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Published: Feb 3, 2017 License: MIT Imports: 38 Imported by: 0


Buffalo GoDoc Build Status Code Climate Go Report Card

Buffalo is a Go web development eco-system. Designed to make the life of a Go web developer easier.

Buffalo starts by generating a web project for you that already has everything from front-end (JavaScript, SCSS, etc...) to back-end (database, routing, etc...) already hooked up and ready to run. From there it provides easy APIs to build your web application quickly in Go.

Buffalo isn't just a framework, it's a holistic web development environment and project structure that lets developers get straight to the business of, well, building their business.

I ❤️ web dev in go again - Brian Ketelsen


Please visit http://gobuffalo.io for the latest documentation, examples, and more.


$ go get -u github.com/gobuffalo/buffalo/buffalo

Generating a new Project

Buffalo aims to make building new web applications in Go as simple as possible, and what could be more simple than a new application generator?

$ buffalo new <name>

That will generate a whole new Buffalo application that is ready to go. It'll even run go get for you to make sure you have all of the necessary dependencies needed to run your application.

To see a list of available flags for the new command, just check out its help.

$ buffalo help new

Running your application

Buffalo is Go "standards" compliant. That means you can just build your binary and run it. It's that simple.

Running your application in Development

One of the downsides to Go development is the lack of code "reloading". This means as you change your code you need to manually stop your application, rebuild it, and then restart it. Buffalo finds this is annoying and wants to make life better for you.

$ buffalo dev

The dev command will watch your .go and .html files by default, rebuild, and restart your binary for you so you don't have to worry about such things. Just run the dev command and start coding.

Testing your application

Just like running your application, Buffalo doesn't stop you from using the standard Go tools for testing. Buffalo does ship with a test command that will run all of your tests while conveniently skipping that pesky old ./vendor directory!

$ buffalo test

Shoulders of Giants

Buffalo would not be possible if not for all of the great projects it depends on. Please see SHOULDERS.md to see a list of them.


github.com/gobuffalo/velvet - This templating package was chosen over the standard Go html/template package for a variety of reasons. The biggest of which is that it is significantly more flexible and easy to work with. It also has the added factor of being familiar to those who have worked with "Handlebars" or "Mustache" templates before.


github.com/gorilla/mux - This router was chosen because of its stability and flexibility. There might be faster routers out there, but this one is definitely the most powerful!

Task Runner (Optional)

github.com/markbates/grift - If you're familiar with Rake tasks from Ruby, you'll be right at home using Grift. This package was chosen to allow for the easy running of simple, and common, tasks that most web applications need. Think things like seeding a database or taking in a CSV file and generating database records. Buffalo ships with an example routes task that prints off the defined routes and the function that handles those requests.

Models/ORM (Optional)

github.com/markbates/pop - Accessing databases is nothing new in web applications. Pop, and its command line tool, Soda, were chosen because they strike a nice balance between simplifying common tasks, being idiomatic, and giving you the flexibility you need to built your app. Pop and Soda share the same core philosphies as Buffalo so they were a natural choice.

Sessions, Cookies, Websockets, and more...

github.com/gorilla - The Gorilla toolkit is a great set of packages designed to improve upon the standard libary for a variety of web-related packages. With these high quality packages Buffalo is able to keep its "core" code to a minimum and focus on its goal of glueing them all together to make your life better.


Oh, yeah, everyone wants benchmarks! What would a web framework be without its benchmarks? Well, guess what? I'm not giving you any! That's right. This is Go! I assure you that it is plenty fast enough for you. If you want benchmarks you can either a) checkout any benchmarks that the GIANTS Buffalo is built upon have published, or b) run your own. I have no interest in playing the benchmark game, and neither should you.


  • Mark Bates
  • Antonio Pagano
  • lumost
  • Brian Downs
  • Cody Oss
  • amedeiros
  • Brian Scott
  • arif emre
  • Stanislas Michalak
  • Amós Oviedo
  • Mark Lussier
  • Daniel Heckrath
  • Michael Henderson
  • Dan Kleiman
  • Ivan Menshykov
  • Kenny Grant
  • Steven Klassen
  • Stuart Ellis




This section is empty.


