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Package groot

v0.27.0
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The latest major version is .

Published: May 20, 2020 | License: BSD-3-Clause | Module: go-hep.org/x/hep

Overview

Package groot provides a pure-go read/write-access to ROOT files.

A typical usage is as follows:

f, err := groot.Open("ntup.root")
if err != nil {
    log.Fatal(err)
}
defer f.Close()

obj, err := f.Get("tree")
if err != nil {
    log.Fatal(err)
}
tree := obj.(rtree.Tree)
fmt.Printf("entries= %v\n", tree.Entries())

More complete examples on how to iterate over the content of a Tree can be found in the examples attached to groot.TreeScanner and groot.Scanner: https://godoc.org/go-hep.org/x/hep/groot/rtree#pkg-examples

Another possibility is to look at: https://godoc.org/go-hep.org/x/hep/groot/cmd/root-ls, a command that inspects the content of ROOT files.

File layout

ROOT files are a suite of consecutive data records. Each data record consists of a header part, called a TKey, and a payload whose content, length and meaning are described by the header. The current ROOT file format encodes all data in big endian.

ROOT files initially only supported 32b addressing. Large files support (>4Gb) was added later on by migrating to a 64b addressing.

The on-disk binary layout of a ROOT file header looks like this:

     Type        | Record Name | Description
=================+=============+===========================================
   [4]byte       | "root"      | Root file identifier
   int32         | fVersion    | File format version
   int32         | fBEGIN      | Pointer to first data record
   int32 [int64] | fEND        | Pointer to first free word at the EOF
   int32 [int64] | fSeekFree   | Pointer to FREE data record
   int32         | fNbytesFree | Number of bytes in FREE data record
   int32         | nfree       | Number of free data records
   int32         | fNbytesName | Number of bytes in TNamed at creation time
   byte          | fUnits      | Number of bytes for file pointers
   int32         | fCompress   | Compression level and algorithm
   int32 [int64] | fSeekInfo   | Pointer to TStreamerInfo record
   int32         | fNbytesInfo | Number of bytes in TStreamerInfo record
   [18]byte      | fUUID       | Universal Unique ID
=================+=============+===========================================

This is followed by a sequence of data records, starting at the fBEGIN offset from the beginning of the file.

The on-disk binary layout of a data record is:

      Type     | Member Name | Description
===============+=============+===========================================
 int32         | Nbytes      | Length of compressed object (in bytes)
 int16         | Version     | TKey version identifier
 int32         | ObjLen      | Length of uncompressed object
 int32         | Datime      | Date and time when object was written to file
 int16         | KeyLen      | Length of the key structure (in bytes)
 int16         | Cycle       | Cycle of key
 int32 [int64] | SeekKey     | Pointer to record itself (consistency check)
 int32 [int64] | SeekPdir    | Pointer to directory header
 byte          | lname       | Number of bytes in the class name
 []byte        | ClassName   | Object Class Name
 byte          | lname       | Number of bytes in the object name
 []byte        | Name        | Name of the object
 byte          | lTitle      | Number of bytes in the object title
 []byte        | Title       | Title of the object
 []byte        | DATA        | Data bytes associated to the object
===============+=============+===========================================

The high-level on-disk representation of a ROOT file is thus:

+===============+ -- 0
|               |
|  File Header  |
|               |
+===============+ -- fBEGIN offset
|               |
| Record Header | -->-+
|               |     |
+---------------+     |
|               |     |
|  Record Data  |     | Reference to next Record
|    Payload    |     |
|               |     |
+===============+ <---+
|               |
| Record Header | -->-+
|               |     |
+---------------+     |
|               |     |
|  Record Data  |     | Reference to next Record
|    Payload    |     |
|               |     |
+===============+ <---+
|               |
       ...

|               |
+===============+ -- fSeekInfo
|               |
| Record Header | -->-+
|               |     |
+---------------+     |
|               |     |
|  Record Data  |     | Reference to next Record
|    Payload    |     |
|               |     |
+===============+ <---+ -- fEND offset

Data records payloads and how to deserialize them are described by a TStreamerInfo. The list of all TStreamerInfos that are used to interpret the content of a ROOT file is stored at the end of that ROOT file, at offset fSeekInfo.

Data records

Data records' payloads may be compressed. Detecting whether a payload is compressed is usually done by comparing the object length (ObjLen) field of the record header with the length of the compressed object (Nbytes) field. If they differ after having subtracted the record header length, then the payload has been compressed.

