vertex

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Published: Jan 15, 2016 License: BSD-2-Clause Imports: 33 Imported by: 5

README

vertex

-- import "github.com/EverythingMe/vertex"

Vertex is a friendly, fast and flexible RESTful API building framework

What Vertex Includes
  1. An API definition framework

  2. Request handlers as structs with automatic data mapping

  3. Automatic Data Validation

  4. Automatic generation of Swagger from API definitions, for easy documentation

  5. An integrated testing framework for your API

  6. A middleware framework similar (but not compatible) to negroni

  7. Batteries included: JSON rendering, Auto Recover, Static File Serving, Request Logging, and more

Request Handlers

The basic idea of Vertex revolves around friendly, pre-validated request handlers, that leave the developer with the need to write as little boilerplate code as possible. Routes in the API are mapped to the RequestHandler interface:

  type RequestHandler interface {
       Handle(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) (interface{}, error)
  }

RequestHandlers have a few interesting characteristics:

  1. Fields in structs implementing RequestHandler get automtically filled by request data.

  2. Field values are automatically validated and sanitized

  3. They do not (need to) write to the response writer, they just need to return a response object.

You create structs that have all the parameters you need to handle the requests, define validations for these parameters, and Vertex does the rest for you - just return a response object and you're done.

Here is an example super simple RequestHandler:

type UserHandler struct {
	Id string `schema:"id" required:"true" doc:"The Id Of the user" maxlen:"30"`
}

func (h UserHandler) Handle(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) (interface{}, error) {

	// load the user from the database
	user, err := db.Load(h.Id)

	// return it to the response. No need to write anything directly to the writer
	return user, err
}

As you can see, the "id" parameter that is received as a post/get/path parameter is automatically parsed into the struct when the handler is invoked. If it is missing or invalid, the handler won't even be invoked, but an error will be generated to the client.

Handler Field Tags List

These are the allowed tags for fields in RequestHandler structs:

- schema - the parameter name in the request
- doc - a short documentation string for the field
- default - the default value for the parameter in case it's missing
- min - the minimum allowed value for numeric fields (inclusive)
- max - the maximum allowed value for numeric fields (inclusive)
- maxlen - the maximal allowed length for strings
- minlen - the minimal allowed length for strings
- required [true/false] - if set to "true", forces the request to have this parameter set
- allowEmpty [true/false] - do we allow empty values?
- pattern - a regular expression that a string must match if this tag is set
- in [query/body/path] - optional for non path params. mainly for documentation needs

TODO: Support min/max length for string lists

Supported types for struct fields are (see :

- bool
- float variants (float32, float64)
- int variants (int, int8, int16, int32, int64)
- string
- uint variants (uint, uint8, uint16, uint32, uint64)
- struct - only if it implements Unmarshaler (see below)
- a pointer to one of the above types
- a slice or a pointer to a slice of one of the above types
Custom Unmarshalers

If a field has a custom type that needs automatic deserialization (e.g. a binary Thrift or Protobuf object), we can define a custom Unmarshal method to the type, letting it automatically deserialize parameters. (See the Unmarshaler interface)

The unmarshaler should return a new instance of itself with the value set correctly.

Example: a type that takes a string and splits in two

type Banana struct {
	Foo string
	Bar string
}

func (b Banana) UnmarshalRequestData(data string) interface{} {
	parts := strings.Split(data, ",")
	if len(parts) == 2 {
        return Banana{parts[0], parts[1]}
	}
	return Banana{}
}
Defining An API

APIs are defined in a declarative way, preferably separately from defining the the actual handler logic.

An API has a few major parts:

1. High level definitions - like name, version, documentation, etc.
2. Routes - defining routing paths and mapping them to handlers and tests
3. Middleware - defining a middleware chain to pre/post-process requests
4. SecurityScheme - defining the default way requests are validated

Here is an example simple API definition:

var myAPI = &vertex.API{

	// The API's name, optionally used in the path
	Name:          "testung",

	// The API's version, optionally used in the path
	Version:       "1.0",

	// Optional root path. If not set, the root is /<name>/<version>
	Root:          "/testung/1.0",

	// Some documentation
	Doc:           "This is our Test API. It is used to demonstrate declaring an API",

	// Friendly API title for documentation
	Title:         "Test API!",

	// A middleware chain. The default chain includes panic recovery and request logging
	Middleware:    middleware.DefaultMiddleware,

	// Response renderer. The default is of course a JSON renderer
	Renderer:      vertex.JSONRenderer{},

	// A SecurityScheme. Each route can have an alternative scheme if needed
	DefaultSecurityScheme: APIKeyValidator,

	// Unless explicitly set, we only allow https traffic
	AllowInsecure: false,

	// The routes of the API
	Routes: vertex.RouteMap{

        // Path parameters are defined as {param}
        "/user/byId/{id}": {

            // Short request description
            Description: "Get User Info by id",

            // An instance of the handler. We use reflection to create a new instance per request
            Handler:     UserHandler{},

            // a flag mask of supported requests
            Methods:     vertex.GET | vertex.POST,

            // An integration test for the request. Each request must have a test.
            // Tests can be "warning" tests or "critical" tests
            Test:        vertex.WarningTest(testUserHandler),

            // Optional object returned by the request, that will be automatically added to the documentation
            Returns:     User{},
        },
	},
}
Security Schemes

Security Schemes are used to validate requests. The scheme simply receives the request, and returns an error if it is not valid. It can be used to authenticate the user, validate the API key, etc.

