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Published: Apr 5, 2024 License: Apache-2.0 Imports: 5 Imported by: 2,296




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const (
	// UnpackKeyPrefix is the beginning of the key format used for snapshots that will have
	// image content unpacked into them.
	UnpackKeyPrefix = "extract"
	// UnpackKeyFormat is the format for the snapshotter keys used for extraction
	UnpackKeyFormat = UnpackKeyPrefix + "-%s %s"

	// LabelSnapshotUIDMapping is the label used for UID mappings
	LabelSnapshotUIDMapping = ""
	// LabelSnapshotGIDMapping is the label used for GID mappings
	LabelSnapshotGIDMapping = ""


This section is empty.


func FilterInheritedLabels added in v1.4.0

func FilterInheritedLabels(labels map[string]string) map[string]string

FilterInheritedLabels filters the provided labels by removing any key which isn't a snapshot label. Snapshot labels have a prefix of "" or are the "" label.


type Cleaner added in v1.4.0

type Cleaner interface {
	Cleanup(ctx context.Context) error

Cleaner defines a type capable of performing asynchronous resource cleanup. The Cleaner interface should be used by snapshotters which implement fast removal and deferred resource cleanup. This prevents snapshots from needing to perform lengthy resource cleanup before acknowledging a snapshot key has been removed and available for re-use. This is also useful when performing multi-key removal with the intent of cleaning up all the resources after each snapshot key has been removed.

type Info

type Info struct {
	Kind   Kind   // active or committed snapshot
	Name   string // name or key of snapshot
	Parent string `json:",omitempty"` // name of parent snapshot

	// Labels for a snapshot.
	// Note: only labels prefixed with `` will be inherited
	// by the snapshotter's `Prepare`, `View`, or `Commit` calls.
	Labels  map[string]string `json:",omitempty"`
	Created time.Time         `json:",omitempty"` // Created time
	Updated time.Time         `json:",omitempty"` // Last update time

Info provides information about a particular snapshot. JSON marshalling is supported for interacting with tools like ctr,

type Kind

type Kind uint8

Kind identifies the kind of snapshot.

const (
	KindUnknown Kind = iota

definitions of snapshot kinds

func ParseKind

func ParseKind(s string) Kind

ParseKind parses the provided string into a Kind

If the string cannot be parsed KindUnknown is returned

func (Kind) MarshalJSON

func (k Kind) MarshalJSON() ([]byte, error)

MarshalJSON the Kind to JSON

func (Kind) String

func (k Kind) String() string

String returns the string representation of the Kind

func (*Kind) UnmarshalJSON

func (k *Kind) UnmarshalJSON(b []byte) error

UnmarshalJSON the Kind from JSON

type Opt

type Opt func(info *Info) error

Opt allows setting mutable snapshot properties on creation

func WithLabels

func WithLabels(labels map[string]string) Opt

WithLabels appends labels to a created snapshot

type Snapshotter

type Snapshotter interface {
	// Stat returns the info for an active or committed snapshot by name or
	// key.
	// Should be used for parent resolution, existence checks and to discern
	// the kind of snapshot.
	Stat(ctx context.Context, key string) (Info, error)

	// Update updates the info for a snapshot.
	// Only mutable properties of a snapshot may be updated.
	Update(ctx context.Context, info Info, fieldpaths ...string) (Info, error)

	// Usage returns the resource usage of an active or committed snapshot
	// excluding the usage of parent snapshots.
	// The running time of this call for active snapshots is dependent on
	// implementation, but may be proportional to the size of the resource.
	// Callers should take this into consideration. Implementations should
	// attempt to honor context cancellation and avoid taking locks when making
	// the calculation.
	Usage(ctx context.Context, key string) (Usage, error)

	// Mounts returns the mounts for the active snapshot transaction identified
	// by key. Can be called on a read-write or readonly transaction. This is
	// available only for active snapshots.
	// This can be used to recover mounts after calling View or Prepare.
	Mounts(ctx context.Context, key string) ([]mount.Mount, error)

	// Prepare creates an active snapshot identified by key descending from the
	// provided parent.  The returned mounts can be used to mount the snapshot
	// to capture changes.
	// If a parent is provided, after performing the mounts, the destination
	// will start with the content of the parent. The parent must be a
	// committed snapshot. Changes to the mounted destination will be captured
	// in relation to the parent. The default parent, "", is an empty
	// directory.
	// The changes may be saved to a committed snapshot by calling Commit. When
	// one is done with the transaction, Remove should be called on the key.
	// Multiple calls to Prepare or View with the same key should fail.
	Prepare(ctx context.Context, key, parent string, opts ...Opt) ([]mount.Mount, error)

	// View behaves identically to Prepare except the result may not be
	// committed back to the snapshot snapshotter. View returns a readonly view on
	// the parent, with the active snapshot being tracked by the given key.
	// This method operates identically to Prepare, except the mounts returned
	// may have the readonly flag set. Any modifications to the underlying
	// filesystem will be ignored. Implementations may perform this in a more
	// efficient manner that differs from what would be attempted with
	// `Prepare`.
	// Commit may not be called on the provided key and will return an error.
	// To collect the resources associated with key, Remove must be called with
	// key as the argument.
	View(ctx context.Context, key, parent string, opts ...Opt) ([]mount.Mount, error)

	// Commit captures the changes between key and its parent into a snapshot
	// identified by name.  The name can then be used with the snapshotter's other
	// methods to create subsequent snapshots.
	// A committed snapshot will be created under name with the parent of the
	// active snapshot.
	// After commit, the snapshot identified by key is removed.
	Commit(ctx context.Context, name, key string, opts ...Opt) error