A record data payload is itself split into multiple chunks of maximum size 16*1024*1024 bytes. Each chunk consists of:

- the chunk header,
- the chunk compressed payload.

The chunk header:

- 3 bytes to identify the compression algorithm and version,
- 3 bytes to identify the deflated buffer size,
- 3 bytes to identify the inflated buffer size.

Streamer informations

Streamers describe how a given type, for a given version of that type, is written on disk. In C++/ROOT, a streamer is represented as a TStreamerInfo class that can give metadata about the type it's describing (version, name). When reading a file, all the streamer infos are read back in memory, from disk, by reading the data record at offset fSeekInfo. A streamer info is actually a list of streamer elements, one for each field and, in C++, base class (in Go, this is emulated as an embedded field.)

TODO: groot can not write trees yet.

Index

Examples

Constants

const (
	Version = root.Version // ROOT version hep/groot implements
)

type Array

type Array interface {
	Len() int // number of array elements
	Get(i int) interface{}
	Set(i int, v interface{})
}

Array describes ROOT abstract array type.

type Collection

type Collection interface {
	Object

	// Name returns the name of the collection.
	Name() string

	// Last returns the last element index
	Last() int

	// At returns the element at index i
	At(i int) Object

	// Len returns the number of elements in the collection
	Len() int
}

Collection is a collection of ROOT Objects.

type File

type File = riofs.File

func Create

func Create(name string, opts ...FileOption) (*File, error)

Create creates the named ROOT file for writing.

Example

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"go-hep.org/x/hep/groot"
	"go-hep.org/x/hep/groot/rbase"
	"go-hep.org/x/hep/groot/root"
	"log"
	"os"

	_ "go-hep.org/x/hep/groot/riofs/plugin/xrootd"
)

func main() {
	const fname = "objstring.root"
	defer os.Remove(fname)

	w, err := groot.Create(fname)
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatal(err)
	}
	defer w.Close()

	var (
		k = "my-objstring"
		v = rbase.NewObjString("Hello World from Go-HEP!")
	)

	err = w.Put(k, v)
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatal(err)
	}

	fmt.Printf("wkeys: %d\n", len(w.Keys()))

	err = w.Close()
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("could not close file: %v", err)
	}

	r, err := groot.Open(fname)
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("could not open file: %v", err)
	}
	defer r.Close()

	fmt.Printf("rkeys: %d\n", len(r.Keys()))

	for _, k := range r.Keys() {
		fmt.Printf("key: name=%q, type=%q\n", k.Name(), k.ClassName())
	}

	obj, err := r.Get(k)
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatal(err)
	}
	rv := obj.(root.ObjString)
	fmt.Printf("objstring=%q\n", rv)

}
wkeys: 1
rkeys: 1
key: name="my-objstring", type="TObjString"
objstring="Hello World from Go-HEP!"
Example (EmptyFile)

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"go-hep.org/x/hep/groot"
	"log"
	"os"

	_ "go-hep.org/x/hep/groot/riofs/plugin/xrootd"
)

func main() {
	const fname = "empty.root"
	defer os.Remove(fname)

	w, err := groot.Create(fname)
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatal(err)
	}
	defer w.Close()

	// empty file. close it.
	err = w.Close()
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("could not close empty file: %v", err)
	}

	// read back.
	r, err := groot.Open(fname)
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("could not open empty file: %v", err)
	}
	defer r.Close()

	fmt.Printf("file: %q\n", r.Name())

}
file: "empty.root"
Example (WithZlib)

Code:

package main

import (
	"compress/flate"
	"fmt"
	"go-hep.org/x/hep/groot"
	"go-hep.org/x/hep/groot/rbase"
	"go-hep.org/x/hep/groot/riofs"
	"go-hep.org/x/hep/groot/root"
	"log"
	"os"

	_ "go-hep.org/x/hep/groot/riofs/plugin/xrootd"
)

func main() {
	const fname = "objstring-zlib.root"
	defer os.Remove(fname)

	w, err := groot.Create(fname, riofs.WithZlib(flate.BestCompression))
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatal(err)
	}
	defer w.Close()

	var (
		k = "my-objstring"
		v = rbase.NewObjString("Hello World from Go-HEP!")
	)

	err = w.Put(k, v)
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatal(err)
	}

	err = w.Close()
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("could not close writable file: %v", err)
	}

	r, err := groot.Open(fname)
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("could not open file: %v", err)
	}
	defer r.Close()

	for _, k := range r.Keys() {
		fmt.Printf("key: name=%q, type=%q\n", k.Name(), k.ClassName())
	}

	obj, err := r.Get(k)
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("could not get key %q: %v", k, err)
	}
	rv := obj.(root.ObjString)
	fmt.Printf("objstring=%q\n", rv)

}
key: name="my-objstring", type="TObjString"
objstring="Hello World from Go-HEP!"

func NewReader

func NewReader(r Reader) (*File, error)

NewReader creates a new ROOT file reader.

func Open

func Open(path string) (*File, error)

Open opens the named ROOT file for reading. If successful, methods on the returned file can be used for reading; the associated file descriptor has mode os.O_RDONLY.

