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Published: Jun 4, 2021 License: Apache-2.0

README

Automated Acceptance Tests

The ui subdirectory contains UI functional tests which can be executed in a completely automated fashion using Capybara in a Docker container. The api subdirectory contains a set of tests for v2 of the CC REST API.

The tests may be run against Firefox or Chrome. It also includes support for screenshots of failed tests cases.

#Table of Contents

Overview

The docker image zenoss/capybara contains all of the tools and libraries required to run Capybara against Firefox or Chrome.

The subdirectory ui is mounted into the docker container under the directory /capybara, giving the tools in the container access to all of the cucumber/capybara test files defined in ui.

The script runCucumber.sh is executed from within docker. It handles any runtime setup (such as starting Xvfb if necessary), and then executes Cucumber.

A report of the test execution is written to ui/output.

How to run

Step 1 - Start Control Center

The test suite assumes serviced is already running and ready to receive requests from a web browser or a REST client.

To run the test, you must specify the URL for Control Center either by setting the environment variable APPLICATION_URL or by specifying the command line argument -a <url>. Do not use https://localhost because from the perspective of Capybara/Cucumber running inside the container, https://localhost refers to the container itself.

Step 2 - Build the docker image (optional)

The docker image containing Cucumber and Capybara is available on the Zenoss dockerhub repo as zenoss/capybara:$(VERSION), so you do not need to build it yourself.

In case you do want/need to build the docker image containing Cucumber and Capybara, use the following commands:

$ zendev cd serviced
$ cd acceptance/dockerImage
$ make

Once the image has been built, you can use the following commands to push it to Docker hub:

$ zendev cd serviced
$ cd acceptance/dockerImage
$ make dockerPush

NOTE: The version of the docker image is defined by the file dockerImage/VERSION. If you modify the contents of the image, you should update the version number in that file before building/pushing a new image.

Step 3 - Setup the test environment
Start the mock agents

The test suite uses mock agents for tests involving hosts. The mock agents do not (currently) connect to Zookeeper, nor do they have the ability to mock service executions. Their primary purpose is to provide light-weight mocks for the set of properties for each host (CPU, RAM, Kernel Version, CC version, etc). To build the mock agent, use the following commands:

$ zendev cd serviced
$ make mockAgent

To run the mock agents, use the following commands:

$ cd acceptance
$ ./startMockAgents.sh

This step is not necessary if you do not run tests involving hosts.

NOTE: If you stop and restart the start mock agents script while serviced is running, you may see a "Bad Request: connection is shut down" error when you try to add a mock agent. Restarting serviced will fix this.

Add the test template

The Application tests assume that a test template has already been added to the system. To compile and add the test template, use the following commands:

$ zendev cd serviced
$ serviced template compile dao/testsvc | serviced template add

In the future, this step may be incorporated directly into the Cucumber tests for Applications.

Step 4 - Run the test suite

Note: on a local developer setup, please set the following in your env or at cmd line as you run the launcher scripts:

SERVICED_ETC_PATH=$(zendev root)/opt_serviced/etc
SERVICED_ISVCS_PATH=$(zendev root)/opt_serviced/var/isvcs 
SERVICED_BINARY=$(which serviced)
UI acceptance

Capybara uses different 'drivers' to interface with a web browser. By default, runUIAcceptance.sh executes tests against Chrome. The test suite can be run against any one of several browsers by selecting different drivers. Both of the following commands run the test suite against Chrome:

$ ./runUIAcceptance.sh -a <servicedURL> -u <userID> -p <password>
or
$ ./runUIAcceptance.sh -d selenium_chrome -a <servicedURL> -u <userID> -p <password>

To run the tests against Firefox, use

$ ./runUIAcceptance.sh -d selenium -a <servicedURL> -u <userID> -p <password>

For a full description of the command line options, run ./runUIAcceptance.sh -h

API acceptance

None of the above browser concerns are needed in the REST tests.

$ ./runAPIAcceptance.sh -a <servicedURL> -u <userID> -p <password>
Step 5 - Review the test results

The output from the tests are written to stdout as the tests execute. Additionally, an HTML report is written to ui/output/feature-overview.html. If a test case fails, the HTML report will include a screenshot of the browser at the point in time when the test case failed.

Cucumber Command Line Options

Cucumber command line options can be specified by defining the environment variable CUCUMBER_OPTS on the make command line.