Middleware

Vertex comes with some middleware modules included. Currently implemented middleware include:

- CORS configuration
- Auto Recover from panic in handlers
- Request Logging
- OAuth authentication
- IP-range filter
- Simple API Key validation
- HTTP Basic Auth
- Response Caching
- Force Secure (https) Access
Renderers

Responses have renderers - that transform the response object to some serialization format.

The default is of course JSON, but an HTML renderer using templates also exists.

Running The Server
TODO
Integration Tests
TODO
API Console
TODO

Usage

const (
	// The request succeeded
	Ok = iota

	// General failure
	ErrGeneralFailure

	// Input validation failed
	ErrInvalidRequest

	// Missing parameter
	ErrMissingParam

	// Invalid parameter value
	ErrInvalidParam

	// The request was denied for auth reasons
	ErrUnauthorized

	// Insecure access denied
	ErrInsecureAccessDenied

	// We do not want to server this request, the client should not retry
	ErrResourceUnavailable

	// Please back off
	ErrBackOff

	// Some middleware took over the request, and the renderer should not render the response
	ErrHijacked
)
const (
	CriticalTests = "critical"
	WarningTests  = "warning"
	AllTests      = "all"
)

test categories

const (
	TestFormatText = "text"
	TestFormatJson = "json"
)
const (

	// The POST/GET param we pass if we want a JSONP callback response
	CallbackParam = "callback"

	HeaderProcessingTime = "X-Vertex-ProcessingTime"
	HeaderRequestId      = "X-Vertex-RequestId"
	HeaderHost           = "X-Vertex-Host"
	HeaderServerVersion  = "X-Vertex-Version"
)

Headers for responses

const DefaultLocale = "en-US"
const HeaderGeoPosition = "X-LatLong"
var Config = struct {
	Server     serverConfig           `yaml:"server"`
	Auth       authConfig             `yaml:"auth"`
	APIConfigs map[string]interface{} `yaml:"apis,flow"`

	apiconfs map[string]interface{}
}{
	Server: serverConfig{
		ListenAddr:       ":9944",
		AllowInsecure:    false,
		ConsoleFilesPath: "../console",
		LoggingLevel:     "INFO",
		ClientTimeout:    60,
	},

	Auth: authConfig{
		User:     "vertext",
		Password: "xetrev",
	},

	APIConfigs: make(map[string]interface{}),

	apiconfs: make(map[string]interface{}),
}
var Hijacked = newErrorCode(ErrHijacked, "Request Hijacked, Do not rendere response")

A special error that should be returned when hijacking a request, taking over response rendering from the renderer

var NopSecurity = SecuritySchemeFunc(func(r *Request) error {
	return nil
})
func BackOffError
func BackOffError(duration time.Duration) error

BackOff returns a back-off error with a message formatted for the given amount of backoff time

func FormatPath
func FormatPath(path string, params Params) string

FormatPath takes a path template and formats it according to the given path params

e.g.

    FormatPath("/foo/{id}", Params{"id":"bar"})
 // Output: "/foo/bar"
func InsecureAccessDenied
func InsecureAccessDenied(msg string, args ...interface{}) error

InsecureAccessDenied returns an error signifying the client has no access to the requested resource

func InvalidParamError
func InvalidParamError(msg string, args ...interface{}) error

InvalidParam returns an error signifying an invalid parameter value.

NOTE: The error string will be returned directly to the client

func InvalidRequestError
func InvalidRequestError(msg string, args ...interface{}) error

InvalidRequest returns an error signifying something went bad reading the request data (not the validation process). This in general should not be used by APIs

func IsHijacked
func IsHijacked(err error) bool

IsHijacked inspects an error and checks whether it represents a hijacked response

func MiddlewareChain
func MiddlewareChain(mw ...Middleware) []Middleware

MiddlewareChain just wraps a variadic list of middlewares to make your code less ugly :)

func MissingParamError
func MissingParamError(msg string, args ...interface{}) error

MissingParamError Returns a formatted error stating that a parameter was missing.

NOTE: The message will be returned to the client directly

func NewError
func NewError(err error) error

Wrap a normal error object with an internal object

func NewErrorf
func NewErrorf(format string, args ...interface{}) error

Format a new web error from message

func ReadConfigs
func ReadConfigs() error
func Register
func Register(name string, builder func() *API, config interface{})

Register lest you automatically add an API to the server from your module's init() function.

name is a unique name for your API (doesn't have to match the API name exactly).

builder is a func that creates the API when we are ready to start the server.

