Version: v1.4.0 Latest Latest

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Published: Jul 22, 2020 License: Apache-2.0 Imports: 14 Imported by: 0



Package inject implements dependency injection.

Dependency injection with the struct tag `inject:""` or the constructor.

Dependency injection in Go

Dependency injection is a concept valid for any programming language. The general concept behind dependency injection is called Inversion of Control. According to this concept a struct should not configure its dependencies statically but should be configured from the outside.

Dependency Injection design pattern allows us to remove the hard-coded dependencies and make our application loosely coupled, extendable and maintainable.

Dependency Injection is the idea that your components (usually structs in go) should receive their dependencies when being created.This runs counter to the associated anti-pattern of components building their own dependencies during initialization.

A Go struct has a dependency on another struct, if it uses an instance of this struct. We call this a struct dependency. For example, a struct which accesses a user controller has a dependency on user service struct.

Ideally Go struct should be as independent as possible from other Go struct. This increases the possibility of reusing these struct and to be able to test them independently from other struct.

Dependency injection by constructor

To use dependency injection, first, you need to register the dependency in init func by calling app.Component(newFooService), newFoo is the constructor of the dependency.

// dependency foo
type FooService struct {

// FooService constructor
func newFooService() *FooService {
	return &Foo{}

func init() {

// the consumer barController that depends on FooService
type barController {
	fooService *FooService

// the consumer's constructor newBarController that inject the instance of FooService
func newBarController(fooService *FooService) *barController {
	return &barService{
		fooService: fooService,

Auto Configuration

Auto Configuration is another cool feature that comes out of the box with Hiboot, for more details, please see


The following example shows a struct which has no hard dependencies.


This example shows that the dependency is injected through the constructor

package main

import (

//This example shows that the dependency is injected through the constructor
func main() {

// HelloService is a simple service interface, with interface, we can mock a fake service in unit test
type HelloService interface {
	SayHello(name string) string

type helloServiceImpl struct {

func init() {
	// Register Rest Controller through constructor newHelloController
	// Register Service through constructor newHelloService
	app.Register(newHelloController, newHelloService)

// please note that the return type name of the constructor HelloService,
// hiboot will instantiate a instance named helloService for dependency injection
func newHelloService() HelloService {
	return &helloServiceImpl{}

// SayHello is a service method implementation
func (s *helloServiceImpl) SayHello(name string) string {
	return "Hello" + name

// PATH: /login
type helloController struct {
	helloService HelloService

// newHelloController inject helloService through the argument helloService HelloService on constructor
func newHelloController(helloService HelloService) *helloController {
	return &helloController{
		helloService: helloService,

// Get /
// The first word of method name is the http method GET
func (c *helloController) Get(name string) string {
	return c.helloService.SayHello(name)




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View Source
var (
	// ErrNotImplemented the interface is not implemented
	ErrNotImplemented = errors.New("[inject] interface is not implemented")

	// ErrInvalidObject the object is invalid
	ErrInvalidObject = errors.New("[inject] invalid object")

	// ErrInvalidTagName the tag name is invalid
	ErrInvalidTagName = errors.New("[inject] invalid tag name, e.g. exampleTag")

	// ErrSystemConfiguration system is not configured
	ErrSystemConfiguration = errors.New("[inject] system is not configured")

	// ErrInvalidFunc the function is invalid
	ErrInvalidFunc = errors.New("[inject] invalid func")

	// ErrInvalidMethod the function is invalid
	ErrInvalidMethod = errors.New("[inject] invalid method")

	// ErrFactoryIsNil factory is invalid
	ErrFactoryIsNil = errors.New("[inject] factory is nil")

	ErrAnnotationsIsNil = fmt.Errorf("err: annotations is nil")


func AddTag added in v0.3.0

func AddTag(tag Tag)

AddTag add new tag


type BaseTag added in v0.3.0

type BaseTag struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields

BaseTag is the base struct of tag

func (*BaseTag) Decode added in v0.3.0

func (t *BaseTag) Decode(object reflect.Value, field reflect.StructField, property string) (retVal interface{})

Decode no implementation for base tag

func (*BaseTag) Init added in v0.5.0

func (t *BaseTag) Init(configurableFactory factory.InstantiateFactory)

Init init the tag

func (*BaseTag) IsSingleton added in v0.3.0

func (t *BaseTag) IsSingleton() bool

IsSingleton check if it is Singleton

func (*BaseTag) ParseProperties added in v0.3.0

func (t *BaseTag) ParseProperties(tag string) cmap.ConcurrentMap

ParseProperties parse properties

func (*BaseTag) Properties added in v0.3.0

func (t *BaseTag) Properties() cmap.ConcurrentMap

Properties get properties

type Inject added in v0.11.0

type Inject interface {
	DefaultValue(object interface{}) error
	IntoObject(object interface{}) error
	IntoObjectValue(object reflect.Value, property string, tags ...Tag) error
	IntoMethod(object interface{}, m interface{}) (retVal interface{}, err error)
	IntoFunc(object interface{}) (retVal interface{}, err error)
	IntoAnnotations(annotations *annotation.Annotations) (err error)

Inject is the interface for inject tag

func NewInject added in v0.11.0

func NewInject(factory factory.InstantiateFactory) Inject

NewInject is the constructor of inject

type Tag added in v0.3.0

type Tag interface {
	// Init init tag
	Init(configurableFactory factory.InstantiateFactory)
	// Decode parse tag and do dependency injection
	Decode(object reflect.Value, field reflect.StructField, property string) (retVal interface{})
	// Properties get properties
	Properties() cmap.ConcurrentMap
	// IsSingleton check if it is Singleton
	IsSingleton() bool

Tag the interface of Tag

func InitTag added in v1.2.0

func InitTag(tag Tag) (t Tag)

InitTag init tag implements


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