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Published: Oct 7, 2022 License: Apache-2.0 Imports: 14 Imported by: 19



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Simple and pragmatic migrations for Go applications.


  • Super simple driver interface to allow easy implementation for more database/migration drivers.
  • Embeddable migration files.
  • Support for up/down migrations.
  • Atomic migrations (where possible, depending on database support).
  • Support for using Go code as migrations


Each driver is implemented in its own module to avoid pulling in unused dependencies into your project.

Driver Import
Apache Phoenix github.com/Boostport/migration/driver/phoenix
Go (runs generic go functions) github.com/Boostport/migration/driver/golang
MySQL github.com/Boostport/migration/driver/mysql
PostgreSQL github.com/Boostport/migration/driver/postgres
SQLite github.com/Boostport/migration/driver/sqlite


import (

// Create migration source
//go:embed migrations
var embedFS embed.FS

embedSource := &migration.EmbedMigrationSource{
	EmbedFS: embedFS,
	Dir:     "migrations",

// Create driver
driver, err := mysql.New("root:@tcp(localhost)/mydatabase?multiStatements=true")

// Run all up migrations
applied, err := migration.Migrate(driver, embedSource, migration.Up, 0)

// Remove the last 2 migrations
applied, err = migration.Migrate(driver, embedSource, migration.Down, 2)

Writing migrations

Migrations are extremely simple to write:

  • Separate your up and down migrations into different files. For example, 1_init.up.sql and 1_init.down.sql.
  • Prefix your migration with a number or timestamp for versioning: 1_init.up.sql or 1475813115_init.up.sql.
  • The file-extension can be anything you want, but must be present. For example, 1_init.up.sql is valid, but 1_init.up is not,
  • Note: Underscores (_) must be used to separate the number and description in the filename.

Let's say we want to write our first migration to initialize the database.

In that case, we would have a file called 1_init.up.sql containing SQL statements for the up migration:

CREATE TABLE test_data (

We also create a 1_init.down.sql file containing SQL statements for the down migration:


By default, migrations are run within a transaction. If you do not want a migration to run within a transaction, start the migration file with -- +migration NoTransaction:

-- +migration NoTransaction

CREATE TABLE test_data1 (

CREATE TABLE test_data2 (

If you would like to create stored procedures, triggers or complex statements that contain semicolns, use BeginStatement and EndStatement to delineate them:

CREATE TABLE test_data1 (

CREATE TABLE test_data2 (

-- +migration BeginStatement
		INSERT INTO test_data2
		SET id = OLD.id;
-- +migration EndStatement

Embedding migration files

Using go:embed

This is the recommended method for embedding migration files if you are using Go 1.16+. The go:embed Go's built-in method to embed files into the built binary and does not require any external tools.

Assuming your migration files are in migrations/, initialize a EmbededSource:

//go:embed migrations
var embedFS embed.FS

assetMigration := &migration.EmbedSource{
    EmbedFS: embedFS,
    Dir:     "migrations",

Using Go for migrations

Sometimes, we might be working with a database or have a situation where the query language is not expressive enough to perform the required migrations. For example, we might have to get some data out of the database, perform some transformations and then write it back. For these type of situations, you can use Go for migrations.

When using Go for migrations, create a golang.Source using golang.NewSource(). Then, simply add migrations to the source using the AddMigration() method. You will need to pass in the name of the migration without the extension and direction, e.g. 1_init. For the second parameter, pass in the direction (migration.Up or migration.Down) and for the third parameter, pass in a function or method with this signature: func() error for running the migration.

Finally, you need to define 2 functions:

  • A function for writing or deleting an applied migration matching this signature: func(id string, direction migration.Direction) error
  • A function for getting a list of applied migrations matching this signature: func() ([]string, error)

These are required for initializing the driver:

driver, err := golang.New(source, updateVersion, applied)

Here's a quick example:

source := migration.NewGolangMigrationSource()

source.AddMigration("1_init", migration.Up, func() error {
    // Run up migration here

source.AddMigration("1_init", migration.Down, func() error {
    // Run down migration here

// Define functions
applied := func() ([]string, error) {
    // Return list of applied migrations

updateVersion := func(id string, direction migration.Direction) error {
    // Write or delete applied migration in storage

// Create driver
driver, err := golang.New(source, updateVersion, applied)

// Run migrations
count, err = migration.Migrate(driver, source, migration.Up, 0)

TODO (Pull requests welcomed!)

  • Command line program to run migrations
  • More drivers

Why yet another migration library?

We wanted a migration library with the following features:

  • Open to extension for all sorts of databases, not just database/sql drivers or an ORM.
  • Easily embeddable in a Go application.
  • Support for embedding migration files directly into the app.

We narrowed our focus down to 2 contenders: sql-migrate and migrate

sql-migrate leans heavily on the gorp ORM library to perform migrations. Unfortunately, this means that we were restricted to databases supported by gorp. It is easily embeddable in a Go app and supports embedding migration files directly into the Go binary. If database support was a bit more flexible, we would have gone with it.

migrate is highly extensible, and adding support for another database is extremely trivial. However, due to it using the scheme in the dsn to determine which database driver to use, it prevented us from easily implementing an Apache Phoenix driver, which uses the scheme to determine if we should connect over http or https. Due to the way the project is structured, it was also almost impossible to add support for embeddable migration files without major changes.


