README

SemVer

The semver package provides the ability to work with Semantic Versions in Go. Specifically it provides the ability to:

  • Parse semantic versions
  • Sort semantic versions
  • Check if a semantic version fits within a set of constraints
  • Optionally work with a v prefix

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If you are looking for a command line tool for version comparisons please see vert which uses this library.

Package Versions

There are three major versions fo the semver package.

  • 3.x.x is the new stable and active version. This version is focused on constraint compatibility for range handling in other tools from other languages. It has a similar API to the v1 releases. The development of this version is on the master branch. The documentation for this version is below.
  • 2.x was developed primarily for dep. There are no tagged releases and the development was performed by @sdboyer. There are API breaking changes from v1. This version lives on the 2.x branch.
  • 1.x.x is the most widely used version with numerous tagged releases. This is the previous stable and is still maintained for bug fixes. The development, to fix bugs, occurs on the release-1 branch. You can read the documentation here.

Parsing Semantic Versions

There are two functions that can parse semantic versions. The StrictNewVersion function only parses valid version 2 semantic versions as outlined in the specification. The NewVersion function attempts to coerce a version into a semantic version and parse it. For example, if there is a leading v or a version listed without all 3 parts (e.g. v1.2) it will attempt to coerce it into a valid semantic version (e.g., 1.2.0). In both cases a Version object is returned that can be sorted, compared, and used in constraints.

When parsing a version an error is returned if there is an issue parsing the version. For example,

v, err := semver.NewVersion("1.2.3-beta.1+build345")

The version object has methods to get the parts of the version, compare it to other versions, convert the version back into a string, and get the original string. Getting the original string is useful if the semantic version was coerced into a valid form.

Sorting Semantic Versions

A set of versions can be sorted using the sort package from the standard library. For example,

raw := []string{"1.2.3", "1.0", "1.3", "2", "0.4.2",}
vs := make([]*semver.Version, len(raw))
for i, r := range raw {
    v, err := semver.NewVersion(r)
    if err != nil {
        t.Errorf("Error parsing version: %s", err)
    }

    vs[i] = v
}

sort.Sort(semver.Collection(vs))

Checking Version Constraints

There are two methods for comparing versions. One uses comparison methods on Version instances and the other uses Constraints. There are some important differences to notes between these two methods of comparison.

  1. When two versions are compared using functions such as Compare, LessThan, and others it will follow the specification and always include prereleases within the comparison. It will provide an answer that is valid with the comparison section of the spec at https://semver.org/#spec-item-11
  2. When constraint checking is used for checks or validation it will follow a different set of rules that are common for ranges with tools like npm/js and Rust/Cargo. This includes considering prereleases to be invalid if the ranges does not include one. If you want to have it include pre-releases a simple solution is to include -0 in your range.
  3. Constraint ranges can have some complex rules including the shorthand use of ~ and ^. For more details on those see the options below.

There are differences between the two methods or checking versions because the comparison methods on Version follow the specification while comparison ranges are not part of the specification. Different packages and tools have taken it upon themselves to come up with range rules. This has resulted in differences. For example, npm/js and Cargo/Rust follow similar patterns while PHP has a different pattern for ^. The comparison features in this package follow the npm/js and Cargo/Rust lead because applications using it have followed similar patters with their versions.

Checking a version against version constraints is one of the most featureful parts of the package.

c, err := semver.NewConstraint(">= 1.2.3")
if err != nil {
    // Handle constraint not being parsable.
}

v, err := semver.NewVersion("1.3")
if err != nil {
    // Handle version not being parsable.
}
// Check if the version meets the constraints. The a variable will be true.
a := c.Check(v)
Basic Comparisons

There are two elements to the comparisons. First, a comparison string is a list of space or comma separated AND comparisons. These are then separated by || (OR) comparisons. For example, ">= 1.2 < 3.0.0 || >= 4.2.3" is looking for a comparison that's greater than or equal to 1.2 and less than 3.0.0 or is greater than or equal to 4.2.3.

The basic comparisons are:

  • =: equal (aliased to no operator)
  • !=: not equal
  • >: greater than
  • <: less than
  • >=: greater than or equal to
  • <=: less than or equal to
Working With Prerelease Versions

Pre-releases, for those not familiar with them, are used for software releases prior to stable or generally available releases. Examples of prereleases include development, alpha, beta, and release candidate releases. A prerelease may be a version such as 1.2.3-beta.1 while the stable release would be 1.2.3. In the order of precedence, prereleases come before their associated releases. In this example 1.2.3-beta.1 < 1.2.3.