View Source
var MethodOverride http.HandlerFunc

MethodOverride can be be overridden to a user specified function that can be used to change the HTTP Request Method. var MethodOverride = MethodOverrideFunc

View Source
var RequestLogger = RequestLoggerFunc

RequestLogger can be be overridden to a user specified function that can be used to log the request.


func MethodOverrideFunc

func MethodOverrideFunc(res http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request)

MethodOverrideFunc is the default implementation for the MethodOverride. By default it will look for a form value name `_method` and change the request method if that is present and the original request is of type "POST". This is added automatically when using `Automatic` Buffalo, unless an alternative is defined in the Options.

func NotFoundHandler added in v0.7.1

func NotFoundHandler(status int, err error, c Context) error

NotFoundHandler is the default ErrorHandler for 404 responses. In development mode it attempts to return useful debugging information. In production it defaults to use the http.NotFound handler.


type App

type App struct {
	// Middleware returns the current MiddlewareStack for the App/Group.
	Middleware    *MiddlewareStack
	ErrorHandlers ErrorHandlers
	// contains filtered or unexported fields

App is where it all happens! It holds on to options, the underlying router, the middleware, and more. Without an App you can't do much!

func Automatic

func Automatic(opts Options) *App

Automatic returns a new instance of App with sane defaults, some not so sane defaults, and a few bits and pieces to make your life that much easier. You'll want to use this almost all of the time to build your applications.


func New

func New(opts Options) *App

New returns a new instance of App, without any frills or thrills. Most people will want to use Automatic which adds some sane, and useful, defaults.

func (*App) ANY

func (a *App) ANY(p string, h Handler)

ANY accepts a request across any HTTP method for the specified path and routes it to the specified Handler.

func (*App) DELETE

func (a *App) DELETE(p string, h Handler) RouteInfo

DELETE maps an HTTP "DELETE" request to the path and the specified handler.

func (*App) GET

func (a *App) GET(p string, h Handler) RouteInfo

GET maps an HTTP "GET" request to the path and the specified handler.

func (*App) Group

func (a *App) Group(path string) *App

Group creates a new `*App` that inherits from it's parent `*App`. This is useful for creating groups of end-points that need to share common functionality, like middleware.

g := a.Group("/api/v1")
g.GET("/users, APIUsersHandler)
g.GET("/users/:user_id, APIUserShowHandler)

func (*App) HEAD

func (a *App) HEAD(p string, h Handler) RouteInfo

HEAD maps an HTTP "HEAD" request to the path and the specified handler.

func (*App) OPTIONS

func (a *App) OPTIONS(p string, h Handler) RouteInfo

OPTIONS maps an HTTP "OPTIONS" request to the path and the specified handler.

func (*App) PATCH

func (a *App) PATCH(p string, h Handler) RouteInfo

PATCH maps an HTTP "PATCH" request to the path and the specified handler.

func (*App) POST

func (a *App) POST(p string, h Handler) RouteInfo

POST maps an HTTP "POST" request to the path and the specified handler.

func (*App) PUT

func (a *App) PUT(p string, h Handler) RouteInfo

PUT maps an HTTP "PUT" request to the path and the specified handler.

func (*App) Resource added in v0.4.3

func (a *App) Resource(p string, r Resource) *App

Resource maps an implementation of the Resource interface to the appropriate RESTful mappings. Resource returns the *App associated with this group of mappings so you can set middleware, etc... on that group, just as if you had used the a.Group functionality.

a.Resource("/users", &UsersResource{})

// Is equal to this:

ur := &UsersResource{}
g := a.Group("/users")
g.GET("/", ur.List) // GET /users => ur.List
g.GET("/new", ur.New) // GET /users/new => ur.New
g.GET("/{user_id}", ur.Show) // GET /users/{user_id} => ur.Show
g.GET("/{user_id}/edit", ur.Edit) // GET /users/{user_id}/edit => ur.Edit
g.POST("/", ur.Create) // POST /users => ur.Create
g.PUT("/{user_id}", ur.Update) PUT /users/{user_id} => ur.Update
g.DELETE("/{user_id}", ur.Destroy) DELETE /users/{user_id} => ur.Destroy

func (*App) Routes

func (a *App) Routes() RouteList

Routes returns a list of all of the routes defined in this application.

func (*App) ServeFiles

func (a *App) ServeFiles(p string, root http.FileSystem)

ServeFiles maps an path to a directory on disk to serve static files. Useful for JavaScript, images, CSS, etc...

a.ServeFiles("/assets", http.Dir("path/to/assets"))

func (*App) ServeHTTP

func (a *App) ServeHTTP(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request)

func (*App) Use

func (a *App) Use(mw ...MiddlewareFunc)

Use the specified Middleware for the App. When defined on an `*App` the specified middleware will be inherited by any `Group` calls that are made on that on the App.

type BaseResource added in v0.4.3

type BaseResource struct{}

BaseResource fills in the gaps for any Resource interface functions you don't want/need to implement.

type UsersResource struct {

func (ur *UsersResource) List(c Context) error {
	return c.Render(200, render.String("hello")