We automatically run some linters using golangci-lint to check code quality before merging it.

You should run and ensure all the checks pass locally before submitting a pull request. The version of golangci-lint to be used is pinned in docker-compose.yml.

To execute the linters:

  1. Install docker.
  2. Execute docker compose run lint.


This library is licensed under the Apache 2 License.



Package migration is a simple and pragmatic migration tool for Go.



This section is empty.


This section is empty.


func Migrate

func Migrate(driver Driver, migrations Source, direction Direction, max int) (int, error)

Migrate runs a migration using a given driver and MigrationSource. The direction defines whether the migration is up or down, and max is the maximum number of migrations to apply. If max is set to 0, then there is no limit on the number of migrations to apply.

func SetLogger added in v0.14.1

func SetLogger(l *log.Logger)

SetLogger will set the logger to be used during migrations


type Direction added in v0.2.0

type Direction int

Direction type up/down

const (
	Up Direction = iota

Constants for direction

func (Direction) String added in v0.14.1

func (d Direction) String() string

String returns a string representation of the direction

type Driver

type Driver interface {
	// Close is the last function to be called.
	// Close any open connection here.
	Close() error

	// Migrate is the heart of the driver.
	// It will receive a PlannedMigration which the driver should apply
	// to its backend or whatever.
	Migrate(migration *PlannedMigration) error

	// Version returns all applied migration versions
	Versions() ([]string, error)

Driver is the interface type that needs to implemented by all drivers.

type EmbedMigrationSource added in v0.21.0

type EmbedMigrationSource struct {
	EmbedFS embed.FS

	// The path in the embed FS to use
	Dir string

EmbedMigrationSource uses an embed.FS that is used to embed files natively in Go 1.16+

func (EmbedMigrationSource) GetMigrationFile added in v0.21.0

func (e EmbedMigrationSource) GetMigrationFile(name string) (io.Reader, error)

GetMigrationFile gets an embedded migration file

func (EmbedMigrationSource) ListMigrationFiles added in v0.21.0

func (e EmbedMigrationSource) ListMigrationFiles() ([]string, error)

ListMigrationFiles returns a list of embedded migration files

type GolangMigrationSource added in v0.15.0

type GolangMigrationSource struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields

GolangMigrationSource implements migration.Source

func NewGolangMigrationSource added in v0.15.0

func NewGolangMigrationSource() *GolangMigrationSource

NewGolangMigrationSource creates a source for storing Go functions as migrations.

func (*GolangMigrationSource) AddMigration added in v0.15.0

func (s *GolangMigrationSource) AddMigration(file string, direction Direction, migration func() error)

AddMigration adds a new migration to the source. The file parameter follows the same conventions as you would use for a physical file for other types of migrations, however you should omit the file extension. Example: 1_init.up and 1_init.down

func (*GolangMigrationSource) GetMigration added in v0.15.0

func (s *GolangMigrationSource) GetMigration(file string) func() error

GetMigration gets a golang migration

func (*GolangMigrationSource) GetMigrationFile added in v0.15.0

func (s *GolangMigrationSource) GetMigrationFile(file string) (io.Reader, error)

GetMigrationFile retrieves a migration given the filename.

func (*GolangMigrationSource) ListMigrationFiles added in v0.15.0

func (s *GolangMigrationSource) ListMigrationFiles() ([]string, error)

ListMigrationFiles lists the available migrations in the source

type MemoryMigrationSource

type MemoryMigrationSource struct {
	Files map[string]string

MemoryMigrationSource is a MigrationSource that uses migration sources in memory. It is mainly used for testing.

func (MemoryMigrationSource) GetMigrationFile

func (m MemoryMigrationSource) GetMigrationFile(name string) (io.Reader, error)

GetMigrationFile gets a memory migration file

func (MemoryMigrationSource) ListMigrationFiles

func (m MemoryMigrationSource) ListMigrationFiles() ([]string, error)

ListMigrationFiles returns a list of memory migration files

type Migration

type Migration struct {
	ID   string
	Up   *parser.ParsedMigration
	Down *parser.ParsedMigration

Migration represents a migration, containing statements for migrating up and down.

func (Migration) Less

func (m Migration) Less(other *Migration) bool

Less compares two migrations to determine how they should be ordered.

func (Migration) NumberPrefixMatches

func (m Migration) NumberPrefixMatches() []string

NumberPrefixMatches returns a list of string matches

func (Migration) VersionInt

func (m Migration) VersionInt() int64

VersionInt converts the migration version to an 64-bit integer.

type PlannedMigration

type PlannedMigration struct {
	Direction Direction

PlannedMigration is a migration with a direction defined. This allows the driver to work out how to apply the migration.

type Source added in v0.2.0

type Source interface {
	ListMigrationFiles() ([]string, error)
	GetMigrationFile(file string) (io.Reader, error)

Source is an interface that defines how a source can find and read migration files.


Path Synopsis
golang Module
mysql Module
postgres Module
sqlite Module
Package parser provides utilities for parsing migration files.
Package parser provides utilities for parsing migration files.

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