not contain an RLP string, the returned error will be ErrExpectedString.

func (*Stream) Bytes

func (s *Stream) Bytes() ([]byte, error)

Bytes reads an RLP string and returns its contents as a byte slice. If the input does not contain an RLP string, the returned error will be ErrExpectedString.

func (*Stream) Decode

func (s *Stream) Decode(val interface{}) error

Decode decodes a value and stores the result in the value pointed to by val. Please see the documentation for the Decode function to learn about the decoding rules.

func (*Stream) Kind

func (s *Stream) Kind() (kind Kind, size uint64, err error)

Kind returns the kind and size of the next value in the input stream.

The returned size is the number of bytes that make up the value. For kind == Byte, the size is zero because the value is contained in the type tag.

The first call to Kind will read size information from the input reader and leave it positioned at the start of the actual bytes of the value. Subsequent calls to Kind (until the value is decoded) will not advance the input reader and return cached information.

func (*Stream) List

func (s *Stream) List() (size uint64, err error)

List starts decoding an RLP list. If the input does not contain a list, the returned error will be ErrExpectedList. When the list's end has been reached, any Stream operation will return EOL.

func (*Stream) ListEnd

func (s *Stream) ListEnd() error

ListEnd returns to the enclosing list. The input reader must be positioned at the end of a list.

func (*Stream) Raw

func (s *Stream) Raw() ([]byte, error)

Raw reads a raw encoded value including RLP type information.

func (*Stream) Reset

func (s *Stream) Reset(r io.Reader, inputLimit uint64)

Reset discards any information about the current decoding context and starts reading from r. This method is meant to facilitate reuse of a preallocated Stream across many decoding operations.

If r does not also implement ByteReader, Stream will do its own buffering.

func (*Stream) Uint

func (s *Stream) Uint() (uint64, error)

Uint reads an RLP string of up to 8 bytes and returns its contents as an unsigned integer. If the input does not contain an RLP string, the returned error will be ErrExpectedString.

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