According to the Semantic Version specification prereleases may not be API compliant with their release counterpart. It says,

A pre-release version indicates that the version is unstable and might not satisfy the intended compatibility requirements as denoted by its associated normal version.

SemVer comparisons using constraints without a prerelease comparator will skip prerelease versions. For example, >=1.2.3 will skip prereleases when looking at a list of releases while >=1.2.3-0 will evaluate and find prereleases.

The reason for the 0 as a pre-release version in the example comparison is because pre-releases can only contain ASCII alphanumerics and hyphens (along with . separators), per the spec. Sorting happens in ASCII sort order, again per the spec. The lowest character is a 0 in ASCII sort order (see an ASCII Table)

Understanding ASCII sort ordering is important because A-Z comes before a-z. That means >=1.2.3-BETA will return 1.2.3-alpha. What you might expect from case sensitivity doesn't apply here. This is due to ASCII sort ordering which is what the spec specifies.

Hyphen Range Comparisons

There are multiple methods to handle ranges and the first is hyphens ranges. These look like:

  • 1.2 - 1.4.5 which is equivalent to >= 1.2 <= 1.4.5
  • 2.3.4 - 4.5 which is equivalent to >= 2.3.4 <= 4.5
Wildcards In Comparisons

The x, X, and * characters can be used as a wildcard character. This works for all comparison operators. When used on the = operator it falls back to the patch level comparison (see tilde below). For example,

  • 1.2.x is equivalent to >= 1.2.0, < 1.3.0
  • >= 1.2.x is equivalent to >= 1.2.0
  • <= 2.x is equivalent to < 3
  • * is equivalent to >= 0.0.0
Tilde Range Comparisons (Patch)

The tilde (~) comparison operator is for patch level ranges when a minor version is specified and major level changes when the minor number is missing. For example,

  • ~1.2.3 is equivalent to >= 1.2.3, < 1.3.0
  • ~1 is equivalent to >= 1, < 2
  • ~2.3 is equivalent to >= 2.3, < 2.4
  • ~1.2.x is equivalent to >= 1.2.0, < 1.3.0
  • ~1.x is equivalent to >= 1, < 2
Caret Range Comparisons (Major)

The caret (^) comparison operator is for major level changes once a stable (1.0.0) release has occurred. Prior to a 1.0.0 release the minor versions acts as the API stability level. This is useful when comparisons of API versions as a major change is API breaking. For example,

  • ^1.2.3 is equivalent to >= 1.2.3, < 2.0.0
  • ^1.2.x is equivalent to >= 1.2.0, < 2.0.0
  • ^2.3 is equivalent to >= 2.3, < 3
  • ^2.x is equivalent to >= 2.0.0, < 3
  • ^0.2.3 is equivalent to >=0.2.3 <0.3.0
  • ^0.2 is equivalent to >=0.2.0 <0.3.0
  • ^0.0.3 is equivalent to >=0.0.3 <0.0.4
  • ^0.0 is equivalent to >=0.0.0 <0.1.0
  • ^0 is equivalent to >=0.0.0 <1.0.0

Validation

In addition to testing a version against a constraint, a version can be validated against a constraint. When validation fails a slice of errors containing why a version didn't meet the constraint is returned. For example,

c, err := semver.NewConstraint("<= 1.2.3, >= 1.4")
if err != nil {
    // Handle constraint not being parseable.
}

v, err := semver.NewVersion("1.3")
if err != nil {
    // Handle version not being parseable.
}

// Validate a version against a constraint.
a, msgs := c.Validate(v)
// a is false
for _, m := range msgs {
    fmt.Println(m)

    // Loops over the errors which would read
    // "1.3 is greater than 1.2.3"
    // "1.3 is less than 1.4"
}

Contribute

If you find an issue or want to contribute please file an issue or create a pull request.

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Documentation

Overview

Package semver provides the ability to work with Semantic Versions (http://semver.org) in Go.

