go-earthdollar

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Published: Mar 3, 2017 License: GPL-3.0

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Earthdollar Go (Earthdollar Blockchain)

Official golang implementation of the Earthdollar protocol supporting the original chain. A version which can honestly offer both a censorship resistant and unstoppable application platform for developers.

This is a project migrated from the now hard forked Earthdollar (ETHF) github project, we will need to slowly migrate pieces of the infrastructure required to maintain the project. We will apply all upstream patches unrelated to the DAO HF while organizing development.

Comments are being made in the codebase with the tag !EPROJECT recommending actions that must be taken to help complete the migration.

Building the source

Building ged requires both a Go and a C compiler. Dependencies are managed with godep.

To install the full suite of utilities run godep go install ./cmd/....

Executables

The go-earthdollar project comes with several wrappers/executables found in the cmd directory.

Command Description
ged Our main Earthdollar CLI client. It is the entry point into the Earthdollar network (main-, test- or private net), capable of running as a full node (default) archive node (retaining all historical state) or a light node (retrieving data live). It can be used by other processes as an gateway into the Earthdollar network via JSON RPC endpoints exposed on top of HTTP, WebSocket and/or IPC transports. Please see our Command Line Options wiki page for details.
abigen Source code generator to convert Earthdollar contract definitions into easy to use, compile-time type-safe Go packages. It operates on plain Earthdollar contract ABIs with expanded functionality if the contract bytecode is also available. However it also accepts Solidity source files, making development much more streamlined. Please see our Native DApps wiki page for details.
bootnode Stripped down version of our Earthdollar client implementation that only takes part in the network node discovery protocol, but does not run any of the higher level application protocols. It can be used as a lightweight bootstrap node to aid in finding peers in private networks.
disasm Bytecode disassembler to convert EVM (Earthdollar Virtual Machine) bytecode into more user friendly assembly-like opcodes (e.g. `echo "6001"
evm Developer utility version of the EVM (Earthdollar Virtual Machine) that is capable of running bytecode snippets within a configurable environment and execution mode. Its purpose is to allow insolated, fine graned debugging of EVM opcodes (e.g. evm --code 60ff60ff --debug).
gethrpctest Developer utility tool to support our earthdollar/rpc-test test suite which validates baseline conformity to the Earthdollar JSON RPC specs. Please see the test suite's readme for details.
rlpdump Developer utility tool to convert binary RLP (Recursive Length Prefix) dumps (data encoding used by the Earthdollar protocol both network as well as consensus wise) to user friendlier hierarchical representation (e.g. rlpdump --hex CE0183FFFFFFC4C304050583616263).

Running ged

Going through all the possible command line flags is out of scope here (please consult our CLI Wiki page), but we've enumerated a few common parameter combos to get you up to speed quickly on how you can run your own Ged instance.

Full node on the main Earthdollar network

By far the most common scenario is people wanting to simply interact with the Earthdollar network: create accounts; transfer funds; deploy and interact with contracts. For this particular use-case the user doesn't care about years-old historical data, so we can fast-sync quickly to the current state of the network. To do so:

$ ged --fast --cache=512 console

This command will:

  • Start ged in fast sync mode (--fast), causing it to download more data in exchange for avoiding processing the entire history of the Earthdollar network, which is very CPU intensive.
  • Bump the memory allowance of the database to 512MB (--cache=512), which can help significantly in sync times especially for HDD users. This flag is optional and you can set it as high or as low as you'd like, though we'd recommend the 512MB - 2GB range.
  • Start up Ged's built-in interactive JavaScript console, (via the trailing console subcommand) through which you can invoke all official web3 methods as well as Ged's own management APIs. This too is optional and if you leave it out you can always attach to an already running Ged instance with ged --attach.

Full node on the Earthdollar test network

Transitioning towards developers, if you'd like to play around with creating Earthdollar contracts, you almost certainly would like to do that without any real money involved until you get the hang of the entire system. In other words, instead of attaching to the main network, you want to join the test network with your node, which is fully equivalent to the main network, but with play-Ed only.

