README

ThreadDB

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Server-less p2p database built on libp2p

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Table of Contents

Security

ThreadDB is still under heavy development and no part of it should be used before a thorough review of the underlying code and an understanding APIs and protocols may change rapidly. There may be coding mistakes, and the underlying protocols may contain design flaws. Please let us know immediately if you have discovered a security vulnerability.

Please also read the security note for go-ipfs.

Background

ThreadDB is an implementation of the database described in the paper entitled A protocol & event-sourced database for decentralized user-siloed data.

Go to the docs for more about the motivations behind ThreadDB and Textile.

Install

ThreadDB has two distinct layers:

  • db: The database layer is a document store, which internally leverages the net API. Most applications will only interface with this layer.
  • net: The network layer maintains and orchestrates append-only event logs between network participants. Some applications, like event logging, may choose to rely on this layer directly.

This repo contains a daemon and client for interacting with these layers as a remote service. Depending on the application, Golang projects may choose to import the internal db and net packages directly.

Daemon
git clone https://github.com/textileio/go-threads
cd go-threads
go get ./threadsd
Client
import "github.com/textileio/go-threads/api/client"

Getting Started

You can think of the DB client as a gRPC client wrapper around the internal db package API, and the Network client as a gRPC client wrapper around the internal net package API. This section will only focus on getting started with the gRPC clients, but Golang apps may choose to interact directly with db and/or net.

Running ThreadDB

The threadsd daemon can be run as a server or alongside desktop apps or command-line tools. The easiest way to run threadsd is by using the provided Docker Compose files. If you're new to Docker and/or Docker Compose, get started here. Once you are setup, you should have docker-compose in your PATH.

Create an .env file and add the following values:

REPO_PATH=~/myrepo
THRDS_DEBUG=true

Copy this compose file and run it with the following command.

docker-compose -f docker-compose.yml up 

You should see some console output:

threads_1  | 2020-09-19T16:34:06.420Z	DEBUG	threadsd	repo: /data/threads
threads_1  | 2020-09-19T16:34:06.420Z	DEBUG	threadsd	hostAddr: /ip4/0.0.0.0/tcp/4006
threads_1  | 2020-09-19T16:34:06.421Z	DEBUG	threadsd	apiAddr: /ip4/0.0.0.0/tcp/6006
threads_1  | 2020-09-19T16:34:06.421Z	DEBUG	threadsd	apiProxyAddr: /ip4/0.0.0.0/tcp/6007
threads_1  | 2020-09-19T16:34:06.421Z	DEBUG	threadsd	connLowWater: 100
threads_1  | 2020-09-19T16:34:06.421Z	DEBUG	threadsd	connHighWater: 400
threads_1  | 2020-09-19T16:34:06.422Z	DEBUG	threadsd	connGracePeriod: 20s
threads_1  | 2020-09-19T16:34:06.423Z	DEBUG	threadsd	keepAliveInterval: 5s
threads_1  | 2020-09-19T16:34:06.423Z	DEBUG	threadsd	enableNetPubsub: false
threads_1  | 2020-09-19T16:34:06.424Z	DEBUG	threadsd	debug: true
threads_1  | Welcome to Threads!
threads_1  | Your peer ID is 12D3KooWFCXqmQTwvpfYFWK3DjXChEc4NoPt8pp5jjC8REZ3g6NZ

Congrats! Now you have ThreadDB running locally.

Configuration values

Note the various configuration values shown in the output above. These can be modified with environment variables show below.

  • THRDS_REPO: Repo location. .threads by default.
  • THRDS_HOSTADDR: Libp2p host bind address. /ip4/0.0.0.0/tcp/4006 by default.
  • THRDS_APIADDR: gRPC API bind address. /ip4/0.0.0.0/tcp/6006 by default.
  • THRDS_APIPROXYADDR: gRPC API web proxy bind address. /ip4/0.0.0.0/tcp/6007 by default.
  • THRDS_CONNLOWWATER: Low watermark of libp2p connections that'll be maintained. 100 by default.
  • THRDS_CONNHIGHWATER: High watermark of libp2p connections that'll be maintained. 400 by default.
  • THRDS_CONNGRACEPERIOD: Duration a new opened connection is not subject to pruning. 20 seconds by default.
  • THRDS_KEEPALIVEINTERVAL: Websocket keepalive interval (must be >= 1s). 5 seconds by default.
  • THRDS_ENABLENETPUBSUB: Enables thread networking over libp2p pubsub. false by default.
  • THRDS_DEBUG: Enables debug logging. false by default.
The DB API

The database layer is a document store, which internally leverages the net API. Most applications will only interface with this layer.