Specifically it provides the ability to:

* Parse semantic versions
* Sort semantic versions
* Check if a semantic version fits within a set of constraints
* Optionally work with a `v` prefix

Parsing Semantic Versions

There are two functions that can parse semantic versions. The `StrictNewVersion` function only parses valid version 2 semantic versions as outlined in the specification. The `NewVersion` function attempts to coerce a version into a semantic version and parse it. For example, if there is a leading v or a version listed without all 3 parts (e.g. 1.2) it will attempt to coerce it into a valid semantic version (e.g., 1.2.0). In both cases a `Version` object is returned that can be sorted, compared, and used in constraints.

When parsing a version an optional error can be returned if there is an issue parsing the version. For example,

v, err := semver.NewVersion("1.2.3-beta.1+b345")

The version object has methods to get the parts of the version, compare it to other versions, convert the version back into a string, and get the original string. For more details please see the documentation at https://godoc.org/github.com/Masterminds/semver.

Sorting Semantic Versions

A set of versions can be sorted using the `sort` package from the standard library. For example,

    raw := []string{"1.2.3", "1.0", "1.3", "2", "0.4.2",}
    vs := make([]*semver.Version, len(raw))
	for i, r := range raw {
		v, err := semver.NewVersion(r)
		if err != nil {
			t.Errorf("Error parsing version: %s", err)
		}

		vs[i] = v
	}

	sort.Sort(semver.Collection(vs))

Checking Version Constraints and Comparing Versions

There are two methods for comparing versions. One uses comparison methods on `Version` instances and the other is using Constraints. There are some important differences to notes between these two methods of comparison.

1. When two versions are compared using functions such as `Compare`, `LessThan`,

and others it will follow the specification and always include prereleases
within the comparison. It will provide an answer valid with the comparison
spec section at https://semver.org/#spec-item-11

2. When constraint checking is used for checks or validation it will follow a

different set of rules that are common for ranges with tools like npm/js
and Rust/Cargo. This includes considering prereleases to be invalid if the
ranges does not include on. If you want to have it include pre-releases a
simple solution is to include `-0` in your range.

3. Constraint ranges can have some complex rules including the shorthard use of

~ and ^. For more details on those see the options below.

There are differences between the two methods or checking versions because the comparison methods on `Version` follow the specification while comparison ranges are not part of the specification. Different packages and tools have taken it upon themselves to come up with range rules. This has resulted in differences. For example, npm/js and Cargo/Rust follow similar patterns which PHP has a different pattern for ^. The comparison features in this package follow the npm/js and Cargo/Rust lead because applications using it have followed similar patters with their versions.

Checking a version against version constraints is one of the most featureful parts of the package.

c, err := semver.NewConstraint(">= 1.2.3")
if err != nil {
    // Handle constraint not being parsable.
}

v, err := semver.NewVersion("1.3")
if err != nil {
    // Handle version not being parsable.
}
// Check if the version meets the constraints. The a variable will be true.
a := c.Check(v)

Basic Comparisons

There are two elements to the comparisons. First, a comparison string is a list of comma or space separated AND comparisons. These are then separated by || (OR) comparisons. For example, `">= 1.2 < 3.0.0 || >= 4.2.3"` is looking for a comparison that's greater than or equal to 1.2 and less than 3.0.0 or is greater than or equal to 4.2.3. This can also be written as `">= 1.2, < 3.0.0 || >= 4.2.3"`

The basic comparisons are:

* `=`: equal (aliased to no operator)
* `!=`: not equal
* `>`: greater than
* `<`: less than
* `>=`: greater than or equal to
* `<=`: less than or equal to

Hyphen Range Comparisons

There are multiple methods to handle ranges and the first is hyphens ranges. These look like:

* `1.2 - 1.4.5` which is equivalent to `>= 1.2, <= 1.4.5`
* `2.3.4 - 4.5` which is equivalent to `>= 2.3.4 <= 4.5`

Wildcards In Comparisons

The `x`, `X`, and `*` characters can be used as a wildcard character. This works for all comparison operators. When used on the `=` operator it falls back to the tilde operation. For example,

* `1.2.x` is equivalent to `>= 1.2.0 < 1.3.0`
* `>= 1.2.x` is equivalent to `>= 1.2.0`
* `<= 2.x` is equivalent to `<= 3`
* `*` is equivalent to `>= 0.0.0`

Tilde Range Comparisons (Patch)

The tilde (`~`) comparison operator is for patch level ranges when a minor version is specified and major level changes when the minor number is missing. For example,

