ccgo

command module
Version: v3.12.87 Latest Latest
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Published: Dec 7, 2021 License: BSD-3-Clause Imports: 4 Imported by: 0

README

ccgo/v3

Command ccgo is a C compiler targeting Go.

Installation

$ go get -u modernc.org/ccgo/v3

Documentation: godoc.org/modernc.org/ccgo/v3

Documentation

Overview

Command ccgo is a C compiler producing Go code.

Usage

Invocation

ccgo { option | input-file }

Libc

To compile the resulting Go programs the package modernc.org/libc has to be installed.

Environment variables

CCGO_CPP selects which command is used by the C front end to obtain target configuration. Defaults to `cpp`. Ignored when --load-config <path> is used.

TARGET_GOARCH selects the GOARCH of the resulting Go code. Defaults to $GOARCH or runtime.GOARCH if $GOARCH is not set. Ignored when --load-config <path> is used.

TARGET_GOOS selects the GOOS of the resulting Go code. Defaults to $GOOS or runtime.GOOS if $GOOS is not set. Ignored when --load-config <path> is used.

Compiling

To compile for the host invoke something like

ccgo -o foo.go bar.c baz.c

Cross compiling

To cross compile set TARGET_GOARCH and/or TARGET_GOOS, not GOARCH/GOOS. Cross compile depends on availability of C stdlib headers for the target platform as well on the set of predefined macros for the target platform. For example, to cross compile on a Linux host, targeting windows/amd64, it's necessary to have mingw64 installed in $PATH. Then invoke something like

CCGO_CPP=x86_64-w64-mingw32-cpp TARGET_GOOS=windows TARGET_GOARCH=amd64
ccgo -o foo.go bar.c baz.c

Input files

Only files with extension .c, .h or .json are recognized as input files.

A .json file is interpreted as a compile database. All other command line arguments following the .json file are interpreted as items that should be found in the database and included in the output file. Each item should be on object file (.o) or static archive (.a) or a command (no extension).

Options with arguments

Command line options requiring an argument.

Define a preprocessor macro

-Dfoo

Equals `#define foo 1`.

-Dfoo=bar

Equals `#define foo bar`.

Setting include search path

-Ipath

Add path to the list of include files search path. The option is a capital letter I (India), not a lowercase letter l (Lima).

Linking with other ccgo-generated packages

-limport-path

The package at <import-path> must have been produced without using the -nocapi option, ie. the package must have a proper capi_$GOOS_$GOARCH.go file. The option is a lowercase letter l (Lima), not a capital letter I (India).

Undefine a preprocessor macro

-Ufoo

Equals `#undef foo`.

Generating JSON compilation database

-compiledb name

When this option appears anywhere, most preceding options are ignored and all following command line arguments are interpreted as a command with arguments that will be executed to produce the compilation database. For example:

ccgo -compiledb compile_commands.json make -DFOO -w

This will execute `make -DFOO -w` and attempts to extract the compile and archive commands.

Only POSIX operating systems are supported.

The supported build system must output information about entering directories that is compatible with GNU make.

The only compiler supported is `gcc`.

The only archiver supported is `ar`.

Format specification: https://clang.llvm.org/docs/JSONCompilationDatabase.html

Note: This option produces also information about libraries created with `ar cr` and include it in the json file, which is above the specification.

Setting C runtime library import path

-crt-import-path path

Unless disabled by the -nostdlib option, every produced Go file imports the C runtime library. Default is `modernc.org/libc`.

Exporting C defines

-export-defines ""

Export C numeric/string defines as Go constants by capitalizing the first letter of the define's name.

-export-defines prefix

Export C numeric/string defines as Go constants by prefixing the define's name with `prefix`.

Name conflicts are resolved by adding a numeric suffix.

Exporting C enum constants

-export-enums ""

Export C enum constants as Go constants by capitalizing the first letter of the enum constant name.

-export-enums prefix

Export C enum constants as Go constants by prefixing the enum constant name with `prefix`.

Name conflicts are resolved by adding a numeric suffix.

Exporting C externs

-export-externs ""

Export C extern definitions as Go definitions by capitalizing the first letter of the definition name.

-export-externs prefix

Export C extern definitions as Go definitions by prefixing the definition name with `prefix`.

Name conflicts are resolved by adding a numeric suffix.

Exporting C struct fields

-export-fields ""

Export C struct fields as Go fields by capitalizing the first letter of the field name.

-export-fields prefix

Export C struct fields as Go fields by prefixing the field name with `prefix`.

Name conflicts are resolved by adding a numeric suffix.

Exporting tagged C struct and union types

-export-structs ""

Export tagged C struct/union types as Go types by capitalizing the first letter of the tag name.

-export-structs prefix

Export tagged C struct/union types as Go types by prefixing the tag name with `prefix`.

Name conflicts are resolved by adding a numeric suffix.

Exporting C typedefs

-export-typedefs ""

Export C typedefs as Go types by capitalizing the first letter of the typedef name.

-export-structs prefix

Export C typedefs as as Go types by prefixing the typedef name with `prefix`.

Name conflicts are resolved by adding a numeric suffix.

Prefixing static identifiers

-static-locals-prefix prefix

Prefix C static local declarators names with 'prefix'.

Selecting command for target configuration

-host-config-cmd command

This option has the same effect as setting `CCGO_CPP=command`.

Adding options to the configuration command

-host-config-opts comma-separated-list

The separated items of the list are added to the invocation of the configuration command.