The full API spec is available here.

As described in the paper, ThreadDB's network layer orchestrates groups of event logs, or threads. In the current implementation, a single database leverages a single network-layer thread for state orchestration.

Starting the client
import "github.com/textileio/go-threads/api/client"
...

db, err := client.NewClient("/ip4/127.0.0.1/tcp/6006", grpc.WithInsecure())
Getting a thread token

Thread tokens (JWTs) are used by the daemon to determine the indentity of the caller. Most APIs take a thread token as an optional argument, since whether or not they are needed usually depends on how the target collection is configured (see Write Validation and Read Filtering). These tokens are obtained by performing a signing challenge with the daemon using a libp2p private key.

privateKey, _, err := crypto.GenerateEd25519Key(rand.Reader) // Private key is kept locally
myIdentity := thread.NewLibp2pIdentity(privateKey)

threadToken, err := db.GetToken(context.Background(), myIdentity)
Creating a new DB
threadID := thread.NewIDV1(thread.Raw, 32)
err := db.NewDB(context.Background(), threadID)
Creating a new DB from an existing address

An existing DB can be added to a different daemon by providing a valid host address and thread key.

threadID := thread.NewIDV1(thread.Raw, 32)
err := db1.NewDB(context.Background(), threadID)
dbInfo, err := db1.GetDBInfo(context.Background(), threadID)
...

// db2 is a different client (this would normally be done on a different machine)
err := db2.NewDBFromAddr(context.Background(), dbInfo.Addrs[0], dbInfo.Key)
Creating a collection

Collections are groups of documents or instances and are analogous to tables in relational databases. Creating a collection involves defining the following configuration parameters:

  • Name: The name of the collection, e.g, "Animals" (must be unique per DB).
  • Schema: A JSON Schema), which is used for instance validation.
  • Indexes: An optional list of index configurations, which define how instances are indexed.
  • WriteValidator: An optional JavaScript (ECMAScript 5.1) function that is used to validate instances on write.
  • ReadFilter: An optional JavaScript (ECMAScript 5.1) function that is used to filter instances on read.
Write Validation

The WriteValidator function receives three arguments:

  • writer: The multibase-encoded public key identity of the writer.
  • event: An object describing the update event (see core.Event).
  • instance: The current instance as a JavaScript object before the update event is applied.

A falsy return value indicates a failed validation.

Having access to writer, event, and instance opens the door to a variety of app-specific logic. Textile Buckets file-level access roles are implemented in part with a write validator.

Read Filtering

The function receives three arguments:

  • reader: The multibase-encoded public key identity of the reader.
  • instance: The current instance as a JavaScript object.

The function must return a JavaScript object. Most implementation will modify and return the current instance.

Like write validation, read filtering opens the door to a variety of app-specific logic. Textile Buckets file-level access roles are implemented in part with a read filter.

import "github.com/alecthomas/jsonschema"
...

// We can use a struct to define a collection schema
type Person struct {
    ID        string `json:"_id"`
    Name      string `json:"name"`
    Age       int    `json:"age"`
    CreatedAt int    `json:"created_at"`
}

reflector := jsonschema.Reflector{}
mySchema = reflector.Reflect(&Person{}) // Generate a JSON Schema from a struct

err := db.NewCollection(context.Background(), myThreadID, db.CollectionConfig{
    Name:    "Persons",
    Schema:  mySchema,
    Indexes: []db.Index{{
        Path:   "name", // Value matches json tags
		Unique: true, // Create a unique index on "name"
    }},
})

...

// We can use the same schema to create more collections.
err := db.NewCollection(context.Background(), myThreadID, db.CollectionConfig{
    Name:    "Persons",
    Schema:  mySchema,
    Indexes: []db.Index{{
        Path:   "name",
		Unique: true,
    }},
    WriteValidator: `
        var type = event.patch.type
        var patch = event.patch.json_patch
        switch (type) {
          case "delete":
            if (writer != "the_boss") {
              return false // Not the boss? No deletes for you.
            }
          default:
            return true
        }
    `,
    ReadFilter: `
        if (instance.Age > 50) {
            delete instance.Age // Getting old, let's hide just _how_ old hehe
        }
        return instance
    `,
})
Updating a collection

Each of the collection configuration parameters above can be updated.