// This will fulfill the Resource interface, despite only having
// one of the functions defined.

func (*BaseResource) Create added in v0.4.3

func (v *BaseResource) Create(c Context) error

Create default implementation. Returns a 404

func (*BaseResource) Destroy added in v0.4.3

func (v *BaseResource) Destroy(c Context) error

Destroy default implementation. Returns a 404

func (*BaseResource) Edit added in v0.4.3

func (v *BaseResource) Edit(c Context) error

Edit default implementation. Returns a 404

func (*BaseResource) List added in v0.4.3

func (v *BaseResource) List(c Context) error

List default implementation. Returns a 404

func (*BaseResource) New added in v0.4.3

func (v *BaseResource) New(c Context) error

New default implementation. Returns a 404

func (*BaseResource) Show added in v0.4.3

func (v *BaseResource) Show(c Context) error

Show default implementation. Returns a 404

func (*BaseResource) Update added in v0.4.3

func (v *BaseResource) Update(c Context) error

Update default implementation. Returns a 404

type Context

type Context interface {
	Response() http.ResponseWriter
	Request() *http.Request
	Session() *Session
	Params() ParamValues
	Param(string) string
	ParamInt(string) (int, error)
	Set(string, interface{})
	Get(string) interface{}
	LogField(string, interface{})
	Logger() Logger
	Bind(interface{}) error
	Render(int, render.Renderer) error
	Error(int, error) error
	Websocket() (*websocket.Conn, error)
	Redirect(int, string, ...interface{}) error
	Data() map[string]interface{}
	Flash() *Flash

Context holds on to information as you pass it down through middleware, Handlers, templates, etc... It strives to make your life a happier one.

type DefaultContext

type DefaultContext struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields

DefaultContext is, as its name implies, a default implementation of the Context interface.

func (*DefaultContext) Bind

func (d *DefaultContext) Bind(value interface{}) error

Bind the interface to the request.Body. The type of binding is dependent on the "Content-Type" for the request. If the type is "application/json" it will use "json.NewDecoder". If the type is "application/xml" it will use "xml.NewDecoder". The default binder is "http://www.gorillatoolkit.org/pkg/schema".

func (*DefaultContext) Data

func (d *DefaultContext) Data() map[string]interface{}

Data contains all the values set through Get/Set.

func (*DefaultContext) Error

func (d *DefaultContext) Error(status int, err error) error

func (*DefaultContext) Flash added in v0.7.2

func (d *DefaultContext) Flash() *Flash

Flash messages for the associated Request.

func (*DefaultContext) Get

func (d *DefaultContext) Get(key string) interface{}

Get is deprecated. Please use Value instead.

func (*DefaultContext) LogField

func (d *DefaultContext) LogField(key string, value interface{})

LogField adds the key/value pair onto the Logger to be printed out as part of the request logging. This allows you to easily add things like metrics (think DB times) to your request.

func (*DefaultContext) LogFields

func (d *DefaultContext) LogFields(values map[string]interface{})

LogFields adds the key/value pairs onto the Logger to be printed out as part of the request logging. This allows you to easily add things like metrics (think DB times) to your request.

func (*DefaultContext) Logger

func (d *DefaultContext) Logger() Logger

Logger returns the Logger for this context.

func (*DefaultContext) Param

func (d *DefaultContext) Param(key string) string

Param returns a param, either named or query string, based on the key.

func (*DefaultContext) ParamInt

func (d *DefaultContext) ParamInt(key string) (int, error)

ParamInt tries to convert the requested parameter to an int. It will return an error if there is a problem.

func (*DefaultContext) Params

func (d *DefaultContext) Params() ParamValues

Params returns all of the parameters for the request, including both named params and query string parameters. These parameters are automatically available in templates as "{{.params}}".

func (*DefaultContext) Redirect

func (d *DefaultContext) Redirect(status int, url string, args ...interface{}) error

Redirect a request with the given status to the given URL.

func (*DefaultContext) Render

func (d *DefaultContext) Render(status int, rr render.Renderer) error

Render a status code and render.Renderer to the associated Response. The request parameters will be made available to the render.Renderer "{{.params}}". Any values set onto the Context will also automatically be made available to the render.Renderer. To render "no content" pass in a nil render.Renderer.

func (*DefaultContext) Request

func (d *DefaultContext) Request() *http.Request

Request returns the original Request.

func (*DefaultContext) Response

func (d *DefaultContext) Response() http.ResponseWriter

Response returns the original Response for the request.

func (*DefaultContext) Session

func (d *DefaultContext) Session() *Session

Session for the associated Request.

func (*DefaultContext) Set

func (d *DefaultContext) Set(key string, value interface{})