Optionally, you can pass a pointer to a config struct, or nil if you don't need to. This way, we can read the config struct's values from a unified config file BEFORE we call the builder, so the builder can use values in the config struct.

func ResourceUnavailableError
func ResourceUnavailableError(msg string, args ...interface{}) error

ResourceUnavailable returns an error meaning we do not want to serve this request, the client should not retry

func RunCLITest
func RunCLITest(apiName, serverAddr, category, format string, out io.Writer) bool
func UnauthorizedError
func UnauthorizedError(msg string, args ...interface{}) error

Unauthorized returns an error signifying the request was not authorized, but the client may log-in and retry

type API
type API struct {
	Name                  string
	Title                 string
	Version               string
	Root                  string
	Doc                   string
	DefaultSecurityScheme SecurityScheme
	Renderer              Renderer
	Routes                Routes
	Middleware            []Middleware
	TestMiddleware        []Middleware
	SwaggerMiddleware     []Middleware
	AllowInsecure         bool
}

API represents the definition of a single, versioned API and all its routes, middleware and handlers

func (*API) FullPath
func (a *API) FullPath(relpath string) string

FullPath returns the calculated full versioned path inside the API of a request.

e.g. if my API name is "myapi" and the version is 1.0, FullPath("/foo") returns "/myapi/1.0/foo"

func (API) ToSwagger
func (a API) ToSwagger(serverUrl string) *swagger.API

ToSwagger Converts an API definition into a swagger API object for serialization

type HTMLRenderer
type HTMLRenderer struct {
}
func NewHTMLRenderer
func NewHTMLRenderer(src string, funcMap template.FuncMap) *HTMLRenderer
func NewHTMLRendererFiles
func NewHTMLRendererFiles(funcMap map[string]interface{}, fileNames ...string) *HTMLRenderer
func (*HTMLRenderer) ContentTypes
func (h *HTMLRenderer) ContentTypes() []string
func (*HTMLRenderer) Render
func (h *HTMLRenderer) Render(v interface{}, e error, w http.ResponseWriter, r *Request) error
type HandlerFunc
type HandlerFunc func(http.ResponseWriter, *Request) (interface{}, error)

HandlerFunc is an adapter that allows you to register normal functions as handlers. It is used mainly by middleware and should not be used in an application context

func (HandlerFunc) Handle
func (h HandlerFunc) Handle(w http.ResponseWriter, r *Request) (interface{}, error)

Handle calls the underlying function

type JSONRenderer
type JSONRenderer struct{}

JSONRenderer renders a response as a JSON object

func (JSONRenderer) ContentTypes
func (JSONRenderer) ContentTypes() []string
func (JSONRenderer) Render
func (JSONRenderer) Render(v interface{}, e error, w http.ResponseWriter, r *Request) error
type MethodFlag
type MethodFlag int

MethodFlag is used for const flags for method handling on API declaration

const (
	GET  MethodFlag = 0x01
	POST MethodFlag = 0x02
	PUT  MethodFlag = 0x03
)

Method flag definitions

type Middleware
type Middleware interface {
	Handle(w http.ResponseWriter, r *Request, next HandlerFunc) (interface{}, error)
}

Middleware are pre/post processors that can inspect, change, or fail the request. e.g. authentication, logging, etc

Each middleware needs to call next(w,r) so its next-in-line middleware will work, or return without it if it wishes to terminate the processing chain

type MiddlewareFunc
type MiddlewareFunc func(http.ResponseWriter, *Request, HandlerFunc) (interface{}, error)

MiddlewareFunc is a wrapper that allows functions to act as middleware

func (MiddlewareFunc) Handle
func (f MiddlewareFunc) Handle(w http.ResponseWriter, r *Request, next HandlerFunc) (interface{}, error)

Handle runs the underlying func

type Params
type Params map[string]string

Params are a string map for path formatting

type Renderer
type Renderer interface {
	Render(interface{}, error, http.ResponseWriter, *Request) error
	ContentTypes() []string
}

Renderer is an interface for response renderers. A renderer gets the response object after the entire middleware chain processed it, and renders it directly to the client

func RenderFunc
func RenderFunc(f func(interface{}, error, http.ResponseWriter, *Request) error, contentTypes ...string) Renderer

Wrap a rendering function as an renderer

type Request
type Request struct {
	*http.Request
	StartTime time.Time
	Deadline  time.Time
	Locale    string
	UserAgent string
	RemoteIP  string
	Location  struct{ Lat, Long float64 }
	RequestId string
	Callback  string
	Secure    bool
}

Request wraps the standard http request object with higher level contextual data

func NewRequest
func NewRequest(r *http.Request) *Request

NewRequest wraps a new http request with a vertex request

func (*Request) Attribute
func (r *Request) Attribute(key string) (interface{}, bool)
func (*Request) IsLocal
func (r *Request) IsLocal() bool

IsLocal returns true if a request is coming from localhost

func (*Request) SetAttribute
func (r *Request) SetAttribute(key string, val interface{})
func (*Request) String
func (r *Request) String() string
type RequestHandler
type RequestHandler interface {
	Handle(w http.ResponseWriter, r *Request) (interface{}, error)
}

RequestHandler is the interface that request handler structs should implement.

The idea is that you define your request parameters as struct fields, and they get mapped automatically and validated, leaving you with just pure logic work.

An example Request handler:

type UserHandler struct {
	Id   string `schema:"id" required:"true" doc:"The Id Of the user" maxlen:"20" in:"path"`
	Name string `schema:"name" maxlen:"100" required:"true" doc:"The Name Of the user"`
	Admin bool `schema:"bool" default:"true" required:"false" doc:"Is this user an admin"`
}

func (h UserHandler) Handle(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) (interface{}, error) {
	return fmt.Sprintf("Your name is %s and id is %s", h.Name, h.Id), nil
}

Supported types for automatic param mapping: string, int(32/64), float(32/64), bool, []string

func Hijacker
func Hijacker(f func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *Request)) RequestHandler
func StaticHandler
func StaticHandler(root string, dir http.Dir) RequestHandler

StaticHandler is a batteries-included handler for serving static files inside a directory.

root is the path the root path for this static handler, and will get stripped.

