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Published: Mar 19, 2016 License: MIT, Apache-2.0 Imports: 7 Imported by: 0



mapstructure is a Go library for decoding generic map values to structures and vice versa, while providing helpful error handling.

This library is most useful when decoding values from some data stream (JSON, Gob, etc.) where you don't quite know the structure of the underlying data until you read a part of it. You can therefore read a map[string]interface{} and use this library to decode it into the proper underlying native Go structure.


Standard go get:

$ go get

Usage & Example

For usage and examples see the Godoc.

The Decode function has examples associated with it there.

But Why?!

Go offers fantastic standard libraries for decoding formats such as JSON. The standard method is to have a struct pre-created, and populate that struct from the bytes of the encoded format. This is great, but the problem is if you have configuration or an encoding that changes slightly depending on specific fields. For example, consider this JSON:

  "type": "person",
  "name": "Mitchell"

Perhaps we can't populate a specific structure without first reading the "type" field from the JSON. We could always do two passes over the decoding of the JSON (reading the "type" first, and the rest later). However, it is much simpler to just decode this into a map[string]interface{} structure, read the "type" key, then use something like this library to decode it into the proper structure.



The mapstructure package exposes functionality to convert an abitrary map[string]interface{} into a native Go structure.

The Go structure can be arbitrarily complex, containing slices, other structs, etc. and the decoder will properly decode nested maps and so on into the proper structures in the native Go struct. See the examples to see what the decoder is capable of.



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func Decode

func Decode(m interface{}, rawVal interface{}) error

Decode takes a map and uses reflection to convert it into the given Go native structure. val must be a pointer to a struct.

func DecodeHookExec

func DecodeHookExec(
	raw DecodeHookFunc,
	from reflect.Type, to reflect.Type,
	data interface{}) (interface{}, error)

DecodeHookExec executes the given decode hook. This should be used since it'll naturally degrade to the older backwards compatible DecodeHookFunc that took reflect.Kind instead of reflect.Type.

func WeakDecode

func WeakDecode(input, output interface{}) error

WeakDecode is the same as Decode but is shorthand to enable WeaklyTypedInput. See DecoderConfig for more info.

func WeaklyTypedHook

func WeaklyTypedHook(
	f reflect.Kind,
	t reflect.Kind,
	data interface{}) (interface{}, error)


type DecodeHookFunc

type DecodeHookFunc interface{}

DecodeHookFunc is the callback function that can be used for data transformations. See "DecodeHook" in the DecoderConfig struct.

The type should be DecodeHookFuncType or DecodeHookFuncKind. Either is accepted. Types are a superset of Kinds (Types can return Kinds) and are generally a richer thing to use, but Kinds are simpler if you only need those.

The reason DecodeHookFunc is multi-typed is for backwards compatibility: we started with Kinds and then realized Types were the better solution, but have a promise to not break backwards compat so we now support both.

func ComposeDecodeHookFunc

func ComposeDecodeHookFunc(fs ...DecodeHookFunc) DecodeHookFunc

ComposeDecodeHookFunc creates a single DecodeHookFunc that automatically composes multiple DecodeHookFuncs.

The composed funcs are called in order, with the result of the previous transformation.

func StringToSliceHookFunc

func StringToSliceHookFunc(sep string) DecodeHookFunc

StringToSliceHookFunc returns a DecodeHookFunc that converts string to []string by splitting on the given sep.

func StringToTimeDurationHookFunc

func StringToTimeDurationHookFunc() DecodeHookFunc

StringToTimeDurationHookFunc returns a DecodeHookFunc that converts strings to time.Duration.

type DecodeHookFuncKind

type DecodeHookFuncKind func(reflect.Kind, reflect.Kind, interface{}) (interface{}, error)

type DecodeHookFuncType

type DecodeHookFuncType func(reflect.Type, reflect.Type, interface{}) (interface{}, error)

type Decoder

type Decoder struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields

A Decoder takes a raw interface value and turns it into structured data, keeping track of rich error information along the way in case anything goes wrong. Unlike the basic top-level Decode method, you can more finely control how the Decoder behaves using the DecoderConfig structure. The top-level Decode method is just a convenience that sets up the most basic Decoder.

func NewDecoder

func NewDecoder(config *DecoderConfig) (*Decoder, error)

NewDecoder returns a new decoder for the given configuration. Once a decoder has been returned, the same configuration must not be used again.

func (*Decoder) Decode

func (d *Decoder) Decode(raw interface{}) error

Decode decodes the given raw interface to the target pointer specified by the configuration.

type DecoderConfig

type DecoderConfig struct {
	// DecodeHook, if set, will be called before any decoding and any
	// type conversion (if WeaklyTypedInput is on). This lets you modify
	// the values before they're set down onto the resulting struct.
	// If an error is returned, the entire decode will fail with that
	// error.
	DecodeHook DecodeHookFunc

	// If ErrorUnused is true, then it is an error for there to exist
	// keys in the original map that were unused in the decoding process
	// (extra keys).
	ErrorUnused bool

	// ZeroFields, if set to true, will zero fields before writing them.
	// For example, a map will be emptied before decoded values are put in
	// it. If this is false, a map will be merged.
	ZeroFields bool

	// If WeaklyTypedInput is true, the decoder will make the following
	// "weak" conversions:
	//   - bools to string (true = "1", false = "0")
	//   - numbers to string (base 10)
	//   - bools to int/uint (true = 1, false = 0)
	//   - strings to int/uint (base implied by prefix)
	//   - int to bool (true if value != 0)
	//   - string to bool (accepts: 1, t, T, TRUE, true, True, 0, f, F,
	//     FALSE, false, False. Anything else is an error)
	//   - empty array = empty map and vice versa
	//   - negative numbers to overflowed uint values (base 10)
	WeaklyTypedInput bool

	// Metadata is the struct that will contain extra metadata about
	// the decoding. If this is nil, then no metadata will be tracked.
	Metadata *Metadata

	// Result is a pointer to the struct that will contain the decoded
	// value.
	Result interface{}

	// The tag name that mapstructure reads for field names. This
	// defaults to "mapstructure"
	TagName string

DecoderConfig is the configuration that is used to create a new decoder and allows customization of various aspects of decoding.

type Error

type Error struct {
	Errors []string

Error implements the error interface and can represents multiple errors that occur in the course of a single decode.

func (*Error) Error

func (e *Error) Error() string

func (*Error) WrappedErrors

func (e *Error) WrappedErrors() []error

WrappedErrors implements the errwrap.Wrapper interface to make this return value more useful with the errwrap and go-multierror libraries.

type Metadata

type Metadata struct {
	// Keys are the keys of the structure which were successfully decoded
	Keys []string

	// Unused is a slice of keys that were found in the raw value but
	// weren't decoded since there was no matching field in the result interface
	Unused []string

Metadata contains information about decoding a structure that is tedious or difficult to get otherwise.

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