Set a value onto the Context. Any value set onto the Context will be automatically available in templates.

func (*DefaultContext) Value added in v0.7.2

func (d *DefaultContext) Value(key interface{}) interface{}

Value that has previously stored on the context.

func (*DefaultContext) Websocket

func (d *DefaultContext) Websocket() (*websocket.Conn, error)

Websocket returns an upgraded github.com/gorilla/websocket.Conn that can then be used to work with websockets easily.

type ErrorHandler added in v0.7.1

type ErrorHandler func(int, error, Context) error

ErrorHandler interface for handling an error for a specific status code.

type ErrorHandlers added in v0.7.1

type ErrorHandlers map[int]ErrorHandler

ErrorHandlers is used to hold a list of ErrorHandler types that can be used to handle specific status codes.

a.ErrorHandlers[500] = func(status int, err error, c buffalo.Context) error {
	res := c.Response()
	return nil

func (ErrorHandlers) Get added in v0.7.1

func (e ErrorHandlers) Get(status int) ErrorHandler

Get a registered ErrorHandler for this status code. If no ErrorHandler has been registered, a default one will be returned.

type Flash added in v0.7.2

type Flash struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields

Flash is a struct that helps with the operations over flash messages.

func (Flash) Add added in v0.7.2

func (f Flash) Add(key, value string)

Add adds a flash value for a flash key, if the key already has values the list for that value grows.

func (*Flash) Clear added in v0.7.2

func (f *Flash) Clear()

Clear removes all keys from the Flash.

func (Flash) Delete added in v0.7.2

func (f Flash) Delete(key string)

Delete removes a particular key from the Flash.

func (Flash) Set added in v0.7.2

func (f Flash) Set(key string, values []string)

Set allows to set a list of values into a particular key.

type HTTPError added in v0.7.2

type HTTPError struct {
	Status int   `json:"status"`
	Cause  error `json:"error"`

HTTPError a typed error returned by http Handlers and used for choosing error handlers

func (HTTPError) Error added in v0.7.2

func (h HTTPError) Error() string

type Handler

type Handler func(Context) error

Handler is the basis for all of Buffalo. A Handler will be given a Context interface that represents the give request/response. It is the responsibility of the Handler to handle the request/response correctly. This could mean rendering a template, JSON, etc... or it could mean returning an error.

func (c Context) error {
	return c.Render(200, render.String("Hello World!"))

func (c Context) error {
	return c.Redirect(301, "http://github.com/gobuffalo/buffalo")

func (c Context) error {
	return c.Error(422, errors.New("oops!!"))

func RequestLoggerFunc

func RequestLoggerFunc(h Handler) Handler

RequestLoggerFunc is the default implementation of the RequestLogger. By default it will log a uniq "request_id", the HTTP Method of the request, the path that was requested, the duration (time) it took to process the request, the size of the response (and the "human" size), and the status code of the response.

func WrapHandler

func WrapHandler(h http.Handler) Handler

WrapHandler wraps a standard http.Handler and transforms it into a buffalo.Handler.

func WrapHandlerFunc

func WrapHandlerFunc(h http.HandlerFunc) Handler

WrapHandlerFunc wraps a standard http.HandlerFunc and transforms it into a buffalo.Handler.

type Logger

type Logger interface {
	WithField(string, interface{}) Logger
	WithFields(map[string]interface{}) Logger
	Debugf(string, ...interface{})
	Infof(string, ...interface{})
	Printf(string, ...interface{})
	Warnf(string, ...interface{})
	Errorf(string, ...interface{})
	Fatalf(string, ...interface{})

Logger interface is used throughout Buffalo apps to log a whole manner of things.

func NewLogger

func NewLogger(level string) Logger

NewLogger based on the specified log level. This logger will log to the STDOUT in a human readable, but parseable form.

Example: time="2016-12-01T21:02:07-05:00" level=info duration=225.283µs human_size="106 B" method=GET path="/" render=199.79µs request_id=2265736089 size=106 status=200

type MiddlewareFunc

type MiddlewareFunc func(Handler) Handler

MiddlewareFunc defines the interface for a piece of Buffalo Middleware.

func DoSomething(next Handler) Handler {
	return func(c Context) error {
		// do something before calling the next handler
		err := next(c)
		// do something after call the handler
		return err

type MiddlewareStack

type MiddlewareStack struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields

MiddlewareStack manages the middleware stack for an App/Group.

func (*MiddlewareStack) Clear

func (ms *MiddlewareStack) Clear()

Clear wipes out the current middleware stack for the App/Group, any middleware previously defined will be removed leaving an empty middleware stack.