NOTE: root should be the full path to the API root. so if your handler path is "/static/*filepath", root should be something like "/myapi/1.0/static". Because the handler is created before the API object is configured, we do not know the root on creation

func Wrap
func Wrap(f func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request)) RequestHandler
type RequestValidator
type RequestValidator struct {
}
func NewRequestValidator
func NewRequestValidator(ri schema.RequestInfo) *RequestValidator

Create new request validator for a request handler interface. This function walks the struct tags of the handler's fields and extracts validation metadata.

You should give it the reflect type of your request handler struct

func (*RequestValidator) Validate
func (rv *RequestValidator) Validate(request interface{}, r *http.Request) error
type Route
type Route struct {
	Path        string
	Description string
	Handler     RequestHandler
	Methods     MethodFlag
	Security    SecurityScheme
	Middleware  []Middleware
	Test        Tester
	Returns     interface{}
	Renderer    Renderer
}

Route represents a single route (path) in the API and its handler and optional extra middleware

type Routes
type Routes []Route

A routing map for an API

type SecurityScheme
type SecurityScheme interface {
	Validate(r *Request) error
}

SecurityScheme is a special interface that validates a request and is outside the middleware chain. An API has a default security scheme, and each route can override it

type SecuritySchemeFunc
type SecuritySchemeFunc func(r *Request) error
func (SecuritySchemeFunc) Validate
func (f SecuritySchemeFunc) Validate(r *Request) error
type Server
type Server struct {
}

Server represents a multi-API http server with a single router

func NewServer
func NewServer(addr string) *Server

NewServer creates a new blank server to add APIs to

func (*Server) AddAPI
func (s *Server) AddAPI(a *API)

AddAPI adds an API to the server manually. It's preferred to use Register in an init() function

func (*Server) Handler
func (s *Server) Handler() http.Handler

Handler returns the underlying router, mainly for testing

func (*Server) InitAPIs
func (s *Server) InitAPIs()

InitAPIs initializes and adds all the APIs registered from API builders

func (*Server) Run
func (s *Server) Run() (err error)

Run runs the server if it has any APIs registered on it

func (*Server) Stop
func (s *Server) Stop()

Stop waits up to a second and closes the server

type TestContext
type TestContext struct {
}

TestContext is a utility available for all testing functions, allowing them to easily test the current route. It is inspired by Go's testing framework.

In general, a tester needs to call t.Fail(), t.Fatal() or t.Skip() to stop the execution of the test. A test that doesn't call either of them is considered passing

func (*TestContext) Fail
func (t *TestContext) Fail(format string, params ...interface{})

Fail aborts the test with a FAIL status, that is the normal case for failing tests

func (*TestContext) Fatal
func (t *TestContext) Fatal(format string, params ...interface{})

Fatal aborts the test with a FATAL status

func (*TestContext) FormatUrl
func (t *TestContext) FormatUrl(pathParams Params) string

FormatUrl returns a fully formatted URL for the context's route, with all path params replaced by their respective values in the pathParams map

func (*TestContext) GetJSON
func (t *TestContext) GetJSON(r *http.Request, v interface{}) (*http.Response, error)

GetJSON performs the given request, and tries to deserialize the response object to v. If we received an error or decoding is impossible, we return an error. The raw http response is also returned for inspection

func (*TestContext) Log
func (t *TestContext) Log(format string, params ...interface{})

Log writes a message to be displayed alongside the test result ONLY if the test failed

func (*TestContext) NewRequest
func (t *TestContext) NewRequest(method string, values url.Values, pathParams Params) (*http.Request, error)

NewRequest creates a new http request to the route we are testing now, with optional values for post/get, and optional path params

func (*TestContext) ServerUrl
func (t *TestContext) ServerUrl() string

ServerUrl returns the URL of the vertex server we are testing

func (*TestContext) Skip
func (t *TestContext) Skip()

Skip aborts the test with a SKIP status, that is considered passing

type Tester
type Tester interface {
	Test(*TestContext)
	Category() string
}

Tester represents a testcase the API runs for a certain API.

Each API contains a list of integration tests that can be run to monitor it. Each test can have a category associated with it, and we can run tests by a specific category only.

A test should fail or succeed, and can optionally write error output

func CriticalTest
func CriticalTest(f func(ctx *TestContext)) Tester

CrititcalTest wraps testers to signify that the tester is considered critical

func WarningTest
func WarningTest(f func(ctx *TestContext)) Tester

WarningTest wraps testers to signify that the tester is a warning test

type Unmarshaler
type Unmarshaler interface {
	UnmarshalRequestData(data string) interface{}
}

Unmarshaler is an interface for types who are interested in automatic decoding. The unmarshaler should return a new instance of itself with the value set correctly.