$ ged --testnet --fast --cache=512 console

The --fast, --cache flags and console subcommand have the exact same meaning as above and they are equially useful on the testnet too. Please see above for their explanations if you've skipped to here.

Specifying the --testnet flag however will reconfigure your Ged instance a bit:

  • Instead of using the default data directory (~/.earthdollar on Linux for example), Ged will nest itself one level deeper into a testnet subfolder (~/.earthdollar/testnet on Linux).
  • Instead of connecting the main Earthdollar network, the client will connect to the test network, which uses different P2P bootnodes, different network IDs and genesis states.

Note: Although there are some internal protective measures to prevent transactions from crossing over between the main network and test network (different starting nonces), you should make sure to always use separate accounts for play-money and real-money. Unless you manually move accounts, Ged will by default correctly separate the two networks and will not make any accounts available between them.

Programatically interfacing Ged nodes

As a developer, sooner rather than later you'll want to start interacting with Ged and the Earthdollar network via your own programs and not manually through the console. To aid this, Ged has built in support for a JSON-RPC based APIs (standard APIs and Ged specific APIs). These can be exposed via HTTP, WebSockets and IPC (unix sockets on unix based platroms, and named pipes on Windows).

The IPC interface is enabled by default and exposes all the APIs supported by Ged, whereas the HTTP and WS interfaces need to manually be enabled and only expose a subset of APIs due to security reasons. These can be turned on/off and configured as you'd expect.

HTTP based JSON-RPC API options:

  • --rpc Enable the HTTP-RPC server
  • --rpcaddr HTTP-RPC server listening interface (default: "localhost")
  • --rpcport HTTP-RPC server listening port (default: 8811)
  • --rpcapi API's offered over the HTTP-RPC interface (default: "ed,net,web3")
  • --rpccorsdomain Comma separated list of domains from which to accept cross origin requests (browser enforced)
  • --ws Enable the WS-RPC server
  • --wsaddr WS-RPC server listening interface (default: "localhost")
  • --wsport WS-RPC server listening port (default: 8546)
  • --wsapi API's offered over the WS-RPC interface (default: "ed,net,web3")
  • --wsorigins Origins from which to accept websockets requests
  • --ipcdisable Disable the IPC-RPC server
  • --ipcapi API's offered over the IPC-RPC interface (default: "admin,debug,ed,miner,net,personal,shh,txpool,web3")
  • --ipcpath Filename for IPC socket/pipe within the datadir (explicit paths escape it)

You'll need to use your own programming environments' capabilities (libraries, tools, etc) to connect via HTTP, WS or IPC to a Ged node configured with the above flags and you'll need to speak JSON-RPC on all transports. You can reuse the same connection for multiple requests!

Note: Please understand the security implications of opening up an HTTP/WS based transport before doing so! Hackers on the internet are actively trying to subvert Earthdollar nodes with exposed APIs! Further, all browser tabs can access locally running webservers, so malicious webpages could try to subvert locally available APIs!

Operating a private network

Maintaining your own private network is more involved as a lot of configurations taken for granted in the official networks need to be manually set up.

Defining the private genesis state

First, you'll need to create the genesis state of your networks, which all nodes need to be aware of and agree upon. This consists of a small JSON file (e.g. call it genesis.json):

{
  "alloc"      : {},
  "coinbase"   : "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000",
  "difficulty" : "0x20000",
  "extraData"  : "",
  "gasLimit"   : "0x2fefd8",
  "nonce"      : "0x0000000000000042",
  "mixhash"    : "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000",
  "parentHash" : "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000",
  "timestamp"  : "0x00"
}

The above fields should be fine for most purposes, although we'd recommend changing the nonce to some random value so you prevent unknown remote nodes from being able to connect to you. If you'd like to pre-fund some accounts for easier testing, you can populate the alloc field with account configs:

