This section is empty.


View Source
var File_google_type_quaternion_proto protoreflect.FileDescriptor


This section is empty.


type Quaternion

type Quaternion struct {

	// The x component.
	X float64 `protobuf:"fixed64,1,opt,name=x,proto3" json:"x,omitempty"`
	// The y component.
	Y float64 `protobuf:"fixed64,2,opt,name=y,proto3" json:"y,omitempty"`
	// The z component.
	Z float64 `protobuf:"fixed64,3,opt,name=z,proto3" json:"z,omitempty"`
	// The scalar component.
	W float64 `protobuf:"fixed64,4,opt,name=w,proto3" json:"w,omitempty"`
	// contains filtered or unexported fields

A quaternion is defined as the quotient of two directed lines in a three-dimensional space or equivalently as the quotient of two Euclidean vectors (

Quaternions are often used in calculations involving three-dimensional rotations (, as they provide greater mathematical robustness by avoiding the gimbal lock problems that can be encountered when using Euler angles (

Quaternions are generally represented in this form:

w + xi + yj + zk

where x, y, z, and w are real numbers, and i, j, and k are three imaginary numbers.

Our naming choice `(x, y, z, w)` comes from the desire to avoid confusion for those interested in the geometric properties of the quaternion in the 3D Cartesian space. Other texts often use alternative names or subscripts, such as `(a, b, c, d)`, `(1, i, j, k)`, or `(0, 1, 2, 3)`, which are perhaps better suited for mathematical interpretations.

To avoid any confusion, as well as to maintain compatibility with a large number of software libraries, the quaternions represented using the protocol buffer below *must* follow the Hamilton convention, which defines `ij = k` (i.e. a right-handed algebra), and therefore:

i^2 = j^2 = k^2 = ijk = −1
ij = −ji = k
jk = −kj = i
ki = −ik = j

Please DO NOT use this to represent quaternions that follow the JPL convention, or any of the other quaternion flavors out there.


- Quaternion norm (or magnitude): `sqrt(x^2 + y^2 + z^2 + w^2)`.
- Unit (or normalized) quaternion: a quaternion whose norm is 1.
- Pure quaternion: a quaternion whose scalar component (`w`) is 0.
- Rotation quaternion: a unit quaternion used to represent rotation.
- Orientation quaternion: a unit quaternion used to represent orientation.

A quaternion can be normalized by dividing it by its norm. The resulting quaternion maintains the same direction, but has a norm of 1, i.e. it moves on the unit sphere. This is generally necessary for rotation and orientation quaternions, to avoid rounding errors:

Note that `(x, y, z, w)` and `(-x, -y, -z, -w)` represent the same rotation, but normalization would be even more useful, e.g. for comparison purposes, if it would produce a unique representation. It is thus recommended that `w` be kept positive, which can be achieved by changing all the signs when `w` is negative.

func (*Quaternion) Descriptor

func (*Quaternion) Descriptor() ([]byte, []int)

Deprecated: Use Quaternion.ProtoReflect.Descriptor instead.

func (*Quaternion) GetW

func (x *Quaternion) GetW() float64

func (*Quaternion) GetX

func (x *Quaternion) GetX() float64

func (*Quaternion) GetY

func (x *Quaternion) GetY() float64

func (*Quaternion) GetZ

func (x *Quaternion) GetZ() float64

func (*Quaternion) ProtoMessage

func (*Quaternion) ProtoMessage()

func (*Quaternion) ProtoReflect

func (x *Quaternion) ProtoReflect() protoreflect.Message

func (*Quaternion) Reset

func (x *Quaternion) Reset()

func (*Quaternion) String

func (x *Quaternion) String() string

Source Files