Example: a type that takes a string and splits in two

type Banana struct {
	Foo string
	Bar string
}

func (b Banana) UnmarshalRequestData(data string) interface{} {
	parts := strings.Split(data, ",")
	if len(parts) == 2 {
        return Banana{parts[0], parts[1]}
	}
	return Banana{}
}
type VoidHandler
type VoidHandler struct{}

VoidHandler is a batteries-included handler that does nothing, useful for testing, or when a middleware takes over the request completely

func (VoidHandler) Handle
func (VoidHandler) Handle(w http.ResponseWriter, r *Request) (interface{}, error)

Handle does nothing :)

Documentation

Overview

Vertex is a friendly, fast and flexible RESTful API building framework

What Vertex Includes

1. An API definition framework

2. Request handlers as structs with automatic data mapping

3. Automatic Data Validation

4. An integrated testing framework for your API

5. A middleware framework similar (but not compliant) to negroni

6. Batteries included: JSON rendering, Auto Recover, Static File Serving, Request Logging, and more

Request Handlers

The basic idea of Vertex revolves around friendly, pre-validated request handlers, that leave the developer with the need to write as little boilerplate code as possible. Routes in the API are mapped to the RequestHandler interface:

  type RequestHandler interface {
	   Handle(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) (interface{}, error)
  }

RequestHandlers have a few interesting characteristics:

1. Fields in structs implementing RequestHandler get automtically filled by request data.

2. Field values are automatically validated and sanitized

3. They do not *(need to)* write to the response writer, they just need to return a response object.

You create structs that have all the parameters you need to handle the requests, define validations for these parameters, and Vertex does the rest for you - just return a response object and you're done.

Here is an example super simple RequestHandler:

type UserHandler struct {
	Id string `schema:"id" required:"true" doc:"The Id Of the user" maxlen:"30"`
}

func (h UserHandler) Handle(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) (interface{}, error) {

	// load the user from the database
	user, err := db.Load(h.Id)

	// return it to the response. No need to write anything directly to the writer
	return user, err
}

As you can see, the "id" parameter that is received as a post/get/path parameter is automatically parsed into the struct when the handler is invoked. If it is missing or invalid, the handler won't even be invoked, but an error will be generated to the client.

Handler Field Tags List

These are the allowed tags for fields in RequestHandler structs:

- schema - the parameter name in the request
- doc - a short documentation string for the field
- default - the default value for the parameter in case it's missing
- min - the minimum allowed value for numeric fields (inclusive)
- max - the maximum allowed value for numeric fields (inclusive)
- maxlen - the maximal allowed length for strings
- minlen - the minimal allowed length for strings
- required [true/false] - if set to "true", forces the request to have this parameter set
- allowEmpty [true/false] - do we allow empty values?
- pattern - a regular expression that a string must match if this tag is set
- in [query/body/path] - optional for non path params. mainly for documentation needs

TODO: Support min/max length for string lists

Supported types for struct fields are (see :

- bool
- float variants (float32, float64)
- int variants (int, int8, int16, int32, int64)
- string
- uint variants (uint, uint8, uint16, uint32, uint64)
- struct - only if it implements Unmarshaler (see below)
- a pointer to one of the above types
- a slice or a pointer to a slice of one of the above types

Custom Unmarshalers

If a field has a custom type that needs automatic deserialization (e.g. a binary Thrift or Protobuf object), we can define a custom Unmarshal method to the type, letting it automatically deserialize parameters. (See the Unmarshaler interface)

The unmarshaler should return a new instance of itself with the value set correctly.

Example: a type that takes a string and splits in two

type Banana struct {
	Foo string
	Bar string
}

func (b Banana) UnmarshalRequestData(data string) interface{} {
	parts := strings.Split(data, ",")
	if len(parts) == 2 {
		return Banana{parts[0], parts[1]}
	}
	return Banana{}
}

Defining An API

APIs are defined in a declarative way, preferably separately from defining the the actual handler logic.

An API has a few major parts:

1. High level definitions - like name, version, documentation, etc.
2. Routes - defining routing paths and mapping them to handlers and tests
3. Middleware - defining a middleware chain to pre/post-process requests
4. SecurityScheme - defining the default way requests are validated

Here is an example simple API definition:

var myAPI = &vertex.API{

	// The API's name, optionally used in the path
	Name:          "testung",

	// The API's version, optionally used in the path
	Version:       "1.0",

	// Optional root path. If not set, the root is /<name>/<version>
	Root:          "/testung/1.0",

	// Some documentation
	Doc:           "This is our Test API. It is used to demonstrate declaring an API",

	// Friendly API title for documentation
	Title:         "Test API!",

	// A middleware chain. The default chain includes panic recovery and request logging
	Middleware:    middleware.DefaultMiddleware,

	// Response renderer. The default is of course a JSON renderer
	Renderer:      vertex.JSONRenderer{},

	// A SecurityScheme. Each route can have an alternative scheme if needed
	DefaultSecurityScheme: APIKeyValidator,

	// Unless explicitly set, we only allow https traffic
	AllowInsecure: false,

	// The routes of the API
	Routes: vertex.RouteMap{

		// Path parameters are defined as {param}
		"/user/byId/{id}": {

			// Short request description
			Description: "Get User Info by id",

			// An instance of the handler. We use reflection to create a new instance per request
			Handler:     UserHandler{},

			// a flag mask of supported requests
			Methods:     vertex.GET | vertex.POST,

			// An integration test for the request. Each request must have a test.
			// Tests can be "warning" tests or "critical" tests
			Test:        vertex.WarningTest(testUserHandler),

			// Optional object returned by the request, that will be automatically added to the documentation
			Returns:     User{},
		},
	},
}

Security Schemes

Security Schemes are used to validate requests. The scheme simply receives the request, and returns an error if it is not valid. It can be used to authenticate the user, validate the API key, etc.