"alloc": {
  "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000001": {"balance": "111111111"},
  "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000002": {"balance": "222222222"}
}

With the genesis state defined in the above JSON file, you'll need to initialize every Ged node with it prior to starting it up to ensure all blockchain parameters are correctly set:

$ ged init path/to/genesis.json
Creating the rendezvous point

With all nodes that you want to run initialized to the desired genesis state, you'll need to start a bootstrap node that others can use to find each other in your network and/or over the internet. The clean way is to configure and run a dedicated bootnode:

$ bootnode --genkey=boot.key
$ bootnode --nodekey=boot.key

With the bootnode online, it will display an enode URL that other nodes can use to connect to it and exchange peer information. Make sure to replace the displayed IP address information (most probably [::]) with your externally accessible IP to get the actual enode URL.

Note: You could also use a full fledged Ged node as a bootnode, but it's the less recommended way.

Starting up your member nodes

With the bootnode operational and externally reachable (you can try telnet <ip> <port> to ensure it's indeed reachable), start every subsequent Ged node pointed to the bootnode for peer discovery via the --bootnodes flag. It will probably also be desirable to keep the data directory of your private network separated, so do also specify a custom --datadir flag.

$ ged --datadir=path/to/custom/data/folder --bootnodes=<bootnode-enode-url-from-above>

Note: Since your network will be completely cut off from the main and test networks, you'll also need to configure a miner to process transactions and create new blocks for you.

Running a private miner

Mining on the public Earthdollar network is a complex task as it's only feasible using GPUs, requiring an OpenCL or CUDA enabled ethminer instance. For information on such a setup, please consult the EdMining subreddit and the Genoil miner repository.

In a private network setting however, a single CPU miner instance is more than enough for practical purposes as it can produce a stable stream of blocks at the correct intervals without needing heavy resources (consider running on a single thread, no need for multiple ones either). To start a Ged instance for mining, run it with all your usual flags, extended by:

$ ged <usual-flags> --mine --minerthreads=1 --earthbase=0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000

Which will start mining blocks and transactions on a single CPU thread, crediting all proceedings to the account specified by --earthbase. You can further tune the mining by changing the default gas limit blocks converge to (--targetgaslimit) and the price transactions are accepted at (--gasprice).

Contribution

Thank you for considering to help out with the source code! We welcome contributions from anyone on the internet, and are grateful for even the smallest of fixes!

If you'd like to contribute to go-earthdollar, please fork, fix, commit and send a pull request for the maintainers to review and merge into the main code base. If you wish to submit more complex changes though, please check up with the core devs first on our gitter channel to ensure those changes are in line with the general philosophy of the project and/or get some early feedback which can make both your efforts much lighter as well as our review and merge procedures quick and simple.

Please make sure your contributions adhere to our coding guidelines:

  • Code must adhere to the official Go formatting guidelines (i.e. uses gofmt).
  • Code must be documented adhering to the official Go commentary guidelines.
  • Pull requests need to be based on and opened against the develop branch.
  • Commit messages should be prefixed with the package(s) they modify.
    • E.g. "ed, rpc: make trace configs optional"

Please see the Developers' Guide for more details on configuring your environment, managing project dependencies and testing procedures.

License

The go-earthdollar library (i.e. all code outside of the cmd directory) is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License v3.0, also included in our repository in the COPYING.LESSER file.

The go-earthdollar binaries (i.e. all code inside of the cmd directory) is licensed under the GNU General Public License v3.0, also included in our repository in the COPYING file.