...

err := db.UpdateCollection(context.Background(), myThreadID, db.CollectionConfig{
    Name:    "Persons",
    Schema:  mySchema,
    Indexes: []db.Index{{
        Path:   "name",
        Unique: true,
    },
    {
        Path: "created_at", // Add an additional index on "created_at"
    }},
})
Creating an instance

Creating a collection instance is analogous to inserting a row in a relational database table.

...

// ID is autogenerated when omitted
alice := &Person{
    ID:        "",
    Name:      "Alice",
    Age:       30,
    CreatedAt: time.Now().UnixNano(),
}

ids, err := db.Create(context.Background(), threadID, "Persons", Instances{alice})

alice.ID = ids[0] // ids contains autogenerated instance identifiers

// We can also define a custom ID, it just has to be a collection-wide unique string
bob := &Person{
    ID:        "123",
    Name:      "Bob",
    Age:       30,
    CreatedAt: time.Now().UnixNano(),
}

ids, err := db.Create(context.Background(), threadID, "Persons", Instances{bob})
Saving an instance

Similarly, we can update an instance with new values.

...

alice.Age = 31
err = db.Save(context.Background(), threadID, "Persons", Instances{alice})
Collection queries

There are three methods to query for collection instances: Find, FindByID, and Has. As usual, queries are enhanced by indexes.

Check out db.Query and db.Criterion for more about constructing queries and ordering results.

...

// Find instances with a query
query := db.Where("name").Eq("Alice")
results, err := db.Find(context.Background(), threadID, "Persons", query, &Person{})

alice := results[0].(*Person)

...

// Find an instance by ID
alice := &Person{}
err = db.FindByID(context.Background(), threadID, "Persons", aliceID, alice)

...

// Determine if an instance exists by ID
exists, err := db.Has(context.Background(), threadID, "Persons", []string{aliceID})
Transactions

ThreadDB transactions come in two flavors: WriteTransaction and ReadTransaction.

Write transactions
...

txn, err := db.WriteTransaction(context.Background(), threadID, "Persons")
end, err := txn.Start()
defer end()

alice.Age = 32
err = txn.Save(alice)

err = txn.Create(&Person{
    Name:      "Bob",
    Age:       30,
    CreatedAt: time.Now().UnixNano(),
})

end() // Done writing, commit transaction updates
Read transactions
...

txn, err := db.ReadTransaction(context.Background(), threadID, "Persons")
end, err := txn.Start()

hasAlice, err := txn.Has(alice.ID)

results, err := txn.Find(db.Where("name").Eq("Bob"), &Person{})

bob := results[0].(*Person)

end() // Done reading
Listening for collection changes

We can listen for DB changes on three levels: DB, collection, or instance.

Check out ListenOption for more.

...

ctx, cancel := context.WithCancel(context.Background())
defer cancel()
events, err := db.Listen(ctx, threadID, []db.ListenOption{{
    Type: client.ListenAll,
    Collection: "Persons",  // Omit to receive events from all collections
    InstanceID: bob.ID,     // Omit to receive events from all instances
}})

for event := range events {
    // Handle event
}
The Network API

The network layer maintains and orchestrates append-only event logs between network participants and is used internally by the database layer. Some applications, like event logging, may choose to rely on this layer directly.

The full API spec is available here.

Starting the client
import "github.com/textileio/go-threads/net/api/client"
...

net, err := client.NewClient("/ip4/127.0.0.1/tcp/6006", grpc.WithInsecure())
Getting a thread token

Thread tokens (JWTs) are used by the daemon to determine the indentity of the caller. Most APIs take a thread token as an optional argument.

privateKey, _, err := crypto.GenerateEd25519Key(rand.Reader) // Private key is kept locally
myIdentity := thread.NewLibp2pIdentity(privateKey)

threadToken, err := net.GetToken(context.Background(), myIdentity)
Creating a thread
threadID := thread.NewIDV1(thread.Raw, 32)
threadInfo, err := net.CreateThread(context.Background(), threadID)
Adding an existing thread

An existing thread can be added to a different daemon by providing a valid host address and thread key.

threadID := thread.NewIDV1(thread.Raw, 32)
threadInfo1, err := net1.CreateThread(context.Background(), threadID)
...