Middleware

Vertex comes with some middleware modules included. Currently implemented middleware include:

- CORS configuration
- Auto Recover from panic in handlers
- Request Logging
- OAuth authentication
- IP-range filter
- Simple API Key validation
- HTTP Basic Auth
- Response Caching
- Force Secure (https) Access

Renderers

Responses have renderers - that transform the response object to some serialization format.

The default is of course JSON, but an HTML renderer using templates also exists.

Running The Server

TODO

Integration Tests

TODO

API Console

TODO

Index

Constants

View Source
const (
	// The request succeeded
	Ok = iota

	// General failure
	ErrGeneralFailure

	// Input validation failed
	ErrInvalidRequest

	// Missing parameter
	ErrMissingParam

	// Invalid parameter value
	ErrInvalidParam

	// The request was denied for auth reasons
	ErrUnauthorized

	// Insecure access denied
	ErrInsecureAccessDenied

	// We do not want to server this request, the client should not retry
	ErrResourceUnavailable

	// Please back off
	ErrBackOff

	// Some middleware took over the request, and the renderer should not render the response
	ErrHijacked
)
View Source
const (
	CriticalTests = "critical"
	WarningTests  = "warning"
	AllTests      = "all"
)

test categories

View Source
const (
	TestFormatText = "text"
	TestFormatJson = "json"
)
View Source
const (

	// The POST/GET param we pass if we want a JSONP callback response
	CallbackParam = "callback"

	HeaderProcessingTime = "X-Vertex-ProcessingTime"
	HeaderRequestId      = "X-Vertex-RequestId"
	HeaderHost           = "X-Vertex-Host"
	HeaderServerVersion  = "X-Vertex-Version"
)

Headers for responses

View Source
const DefaultLocale = "en-US"
View Source
const HeaderGeoPosition = "X-LatLong"

Variables

View Source
var Config = struct {
	Server     serverConfig           `yaml:"server"`
	Auth       authConfig             `yaml:"auth"`
	APIConfigs map[string]interface{} `yaml:"apis,flow"`

	apiconfs map[string]interface{}
}{
	Server: serverConfig{
		ListenAddr:       ":9944",
		AllowInsecure:    false,
		ConsoleFilesPath: "../console",
		LoggingLevel:     "INFO",
		ClientTimeout:    60,
	},

	Auth: authConfig{
		User:     "vertext",
		Password: "xetrev",
	},

	APIConfigs: make(map[string]interface{}),
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}
View Source
var Hijacked = newErrorCode(ErrHijacked, "Request Hijacked, Do not rendere response")

A special error that should be returned when hijacking a request, taking over response rendering from the renderer

View Source
var NopSecurity = SecuritySchemeFunc(func(r *Request) error {
	return nil
})

Functions

func BackOffError

func BackOffError(duration time.Duration) error

BackOff returns a back-off error with a message formatted for the given amount of backoff time

func FormatPath

func FormatPath(path string, params Params) string

FormatPath takes a path template and formats it according to the given path params

e.g.

	FormatPath("/foo/{id}", Params{"id":"bar"})
 // Output: "/foo/bar"

func InsecureAccessDenied

func InsecureAccessDenied(msg string, args ...interface{}) error

InsecureAccessDenied returns an error signifying the client has no access to the requested resource

func InvalidParamError

func InvalidParamError(msg string, args ...interface{}) error

InvalidParam returns an error signifying an invalid parameter value.

NOTE: The error string will be returned directly to the client

func InvalidRequestError

func InvalidRequestError(msg string, args ...interface{}) error

InvalidRequest returns an error signifying something went bad reading the request data (not the validation process). This in general should not be used by APIs

func IsHijacked

func IsHijacked(err error) bool

IsHijacked inspects an error and checks whether it represents a hijacked response

func MissingParamError

func MissingParamError(msg string, args ...interface{}) error

MissingParamError Returns a formatted error stating that a parameter was missing.

NOTE: The message will be returned to the client directly

func NewError

func NewError(err error) error

Wrap a normal error object with an internal object

func NewErrorf

func NewErrorf(format string, args ...interface{}) error

Format a new web error from message

func ReadConfigs

func ReadConfigs() error

func Register

func Register(name string, builder func() *API, config interface{})

Register lest you automatically add an API to the server from your module's init() function.

name is a unique name for your API (doesn't have to match the API name exactly).

builder is a func that creates the API when we are ready to start the server.

Optionally, you can pass a pointer to a config struct, or nil if you don't need to. This way, we can read the config struct's values from a unified config file BEFORE we call the builder, so the builder can use values in the config struct.

func ResourceUnavailableError

func ResourceUnavailableError(msg string, args ...interface{}) error

ResourceUnavailable returns an error meaning we do not want to serve this request, the client should not retry

func RunCLITest

func RunCLITest(apiName, serverAddr, category, format string, out io.Writer) bool

func UnauthorizedError

func UnauthorizedError(msg string, args ...interface{}) error

Unauthorized returns an error signifying the request was not authorized, but the client may log-in and retry

Types

type API

type API struct {
	Name                  string
	Title                 string
	Version               string
	Root                  string
	Doc                   string
	DefaultSecurityScheme SecurityScheme
	Renderer              Renderer
	Routes                Routes
	Middleware            []Middleware
	TestMiddleware        []Middleware
	SwaggerMiddleware     []Middleware
	AllowInsecure         bool
}

API represents the definition of a single, versioned API and all its routes, middleware and handlers

func (*API) FullPath

func (a *API) FullPath(relpath string) string

FullPath returns the calculated full versioned path inside the API of a request.