* `~1.2.3` is equivalent to `>= 1.2.3 < 1.3.0`
* `~1` is equivalent to `>= 1, < 2`
* `~2.3` is equivalent to `>= 2.3 < 2.4`
* `~1.2.x` is equivalent to `>= 1.2.0 < 1.3.0`
* `~1.x` is equivalent to `>= 1 < 2`

Caret Range Comparisons (Major)

The caret (`^`) comparison operator is for major level changes once a stable (1.0.0) release has occurred. Prior to a 1.0.0 release the minor versions acts as the API stability level. This is useful when comparisons of API versions as a major change is API breaking. For example,

* `^1.2.3` is equivalent to `>= 1.2.3, < 2.0.0`
* `^1.2.x` is equivalent to `>= 1.2.0, < 2.0.0`
* `^2.3` is equivalent to `>= 2.3, < 3`
* `^2.x` is equivalent to `>= 2.0.0, < 3`
* `^0.2.3` is equivalent to `>=0.2.3 <0.3.0`
* `^0.2` is equivalent to `>=0.2.0 <0.3.0`
* `^0.0.3` is equivalent to `>=0.0.3 <0.0.4`
* `^0.0` is equivalent to `>=0.0.0 <0.1.0`
* `^0` is equivalent to `>=0.0.0 <1.0.0`

Validation

In addition to testing a version against a constraint, a version can be validated against a constraint. When validation fails a slice of errors containing why a version didn't meet the constraint is returned. For example,

c, err := semver.NewConstraint("<= 1.2.3, >= 1.4")
if err != nil {
    // Handle constraint not being parseable.
}

v, _ := semver.NewVersion("1.3")
if err != nil {
    // Handle version not being parseable.
}

// Validate a version against a constraint.
a, msgs := c.Validate(v)
// a is false
for _, m := range msgs {
    fmt.Println(m)

    // Loops over the errors which would read
    // "1.3 is greater than 1.2.3"
    // "1.3 is less than 1.4"
}

Index

Constants

This section is empty.

Variables

View Source
var (
	// ErrInvalidSemVer is returned a version is found to be invalid when
	// being parsed.
	ErrInvalidSemVer = errors.New("Invalid Semantic Version")

	// ErrEmptyString is returned when an empty string is passed in for parsing.
	ErrEmptyString = errors.New("Version string empty")

	// ErrInvalidCharacters is returned when invalid characters are found as
	// part of a version
	ErrInvalidCharacters = errors.New("Invalid characters in version")

	// ErrSegmentStartsZero is returned when a version segment starts with 0.
	// This is invalid in SemVer.
	ErrSegmentStartsZero = errors.New("Version segment starts with 0")

	// ErrInvalidMetadata is returned when the metadata is an invalid format
	ErrInvalidMetadata = errors.New("Invalid Metadata string")

	// ErrInvalidPrerelease is returned when the pre-release is an invalid format
	ErrInvalidPrerelease = errors.New("Invalid Prerelease string")
)

Functions

This section is empty.

Types

type Collection

type Collection []*Version

    Collection is a collection of Version instances and implements the sort interface. See the sort package for more details. https://golang.org/pkg/sort/

    func (Collection) Len

    func (c Collection) Len() int

      Len returns the length of a collection. The number of Version instances on the slice.

      func (Collection) Less

      func (c Collection) Less(i, j int) bool

        Less is needed for the sort interface to compare two Version objects on the slice. If checks if one is less than the other.

        func (Collection) Swap

        func (c Collection) Swap(i, j int)

          Swap is needed for the sort interface to replace the Version objects at two different positions in the slice.

          type Constraints

          type Constraints struct {
          	// contains filtered or unexported fields
          }

            Constraints is one or more constraint that a semantic version can be checked against.

            func NewConstraint

            func NewConstraint(c string) (*Constraints, error)

              NewConstraint returns a Constraints instance that a Version instance can be checked against. If there is a parse error it will be returned.

              func (Constraints) Check

              func (cs Constraints) Check(v *Version) bool

                Check tests if a version satisfies the constraints.

                func (Constraints) String

                func (cs Constraints) String() string

                func (Constraints) Validate

                func (cs Constraints) Validate(v *Version) (bool, []error)

                  Validate checks if a version satisfies a constraint. If not a slice of reasons for the failure are returned in addition to a bool.

                  type Version

                  type Version struct {
                  	// contains filtered or unexported fields
                  }

                    Version represents a single semantic version.

                    func MustParse

                    func MustParse(v string) *Version

                      MustParse parses a given version and panics on error.

                      func NewVersion

                      func NewVersion(v string) (*Version, error)

                        NewVersion parses a given version and returns an instance of Version or an error if unable to parse the version. If the version is SemVer-ish it attempts to convert it to SemVer. If you want to validate it was a strict semantic version at parse time see StrictNewVersion().