func (*MiddlewareStack) Replace added in v0.5.0

func (ms *MiddlewareStack) Replace(mw1 MiddlewareFunc, mw2 MiddlewareFunc)

Replace a piece of middleware with another piece of middleware. Great for testing.

func (*MiddlewareStack) Skip

func (ms *MiddlewareStack) Skip(mw MiddlewareFunc, handlers ...Handler)

Skip a specified piece of middleware the specified Handlers. This is useful for things like wrapping your application in an authorization middleare, but skipping it for things the home page, the login page, etc...

a.Middleware.Skip(Authorization, HomeHandler, LoginHandler, RegistrationHandler)

NOTE: When skipping Resource handlers, you need to first declare your resource handler as a type of buffalo.Resource for the Skip function to properly recognize and match it.

// Works:
var ur Resource
cr = &carsResource{&buffaloBaseResource{}}
g = a.Resource("/cars", cr)
g.Middleware.Skip(SomeMiddleware, cr.Show)

// Doesn't Work:
cr := &carsResource{&buffaloBaseResource{}}
g = a.Resource("/cars", cr)
g.Middleware.Skip(SomeMiddleware, cr.Show)

func (*MiddlewareStack) Use

func (ms *MiddlewareStack) Use(mw ...MiddlewareFunc)

Use the specified Middleware for the App. When defined on an `*App` the specified middleware will be inherited by any `Group` calls that are made on that on the App.

type Options

type Options struct {
	// Env is the "environment" in which the App is running. Default is "development".
	Env string
	// LogLevel defaults to "debug".
	LogLevel string
	// Logger to be used with the application. A default one is provided.
	Logger Logger
	// LogDir is the path to the directory for storing the JSON log files from the
	// default Logger
	LogDir         string
	MethodOverride http.HandlerFunc
	// SessionStore is the `github.com/gorilla/sessions` store used to back
	// the session. It defaults to use a cookie store and the ENV variable
	SessionStore sessions.Store
	// SessionName is the name of the session cookie that is set. This defaults
	// to "_buffalo_session".
	SessionName string
	// Host that this application will be available at. Default is "[$PORT|3000]".
	Host string
	// contains filtered or unexported fields

Options are used to configure and define how your application should run.

func NewOptions

func NewOptions() Options

NewOptions returns a new Options instance with sensible defaults

type ParamValues

type ParamValues interface {
	Get(string) string

ParamValues will most commonly be url.Values, but isn't it great that you set your own? :)

type Resource added in v0.4.3

type Resource interface {
	List(Context) error
	Show(Context) error
	New(Context) error
	Create(Context) error
	Edit(Context) error
	Update(Context) error
	Destroy(Context) error

Resource interface allows for the easy mapping of common RESTful actions to a set of paths. See the a.Resource documentation for more details. NOTE: When skipping Resource handlers, you need to first declare your resource handler as a type of buffalo.Resource for the Skip function to properly recognize and match it.

// Works:
var ur Resource
cr = &carsResource{&buffaloBaseResource{}}
g = a.Resource("/cars", cr)
g.Middleware.Skip(SomeMiddleware, cr.Show)

// Doesn't Work:
cr := &carsResource{&buffaloBaseResource{}}
g = a.Resource("/cars", cr)
g.Middleware.Skip(SomeMiddleware, cr.Show)

type RouteInfo added in v0.7.1

type RouteInfo struct {
	Method      string     `json:"method"`
	Path        string     `json:"path"`
	HandlerName string     `json:"handler"`
	MuxRoute    *mux.Route `json:"-"`
	Handler     Handler    `json:"-"`

RouteInfo provides information about the underlying route that was built.

type RouteList

type RouteList []RouteInfo

RouteList contains a mapping of the routes defined in the application. This listing contains, Method, Path, and the name of the Handler defined to process that route.

func (RouteList) Len

func (a RouteList) Len() int

func (RouteList) Less

func (a RouteList) Less(i, j int) bool

func (RouteList) Swap

func (a RouteList) Swap(i, j int)

type Session

type Session struct {
	Session *sessions.Session
	// contains filtered or unexported fields

Session wraps the "github.com/gorilla/sessions" API in something a little cleaner and a bit more useable.

func (*Session) Delete

func (s *Session) Delete(name interface{})

Delete a value from the current session.

func (*Session) Get

func (s *Session) Get(name interface{}) interface{}

Get a value from the current session.

func (*Session) Save

func (s *Session) Save() error

Save the current session.

func (*Session) Set

func (s *Session) Set(name, value interface{})

Set a value onto the current session. If a value with that name already exists it will be overridden with the new value.

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