e.g. if my API name is "myapi" and the version is 1.0, FullPath("/foo") returns "/myapi/1.0/foo"

func (API) ToSwagger

func (a API) ToSwagger(serverUrl string) *swagger.API

ToSwagger Converts an API definition into a swagger API object for serialization

type HTMLRenderer

type HTMLRenderer struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

func NewHTMLRenderer

func NewHTMLRenderer(src string, funcMap template.FuncMap) *HTMLRenderer

func NewHTMLRendererFiles

func NewHTMLRendererFiles(funcMap map[string]interface{}, fileNames ...string) *HTMLRenderer

func (*HTMLRenderer) ContentTypes

func (h *HTMLRenderer) ContentTypes() []string

func (*HTMLRenderer) Render

func (h *HTMLRenderer) Render(v interface{}, e error, w http.ResponseWriter, r *Request) error

type HandlerFunc

type HandlerFunc func(http.ResponseWriter, *Request) (interface{}, error)

HandlerFunc is an adapter that allows you to register normal functions as handlers. It is used mainly by middleware and should not be used in an application context

func (HandlerFunc) Handle

func (h HandlerFunc) Handle(w http.ResponseWriter, r *Request) (interface{}, error)

Handle calls the underlying function

type JSONRenderer

type JSONRenderer struct{}

JSONRenderer renders a response as a JSON object

func (JSONRenderer) ContentTypes

func (JSONRenderer) ContentTypes() []string

func (JSONRenderer) Render

func (JSONRenderer) Render(v interface{}, e error, w http.ResponseWriter, r *Request) error

type MethodFlag

type MethodFlag int

MethodFlag is used for const flags for method handling on API declaration

const (
	GET  MethodFlag = 0x01
	POST MethodFlag = 0x02
	PUT  MethodFlag = 0x03
)

Method flag definitions

type Middleware

type Middleware interface {
	Handle(w http.ResponseWriter, r *Request, next HandlerFunc) (interface{}, error)
}

Middleware are pre/post processors that can inspect, change, or fail the request. e.g. authentication, logging, etc

Each middleware needs to call next(w,r) so its next-in-line middleware will work, or return without it if it wishes to terminate the processing chain

func MiddlewareChain

func MiddlewareChain(mw ...Middleware) []Middleware

MiddlewareChain just wraps a variadic list of middlewares to make your code less ugly :)

type MiddlewareFunc

type MiddlewareFunc func(http.ResponseWriter, *Request, HandlerFunc) (interface{}, error)

MiddlewareFunc is a wrapper that allows functions to act as middleware

func (MiddlewareFunc) Handle

func (f MiddlewareFunc) Handle(w http.ResponseWriter, r *Request, next HandlerFunc) (interface{}, error)

Handle runs the underlying func

type Params

type Params map[string]string

Params are a string map for path formatting

type Renderer

type Renderer interface {
	Render(interface{}, error, http.ResponseWriter, *Request) error
	ContentTypes() []string
}

Renderer is an interface for response renderers. A renderer gets the response object after the entire middleware chain processed it, and renders it directly to the client

func RenderFunc

func RenderFunc(f func(interface{}, error, http.ResponseWriter, *Request) error, contentTypes ...string) Renderer

Wrap a rendering function as an renderer

type Request

type Request struct {
	*http.Request
	StartTime time.Time
	Deadline  time.Time
	Locale    string
	UserAgent string
	RemoteIP  string
	Location  struct{ Lat, Long float64 }
	RequestId string
	Callback  string
	Secure    bool
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

Request wraps the standard http request object with higher level contextual data

func NewRequest

func NewRequest(r *http.Request) *Request

NewRequest wraps a new http request with a vertex request

func (*Request) Attribute

func (r *Request) Attribute(key string) (interface{}, bool)

func (*Request) IsLocal

func (r *Request) IsLocal() bool

IsLocal returns true if a request is coming from localhost

func (*Request) SetAttribute

func (r *Request) SetAttribute(key string, val interface{})

func (*Request) String

func (r *Request) String() string

type RequestHandler

type RequestHandler interface {
	Handle(w http.ResponseWriter, r *Request) (interface{}, error)
}

RequestHandler is the interface that request handler structs should implement.

The idea is that you define your request parameters as struct fields, and they get mapped automatically and validated, leaving you with just pure logic work.

An example Request handler:

type UserHandler struct {
	Id   string `schema:"id" required:"true" doc:"The Id Of the user" maxlen:"20" in:"path"`
	Name string `schema:"name" maxlen:"100" required:"true" doc:"The Name Of the user"`
	Admin bool `schema:"bool" default:"true" required:"false" doc:"Is this user an admin"`
}

func (h UserHandler) Handle(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) (interface{}, error) {
	return fmt.Sprintf("Your name is %s and id is %s", h.Name, h.Id), nil
}

Supported types for automatic param mapping: string, int(32/64), float(32/64), bool, []string

func Hijacker

func Hijacker(f func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *Request)) RequestHandler

func StaticHandler

func StaticHandler(root string, dir http.Dir) RequestHandler

StaticHandler is a batteries-included handler for serving static files inside a directory.

root is the path the root path for this static handler, and will get stripped.