                        func StrictNewVersion

                        func StrictNewVersion(v string) (*Version, error)

                          StrictNewVersion parses a given version and returns an instance of Version or an error if unable to parse the version. Only parses valid semantic versions. Performs checking that can find errors within the version. If you want to coerce a version, such as 1 or 1.2, and perse that as the 1.x releases of semver provided use the NewSemver() function.

                          func (*Version) Compare

                          func (v *Version) Compare(o *Version) int

                            Compare compares this version to another one. It returns -1, 0, or 1 if the version smaller, equal, or larger than the other version.

                            Versions are compared by X.Y.Z. Build metadata is ignored. Prerelease is lower than the version without a prerelease. Compare always takes into account prereleases. If you want to work with ranges using typical range syntaxes that skip prereleases if the range is not looking for them use constraints.

                            func (*Version) Equal

                            func (v *Version) Equal(o *Version) bool

                              Equal tests if two versions are equal to each other. Note, versions can be equal with different metadata since metadata is not considered part of the comparable version.

                              func (*Version) GreaterThan

                              func (v *Version) GreaterThan(o *Version) bool

                                GreaterThan tests if one version is greater than another one.

                                func (Version) IncMajor

                                func (v Version) IncMajor() Version

                                  IncMajor produces the next major version. Sets patch to 0. Sets minor to 0. Increments major number. Unsets metadata. Unsets prerelease status.

                                  func (Version) IncMinor

                                  func (v Version) IncMinor() Version

                                    IncMinor produces the next minor version. Sets patch to 0. Increments minor number. Unsets metadata. Unsets prerelease status.

                                    func (Version) IncPatch

                                    func (v Version) IncPatch() Version

                                      IncPatch produces the next patch version. If the current version does not have prerelease/metadata information, it unsets metadata and prerelease values, increments patch number. If the current version has any of prerelease or metadata information, it unsets both values and keeps current patch value

                                      func (*Version) LessThan

                                      func (v *Version) LessThan(o *Version) bool

                                        LessThan tests if one version is less than another one.

                                        func (Version) Major

                                        func (v Version) Major() uint64

                                          Major returns the major version.

                                          func (Version) MarshalJSON

                                          func (v Version) MarshalJSON() ([]byte, error)

                                            MarshalJSON implements JSON.Marshaler interface.

                                            func (Version) Metadata

                                            func (v Version) Metadata() string

                                              Metadata returns the metadata on the version.

                                              func (Version) Minor

                                              func (v Version) Minor() uint64

                                                Minor returns the minor version.

                                                func (*Version) Original

                                                func (v *Version) Original() string

                                                  Original returns the original value passed in to be parsed.

                                                  func (Version) Patch

                                                  func (v Version) Patch() uint64

                                                    Patch returns the patch version.

                                                    func (Version) Prerelease

                                                    func (v Version) Prerelease() string

                                                      Prerelease returns the pre-release version.

                                                      func (*Version) Scan

                                                      func (v *Version) Scan(value interface{}) error

                                                        Scan implements the SQL.Scanner interface.

                                                        func (Version) SetMetadata

                                                        func (v Version) SetMetadata(metadata string) (Version, error)

                                                          SetMetadata defines metadata value. Value must not include the required 'plus' prefix.

                                                          func (Version) SetPrerelease

                                                          func (v Version) SetPrerelease(prerelease string) (Version, error)

                                                            SetPrerelease defines the prerelease value. Value must not include the required 'hyphen' prefix.

                                                            func (Version) String

                                                            func (v Version) String() string

                                                              String converts a Version object to a string. Note, if the original version contained a leading v this version will not. See the Original() method to retrieve the original value. Semantic Versions don't contain a leading v per the spec. Instead it's optional on implementation.

                                                              func (*Version) UnmarshalJSON

                                                              func (v *Version) UnmarshalJSON(b []byte) error

                                                                UnmarshalJSON implements JSON.Unmarshaler interface.

                                                                func (Version) Value

                                                                func (v Version) Value() (driver.Value, error)

                                                                  Value implements the Driver.Valuer interface.