	// Remove the committed or active snapshot by the provided key.
	// All resources associated with the key will be removed.
	// If the snapshot is a parent of another snapshot, its children must be
	// removed before proceeding.
	Remove(ctx context.Context, key string) error

	// Walk will call the provided function for each snapshot in the
	// snapshotter which match the provided filters. If no filters are
	// given all items will be walked.
	// Filters:
	//  name
	//  parent
	//  kind (active,view,committed)
	//  labels.(label)
	Walk(ctx context.Context, fn WalkFunc, filters ...string) error

	// Close releases the internal resources.
	// Close is expected to be called on the end of the lifecycle of the snapshotter,
	// but not mandatory.
	// Close returns nil when it is already closed.
	Close() error

Snapshotter defines the methods required to implement a snapshot snapshotter for allocating, snapshotting and mounting filesystem changesets. The model works by building up sets of changes with parent-child relationships.

A snapshot represents a filesystem state. Every snapshot has a parent, where the empty parent is represented by the empty string. A diff can be taken between a parent and its snapshot to generate a classic layer.

An active snapshot is created by calling `Prepare`. After mounting, changes can be made to the snapshot. The act of committing creates a committed snapshot. The committed snapshot will get the parent of active snapshot. The committed snapshot can then be used as a parent. Active snapshots can never act as a parent.

Snapshots are best understood by their lifecycle. Active snapshots are always created with Prepare or View. Committed snapshots are always created with Commit. Active snapshots never become committed snapshots and vice versa. All snapshots may be removed.

For consistency, we define the following terms to be used throughout this interface for snapshotter implementations:

`ctx` - refers to a context.Context
`key` - refers to an active snapshot
`name` - refers to a committed snapshot
`parent` - refers to the parent in relation

Most methods take various combinations of these identifiers. Typically, `name` and `parent` will be used in cases where a method *only* takes committed snapshots. `key` will be used to refer to active snapshots in most cases, except where noted. All variables used to access snapshots use the same key space. For example, an active snapshot may not share the same key with a committed snapshot.

We cover several examples below to demonstrate the utility of the snapshotter.

Importing a Layer

To import a layer, we simply have the snapshotter provide a list of mounts to be applied such that our dst will capture a changeset. We start out by getting a path to the layer tar file and creating a temp location to unpack it to:

layerPath, tmpDir := getLayerPath(), mkTmpDir() // just a path to layer tar file.

We start by using the snapshotter to Prepare a new snapshot transaction, using a key and descending from the empty parent "". To prevent our layer from being garbage collected during unpacking, we add the `` label:

noGcOpt := snapshots.WithLabels(map[string]string{
	"": time.Now().UTC().Format(time.RFC3339),
mounts, err := snapshotter.Prepare(ctx, key, "", noGcOpt)
if err != nil { ... }

We get back a list of mounts from snapshotter.Prepare(), with the key identifying the active snapshot. Mount this to the temporary location with the following:

if err := mount.All(mounts, tmpDir); err != nil { ... }

Once the mounts are performed, our temporary location is ready to capture a diff. In practice, this works similar to a filesystem transaction. The next step is to unpack the layer. We have a special function unpackLayer that applies the contents of the layer to target location and calculates the DiffID of the unpacked layer (this is a requirement for docker implementation):

layer, err := os.Open(layerPath)
if err != nil { ... }
digest, err := unpackLayer(tmpLocation, layer) // unpack into layer location
if err != nil { ... }

When the above completes, we should have a filesystem that represents the contents of the layer. Careful implementations should verify that digest matches the expected DiffID. When completed, we unmount the mounts:

unmount(mounts) // optional, for now

Now that we've verified and unpacked our layer, we commit the active snapshot to a name. For this example, we are just going to use the layer digest, but in practice, this will probably be the ChainID. This also removes the active snapshot:

if err := snapshotter.Commit(ctx, digest.String(), key, noGcOpt); err != nil { ... }

Now, we have a layer in the snapshotter that can be accessed with the digest provided during commit.

Importing the Next Layer

Making a layer depend on the above is identical to the process described above except that the parent is provided as parent when calling snapshotter.Prepare(), assuming a clean, unique key identifier:

mounts, err := snapshotter.Prepare(ctx, key, parentDigest, noGcOpt)

We then mount, apply and commit, as we did above. The new snapshot will be based on the content of the previous one.

Running a Container

To run a container, we simply provide snapshotter.Prepare() the committed image snapshot as the parent. After mounting, the prepared path can be used directly as the container's filesystem:

mounts, err := snapshotter.Prepare(ctx, containerKey, imageRootFSChainID)

The returned mounts can then be passed directly to the container runtime. If one would like to create a new image from the filesystem, snapshotter.Commit() is called:

if err := snapshotter.Commit(ctx, newImageSnapshot, containerKey); err != nil { ... }

Alternatively, for most container runs, snapshotter.Remove() will be called to signal the snapshotter to abandon the changes.

type Usage

type Usage struct {
	Inodes int64 // number of inodes in use.
	Size   int64 // provides usage, in bytes, of snapshot

Usage defines statistics for disk resources consumed by the snapshot.

These resources only include the resources consumed by the snapshot itself and does not include resources usage by the parent.

func (*Usage) Add

func (u *Usage) Add(other Usage)

Add the provided usage to the current usage

type WalkFunc added in v1.4.0

type WalkFunc func(context.Context, Info) error

WalkFunc defines the callback for a snapshot walk.


Path Synopsis
Package storage provides a metadata storage implementation for snapshot drivers.
Package storage provides a metadata storage implementation for snapshot drivers.

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