NOTE: root should be the full path to the API root. so if your handler path is "/static/*filepath", root should be something like "/myapi/1.0/static". Because the handler is created before the API object is configured, we do not know the root on creation

func Wrap

func Wrap(f func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request)) RequestHandler

type RequestValidator

type RequestValidator struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

func NewRequestValidator

func NewRequestValidator(ri schema.RequestInfo) *RequestValidator

Create new request validator for a request handler interface. This function walks the struct tags of the handler's fields and extracts validation metadata.

You should give it the reflect type of your request handler struct

func (*RequestValidator) Validate

func (rv *RequestValidator) Validate(request interface{}, r *http.Request) error

type Route

type Route struct {
	Path        string
	Description string
	Handler     RequestHandler
	Methods     MethodFlag
	Security    SecurityScheme
	Middleware  []Middleware
	Test        Tester
	Returns     interface{}
	Renderer    Renderer
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

Route represents a single route (path) in the API and its handler and optional extra middleware

type Routes

type Routes []Route

A routing map for an API

type SecurityScheme

type SecurityScheme interface {
	Validate(r *Request) error
}

SecurityScheme is a special interface that validates a request and is outside the middleware chain. An API has a default security scheme, and each route can override it

type SecuritySchemeFunc

type SecuritySchemeFunc func(r *Request) error

func (SecuritySchemeFunc) Validate

func (f SecuritySchemeFunc) Validate(r *Request) error

type Server

type Server struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

Server represents a multi-API http server with a single router

func NewServer

func NewServer(addr string) *Server

NewServer creates a new blank server to add APIs to

func (*Server) AddAPI

func (s *Server) AddAPI(a *API)

AddAPI adds an API to the server manually. It's preferred to use Register in an init() function

func (*Server) Handler

func (s *Server) Handler() http.Handler

Handler returns the underlying router, mainly for testing

func (*Server) InitAPIs

func (s *Server) InitAPIs()

InitAPIs initializes and adds all the APIs registered from API builders

func (*Server) Run

func (s *Server) Run() (err error)

Run runs the server if it has any APIs registered on it

func (*Server) Stop

func (s *Server) Stop()

Stop waits up to a second and closes the server

type TestContext

type TestContext struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

TestContext is a utility available for all testing functions, allowing them to easily test the current route. It is inspired by Go's testing framework.

In general, a tester needs to call t.Fail(), t.Fatal() or t.Skip() to stop the execution of the test. A test that doesn't call either of them is considered passing

func (*TestContext) Fail

func (t *TestContext) Fail(format string, params ...interface{})

Fail aborts the test with a FAIL status, that is the normal case for failing tests

func (*TestContext) Fatal

func (t *TestContext) Fatal(format string, params ...interface{})

Fatal aborts the test with a FATAL status

func (*TestContext) FormatUrl

func (t *TestContext) FormatUrl(pathParams Params) string

FormatUrl returns a fully formatted URL for the context's route, with all path params replaced by their respective values in the pathParams map

func (*TestContext) GetJSON

func (t *TestContext) GetJSON(r *http.Request, v interface{}) (*http.Response, error)

GetJSON performs the given request, and tries to deserialize the response object to v. If we received an error or decoding is impossible, we return an error. The raw http response is also returned for inspection

func (*TestContext) Log

func (t *TestContext) Log(format string, params ...interface{})

Log writes a message to be displayed alongside the test result ONLY if the test failed

func (*TestContext) NewRequest

func (t *TestContext) NewRequest(method string, values url.Values, pathParams Params) (*http.Request, error)

NewRequest creates a new http request to the route we are testing now, with optional values for post/get, and optional path params

func (*TestContext) ServerUrl

func (t *TestContext) ServerUrl() string

ServerUrl returns the URL of the vertex server we are testing

func (*TestContext) Skip

func (t *TestContext) Skip()

Skip aborts the test with a SKIP status, that is considered passing

type Tester

type Tester interface {
	Test(*TestContext)
	Category() string
}

Tester represents a testcase the API runs for a certain API.

Each API contains a list of integration tests that can be run to monitor it. Each test can have a category associated with it, and we can run tests by a specific category only.

A test should fail or succeed, and can optionally write error output

func CriticalTest

func CriticalTest(f func(ctx *TestContext)) Tester

CrititcalTest wraps testers to signify that the tester is considered critical

func WarningTest

func WarningTest(f func(ctx *TestContext)) Tester

WarningTest wraps testers to signify that the tester is a warning test

type Unmarshaler

type Unmarshaler interface {
	UnmarshalRequestData(data string) interface{}
}

Unmarshaler is an interface for types who are interested in automatic decoding. The unmarshaler should return a new instance of itself with the value set correctly.

Example: a type that takes a string and splits in two

type Banana struct {
	Foo string
	Bar string
}

func (b Banana) UnmarshalRequestData(data string) interface{} {
	parts := strings.Split(data, ",")
	if len(parts) == 2 {
		return Banana{parts[0], parts[1]}
	}
	return Banana{}
}

type VoidHandler

type VoidHandler struct{}

VoidHandler is a batteries-included handler that does nothing, useful for testing, or when a middleware takes over the request completely

func (VoidHandler) Handle

func (VoidHandler) Handle(w http.ResponseWriter, r *Request) (interface{}, error)

Handle does nothing :)

Directories

Path Synopsis
oauth
This middleware package for OAauth is incomplete (although it's working).
This middleware package for OAauth is incomplete (although it's working).

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