// net2 is a different client (this would normally be done on a different machine)
threadInfo2, err := net2.AddThread(context.Background(), threadInfo.Addrs[0], core.WithThreadKey(threadInfo1.Key))
Adding a thread replicator

We can replicate a thread on a different host. All logs and records are pushed to the new host. However, it will not be able to read them since it won't receive read portion of the thread key.

threadID := thread.NewIDV1(thread.Raw, 32)
threadInfo, err := net1.CreateThread(context.Background(), threadID)

replicatorAddr, err := multiaddr.NewMultiaddr("/ip4/<REPLICATOR_IP_ADDRESS>/tcp/4006/p2p/<REPLICATOR_PEER_ID>")
replicatorID, err := net.AddReplicator(context.Background(), threadID, replicatorAddr)
Creating a thread record

A thread record can have any body.

import ipldcbor "github.com/ipfs/go-ipld-cbor"
...

body, err := ipldcbor.WrapObject(map[string]interface{}{
    "foo": "bar",
    "baz": []byte("howdy"),
}, multihash.SHA2_256, -1)
	
record, err := net.CreateRecord(context.Background(), threadID, body)
Adding a thread record

We can add also retain control over the read portion of the thread key and the log private key and create records locally.

import ipldcbor "github.com/ipfs/go-ipld-cbor"
...

privateKey, _, err := crypto.GenerateEd25519Key(rand.Reader)
myIdentity := thread.NewLibp2pIdentity(privateKey)

threadToken, err := net.GetToken(context.Background(), myIdentity)

threadID := thread.NewIDV1(thread.Raw, 32)
threadKey := thread.NewRandomKey()
logPrivateKey, logPublicKey, err := crypto.GenerateEd25519Key(rand.Reader)
logID, err := peer.IDFromPublicKey(logPublicKey)

threadInfo, err := net.CreateThread(
    context.Background(),
    threadID,
    core.WithThreadKey(thread.NewServiceKey(threadKey.Service())), // Read key is kept locally
    core.WithLogKey(logPublicKey),                                 // Private key is kept locally
    core.WithNewThreadToken(threadToken))                          // Thread token for identity is needed to verify records

body, err := ipldcbor.WrapObject(map[string]interface{}{
    "foo": "bar",
    "baz": []byte("howdy"),
}, mh.SHA2_256, -1)

// Create the event locally
event, err := cbor.CreateEvent(context.Background(), nil, body, threadKey.Read())

// Create the record locally
record, err := cbor.CreateRecord(context.Background(), nil, cbor.CreateRecordConfig{
	Block:      event,
	Prev:       cid.Undef,              // No previous records because this is the first
	Key:        logPrivateKey,
	PubKey:     myIdentity.GetPublic(),
	ServiceKey: threadKey.Service(),
})

err = net.AddRecord(context.Background(), threadID, logID, record)
Pulling a thread for new records

Although all known hosts of a particular thread are internally polled for new records (as part of the orchestration protocol), doing so manually can often be useful.

err := net.PullThread(context.Background(), info.ID)
Listening for new records

We can listen for new thread records across all or a subset of known threads.

ctx, cancel := context.WithCancel(context.Background())
defer cancel()
records, err := net.Subscribe(ctx, core.WithSubFilter(threadID)) // Only receive new records from this thread

for record := range records {
    // Handle record
}

Developing

The easiest way to develop against threadsd is to use the Docker Compose files. The -dev flavored file doesn't persist a repo via Docker Volumes, which may be desirable in some cases.

Contributing

Pull requests and bug reports are very welcome ❤️

This repository falls under the Textile Code of Conduct.

Feel free to get in touch by:

Changelog

A changelog is published along with each release.

License

MIT

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Directories

Path Synopsis
api
pb
Package broadcast implements multi-listener broadcast channels.
Package broadcast implements multi-listener broadcast channels.
core
app
db
net
Package db provides a DB which manage collections
Package db provides a DB which manage collections
integrationtests
net
api
pb