Directories

Path Synopsis
Godeps
_workspace/src/github.com/golang/snappy
Package snappy implements the snappy block-based compression format.
Package snappy implements the snappy block-based compression format.
_workspace/src/github.com/hashicorp/golang-lru
This package provides a simple LRU cache.
This package provides a simple LRU cache.
_workspace/src/golang.org/x/crypto/pbkdf2
Package pbkdf2 implements the key derivation function PBKDF2 as defined in RFC 2898 / PKCS #5 v2.0.
Package pbkdf2 implements the key derivation function PBKDF2 as defined in RFC 2898 / PKCS #5 v2.0.
_workspace/src/golang.org/x/crypto/ripemd160
Package ripemd160 implements the RIPEMD-160 hash algorithm.
Package ripemd160 implements the RIPEMD-160 hash algorithm.
_workspace/src/golang.org/x/crypto/scrypt
Package scrypt implements the scrypt key derivation function as defined in Colin Percival's paper "Stronger Key Derivation via Sequential Memory-Hard Functions" (http://www.tarsnap.com/scrypt/scrypt.pdf).
Package scrypt implements the scrypt key derivation function as defined in Colin Percival's paper "Stronger Key Derivation via Sequential Memory-Hard Functions" (http://www.tarsnap.com/scrypt/scrypt.pdf).
_workspace/src/golang.org/x/net/context
Package context defines the Context type, which carries deadlines, cancelation signals, and other request-scoped values across API boundaries and between processes.
Package context defines the Context type, which carries deadlines, cancelation signals, and other request-scoped values across API boundaries and between processes.
_workspace/src/golang.org/x/net/context/ctxhttp
Package ctxhttp provides helper functions for performing context-aware HTTP requests.
Package ctxhttp provides helper functions for performing context-aware HTTP requests.
_workspace/src/golang.org/x/net/html
Package html implements an HTML5-compliant tokenizer and parser.
Package html implements an HTML5-compliant tokenizer and parser.
_workspace/src/golang.org/x/net/html/atom
Package atom provides integer codes (also known as atoms) for a fixed set of frequently occurring HTML strings: tag names and attribute keys such as "p" and "id".
Package atom provides integer codes (also known as atoms) for a fixed set of frequently occurring HTML strings: tag names and attribute keys such as "p" and "id".
_workspace/src/golang.org/x/net/html/charset
Package charset provides common text encodings for HTML documents.
Package charset provides common text encodings for HTML documents.
_workspace/src/golang.org/x/net/websocket
Package websocket implements a client and server for the WebSocket protocol as specified in RFC 6455.
Package websocket implements a client and server for the WebSocket protocol as specified in RFC 6455.
_workspace/src/gopkg.in/check.v1
Package check is a rich testing extension for Go's testing package.
Package check is a rich testing extension for Go's testing package.
_workspace/src/gopkg.in/fatih/set.v0
Package set provides both threadsafe and non-threadsafe implementations of a generic set data structure.
Package set provides both threadsafe and non-threadsafe implementations of a generic set data structure.
_workspace/src/gopkg.in/karalabe/cookiejar.v2/collections/prque
Package prque implements a priority queue data structure supporting arbitrary value types and float priorities.
Package prque implements a priority queue data structure supporting arbitrary value types and float priorities.
_workspace/src/gopkg.in/urfave/cli.v1
Package cli provides a minimal framework for creating and organizing command line Go applications.
Package cli provides a minimal framework for creating and organizing command line Go applications.
Package accounts implements encrypted storage of secp256k1 private keys.
Package accounts implements encrypted storage of secp256k1 private keys.
abi
Package abi implements the Earthdollar ABI (Application Binary Interface).
Package abi implements the Earthdollar ABI (Application Binary Interface).
abi/bind
Package bind generates Earthdollar contract Go bindings.
Package bind generates Earthdollar contract Go bindings.
cmd
bootnode
bootnode runs a bootstrap node for the Earthdollar Discovery Protocol.
bootnode runs a bootstrap node for the Earthdollar Discovery Protocol.
disasm
disasm is a pretty-printer for EVM bytecode.
disasm is a pretty-printer for EVM bytecode.
ethtest
edtest executes Earthdollar JSON tests.
edtest executes Earthdollar JSON tests.
evm
evm executes EVM code snippets.
evm executes EVM code snippets.
ged
ged is the official command-line client for Earthdollar.