Example

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"go-hep.org/x/hep/groot"
	"go-hep.org/x/hep/groot/rtree"
	"log"

	_ "go-hep.org/x/hep/groot/riofs/plugin/xrootd"
)

func main() {
	f, err := groot.Open("testdata/simple.root")
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatal(err)
	}
	defer f.Close()

	for _, key := range f.Keys() {
		fmt.Printf("key:  %q cycle=%d title=%q\n", key.Name(), key.Cycle(), key.Title())
	}

	obj, err := f.Get("tree")
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatal(err)
	}

	tree := obj.(rtree.Tree)
	fmt.Printf("tree: %q, entries=%d\n", tree.Name(), tree.Entries())

}
key:  "tree" cycle=1 title="fake data"
tree: "tree", entries=4
Example (Graph)

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"go-hep.org/x/hep/groot"
	"go-hep.org/x/hep/groot/rhist"
	"log"

	_ "go-hep.org/x/hep/groot/riofs/plugin/xrootd"
)

func main() {
	f, err := groot.Open("testdata/graphs.root")
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatal(err)
	}
	defer f.Close()

	obj, err := f.Get("tg")
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatal(err)
	}

	g := obj.(rhist.Graph)
	fmt.Printf("name:  %q\n", g.Name())
	fmt.Printf("title: %q\n", g.Title())
	fmt.Printf("#pts:  %d\n", g.Len())
	for i := 0; i < g.Len(); i++ {
		x, y := g.XY(i)
		fmt.Printf("(x,y)[%d] = (%+e, %+e)\n", i, x, y)
	}

}
name:  "tg"
title: "graph without errors"
#pts:  4
(x,y)[0] = (+1.000000e+00, +2.000000e+00)
(x,y)[1] = (+2.000000e+00, +4.000000e+00)
(x,y)[2] = (+3.000000e+00, +6.000000e+00)
(x,y)[3] = (+4.000000e+00, +8.000000e+00)
Example (OverXRootD)

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"go-hep.org/x/hep/groot"
	"go-hep.org/x/hep/groot/rtree"
	"log"

	_ "go-hep.org/x/hep/groot/riofs/plugin/xrootd"
)

func main() {
	f, err := groot.Open("root://eospublic.cern.ch//eos/root-eos/cms_opendata_2012_nanoaod/Run2012B_DoubleMuParked.root")
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatal(err)
	}
	defer f.Close()

	for _, key := range f.Keys() {
		fmt.Printf("key:  %q cycle=%d title=%q\n", key.Name(), key.Cycle(), key.Title())
	}

	obj, err := f.Get("Events")
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatal(err)
	}

	tree := obj.(rtree.Tree)
	fmt.Printf("tree: %q, entries=%d\n", tree.Name(), tree.Entries())

}
key:  "Events" cycle=1 title="Events"
tree: "Events", entries=29308627

type FileOption

type FileOption = riofs.FileOption

type List

type List interface {
	SeqCollection
}

List is a list of ROOT Objects.

type Named

type Named interface {
	Object

	// Name returns the name of this ROOT object
	Name() string

	// Title returns the title of this ROOT object
	Title() string
}

Named represents a ROOT TNamed object

type ObjArray

type ObjArray interface {
	SeqCollection
	LowerBound() int
}

ObjArray is an array of ROOT Objects.

type ObjString

type ObjString interface {
	Name() string
	String() string
}

ObjString is a ROOT string that implements ROOT TObject.

type Object

type Object interface {
	// Class returns the ROOT class of this object
	Class() string
}

Object represents a ROOT object

type Reader

type Reader = riofs.Reader

type SeqCollection

type SeqCollection interface {
	Collection
}

SeqCollection is a sequential collection of ROOT Objects.

Package Files

Documentation was rendered with GOOS=linux and GOARCH=amd64.

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