Setting the Go package name

-pkgname name

Set the resulting Go package name to 'name'. Defaults to `main`.

Compiler scripts

-script filename

Ccgo does not yet have a concept of object files. All C files that are needed for producing the resulting Go file have to be compiled together and "linked" in memory. There are some problems with this approach, one of them is the situation when foo.c has to be compiled using, for example `-Dbar=42` and "linked" with baz.c that needs to be compiled with `-Dbar=314`. Or `bar` must not defined at all for baz.c, etc.

A script in a named file is a CSV file. It is opened like this (error handling omitted):

f, _ := os.Open(fn)
r := csv.NewReader(f)
r.Comment = '#'
r.FieldsPerRecord = -1
r.TrimLeadingSpace = true

The first field of every record in the CSV file is the directory to use. The remaining fields are the arguments of the ccgo command.

This way different C files can be translated using different options. The CSV file may look something like:

/home/user/foo,-Dbar=42,foo.c
/home/user/bar,-Dbar=314,bar.c

Forcing atomic access

-volatile comma-separated-list

The separated items of the list are added to the list of file scope extern variables the will be accessed atomically, like if their C declarator used the 'volatile' type specifier. Currently only C scalar types of size 4 and 8 bytes are supported. Other types/sizes will ignore both the volatile specifier and the -volatile option.

Capturing host configuration

-save-config path

This option copies every header included during compilation or compile database generation to a file under the path argument. Additionally the host configuration, ie. predefined macros, include search paths, os and architecture is stored in path/config.json.

When this option is used, no Go code is generated, meaning no link phase occurs and thus the memory consumption should stay low.

Passing an empty string as an argument of -save-config is the same as if the option is not present at all. Possibly useful when the option set is generated in code.

This option is ignored when -compiledb <path> is used.

Using captured configuration

--load-config path

Note that this option must have the double dash prefix to distinguish it from -lfoo, the [traditional] short form of `-l foo`.

This option configures the compiler using path/config.json. The include paths are adjusted to be relative to path. For example:

Assume on machine A the default C preprocessor reports a system include search path "/usr/include". Running ccgo on A with -save-config /tmp/foo to compile foo.c that #includes <stdlib.h>, which is found in /usr/include/stdlib.h on the host results in

- /tmp/foo/config.json having an element "/usr/include" in the SysIncludePaths array.
- Host's /usr/include/stdlib.h is copied to /tmp/foo/usr/include/stdlib.h.

Assume /tmp/foo from machine A will be recursively copied to machine B, that may run a different operating system and/or architecture. Let the copy be for example in /tmp/bar. Using --load-config /tmp/bar will instruct ccgo to configure its preprocessor with a system include path /tmp/bar/usr/include and thus use the original machine A stdlib.h found there. When the --load-config is used, no host configuration from a machine B cross C preprocessor/compiler is needed to transpile the foo.c source on machine B as if the compiler would be running on machine A.

The particular usefulness of this mechanism is for transpiling big projects for 32 bit architectures. There the lack if ccgo having an object format and thus linking everything in RAM can need too much memory for the system to handle. The way around this is possibly to run something like

$ ./configure
$ ccgo -compiledb cdb.json make libfoo.a
$ ccgo -save-config path config.json libfoo.a

on machine A, transfer path/* to machine B and run the link phase there with eg.

$ ccgo --load-config path config.json libfoo.a

Note that the C sources for the project must be in the same path on both machines because the compile database stores absolute paths. It might be convenient to put the sources in path/src, the config in path/config, for example, and transfer the [archive of] path/ to the same directory on the second machine. That also solves the issue when ./configure generates files and the result differs per operating system or architecture.

Passing an empty string as an argument of -load-config is the same as if the option is not present at all. Possibly useful when the option set is generated in code.

Boolean options

These command line options don't take arguments.

Preprocessing

-E

When this option is present the compiler does not produce any Go files and instead prints the preprocessor output to stdout.

Removing error limit

-all-errors

Normally only the first 10 or so errors are shown. With this option the compiler will show all errors.

Compiling header files

-header

Using this option suppresses producing of any function definitions. This is possibly useful for producing Go files from C header files.

Including function signatures with -header.

-func-sig

Add this option to include fucntion signature when compiling headers (using -header).

Suppressing C stdlib include search paths

-nostdinc

This option disables the default C include search paths.

Suppressing runtime import

-nostdlib

This option disables importing of the runtime library by the resulting Go code.

Output information about pinned declarators

-trace-pinning

This option will print the positions and names of local declarators that are being pinned.

Obtaining version information

-version

Ignore all other options, print version and exit.

Verbose compile DB generation

-verbose-compiledb

Enable verbose output when -compiledb is present.

Ignore undefined functions

-ignore-undefined

This option tells the linker to not insist on finding definitions for declarators that are not implicitly declared and used - but not defined. This might be useful when the intent is to define the missing function in Go functions manually. Name conflict resolution for such declarator names may or may not be applied.

Ignoring unsupported aligmnent

-ignore-unsupported-alignment

This option tells the compiler to not complain about alignments that Go cannot support.

Tracing included files

-trace-included-files

This option outputs the path names of all included files.

This option is ignored when -compiledb <path> is used.

Undocumented options

There may exist other options not listed above. Those should be considered temporary and/or unsupported and may be removed without notice. Alternatively, they may eventually get promoted to "documented" options.

Source Files

Directories

Path Synopsis
Package ccgo implements the ccgo command.
Package ccgo implements the ccgo command.

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