ged is the official command-line client for Earthdollar.
gethrpctest
gedrpctest is a command to run the external RPC tests.
gedrpctest is a command to run the external RPC tests.
rlpdump
rlpdump is a pretty-printer for RLP data.
rlpdump is a pretty-printer for RLP data.
utils
Package utils contains internal helper functions for go-earthdollar commands.
Package utils contains internal helper functions for go-earthdollar commands.
Package common contains various helper functions.
Package common contains various helper functions.
Package core implements the Earthdollar consensus protocol.
Package core implements the Earthdollar consensus protocol.
state
Package state provides a caching layer atop the Earthdollar state trie.
Package state provides a caching layer atop the Earthdollar state trie.
types
Package types contains data types related to Earthdollar consensus.
Package types contains data types related to Earthdollar consensus.
vm
Package vm implements the Earthdollar Virtual Machine.
Package vm implements the Earthdollar Virtual Machine.
vm/runtime
Package runtime provides a basic execution model for executing EVM code.
Package runtime provides a basic execution model for executing EVM code.
sha3
Package sha3 implements the SHA-3 fixed-output-length hash functions and the SHAKE variable-output-length hash functions defined by FIPS-202.
Package sha3 implements the SHA-3 fixed-output-length hash functions and the SHAKE variable-output-length hash functions defined by FIPS-202.
ed
package ed implements the Earthdollar protocol.
package ed implements the Earthdollar protocol.
downloader
Package downloader contains the manual full chain synchronisation.
Package downloader contains the manual full chain synchronisation.
fetcher
Package fetcher contains the block announcement based synchronisation.
Package fetcher contains the block announcement based synchronisation.
filters
package filters implements an earthdollar filtering system for block, transactions and log events.
package filters implements an earthdollar filtering system for block, transactions and log events.
Package event implements an event multiplexer.
Package event implements an event multiplexer.
filter
Package filter implements event filters.
Package filter implements event filters.
Package logger implements a multi-output leveled logger.
Package logger implements a multi-output leveled logger.
glog
Package glog implements logging analogous to the Google-internal C++ INFO/ERROR/V setup.
Package glog implements logging analogous to the Google-internal C++ INFO/ERROR/V setup.
Package metrics centralizes the registration.
Package metrics centralizes the registration.
Package miner implements Earthdollar block creation and mining.
Package miner implements Earthdollar block creation and mining.
Package node represents the Earthdollar protocol stack container.
Package node represents the Earthdollar protocol stack container.
p2p
Package p2p implements the Earthdollar p2p network protocols.
Package p2p implements the Earthdollar p2p network protocols.
discover
Package discover implements the Node Discovery Protocol.
Package discover implements the Node Discovery Protocol.
nat
Package nat provides access to common network port mapping protocols.
Package nat provides access to common network port mapping protocols.
Package release contains the node service that tracks client releases.
Package release contains the node service that tracks client releases.
Package rlp implements the RLP serialization format.
Package rlp implements the RLP serialization format.
Package rpc provides access to the exported methods of an object across a network or other I/O connection.
Package rpc provides access to the exported methods of an object across a network or other I/O connection.
Package tests implements execution of Earthdollar JSON tests.
Package tests implements execution of Earthdollar JSON tests.
Package trie implements Merkle Patricia Tries.
Package trie implements Merkle Patricia Tries.
Package whisper implements the Whisper PoC-1.
Package whisper implements the Whisper PoC-1.
internal
debug
Package debug interfaces Go runtime debugging facilities.
Package debug interfaces Go runtime debugging facilities.
jsre
Package jsre provides execution environment for JavaScript.
Package jsre provides execution environment for JavaScript.
web3ext
package web3ext contains ged specific web3.js extensions.
package web3ext contains ged specific web3.js extensions.

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