Environment variables

Environment variables are used to pass information into the docker container which are used by the shell and Ruby scripts executed in the container.

The primary variables used by runUIAcceptance.sh are:

  • APPLICATION_URL - the URL of the application under test. You can set this variable with the -a command line option for runUIAcceptance.sh.
  • APPLICATION_USERID - the user id to login into the application under test. You can set this variable with the -u command line option for runUIAcceptance.sh.
  • APPLICATION_PASSWORD - the password used to login into the application under test. You can set this variable with the -p command line option for runUIAcceptance.sh.
  • CAPYBARA_DRIVER - the name of the Capybara web driver to use. Valid values are selenium (which uses Firefox), or selenium_chrome. The default if not specified is selenium_chrome. You can set this variable with the -d command line option for runUIAcceptance.sh.
  • CAPYBARA_TIMEOUT - the timeout, in seconds, that Capybara should wait for a page or element. The default is 10 seconds. You can set this variable with the -t command line option for runUIAcceptance.sh.
  • CUCUMBER_OPTS - any of the standard command line options for Cucumber.
  • DATASET - the JSON dataset to use as test input. You can set this variable with the --dataset command line option for runUIAcceptance.sh.

Internally, the script also uses the variables CALLER_UID and CALLER_GID to capture the current user's UID and GID which are used in the container so that files written to ui/output will have the proper owner/group information (for OSX, see Known Issues). These two variables should not be overwritten or modified. For an example of how these two variables are used, refer to the dockerImage/build/runCucumber.sh script.

For details of how all of these variables are used, see ui/features/support/env.rb and ui/features/support/application.rb

For a full list of possible options for Cucumber itself, pass the --help option to Cucumber like this:

$ CUCUMBER_OPTS=--help ./runUIAcceptance.sh -a <servicedURL> -u <userid> -p <password>

Examples

Running a subset of tests

Cucumber supports a feature called tags which can be used to run a subset of tests. A full explanation of using tags is beyond the scope of this document; see the Cucumber documentation for a full description.

For example, you can run tests for a single tag with a command like:

$ ./runUIAcceptance.sh -a <servicedURL> -u <userid> -p <password> --tags @hosts

or you can include tags as part of the CUCUMBER_OPTS environment variable

$ CUCUMBER_OPTS='--tags @hosts' ./runUIAcceptance.sh -a <servicedURL> -u <userid> -p <password>

Looking at a failed test case

If a test step fails, the test harness will capture a screenshot. If you have not seen a failed test case already, run the tests with an invalid userid and/or password. If you open ui/output/feature-overview.html with a browser and drill into the details for the login feature, you will see the output in a nicely formatted table. Look for a "Screenshot" link below the error report for the failed step. Clicking on that link should display an image captured at the time of the failure.

Tagging conventions

Cucumber offers a powerful tagging feature that can be used to control which features and/or scenarios are run, as well as enabling custom 'hooks' to run specific blocks of code at different points.

Some of the tags defined by this project are:

  • feature tags - There is a unique tag on each Feature to allow running single features at a time or in combination. Some of the valid values are @login, and @hosts
  • login hook - The tag @login-required illustrates how to use hook tags to automatically execute some block of code before/after the associated feature/step. In this case, the @login-required tag will login the user before each feature/step decorated with the tag (remember that each Scenario executes as a new browser session).

To specify one or more of these tags, add the --tags tagName to the command line. For instance, the following command will run just the tests for the hosts feature:

$ ./runUIAcceptance.sh -a servicedURL -u yourUserID -p yourPasswordHere --tags @hosts

For information about this Cucumber feature, see:

Watching the browser while the tests run

Normally, the browser used by the tests is executed within the Docker container using the X virtual framebuffer (Xvfb) so nothing is displayed. For debugging purposes, it is often useful to view the browser while the test runs. To do that, include the --debug argument as illustrated below:

$ xhost +
$ ./runUIAcceptance.sh --debug -a servicedURL -u yourUserID -p yourPasswordHere

NOTE: You only need to execute the command xhost + once.

Mark a test PENDING

When a test is marked PENDING, Cucumber will skip it. This is useful for several scenarios, including Behavior Driven Development (BDD), where you want to first write the test case, and then write the code to make the test case pass. However, in between the time you create the test case and the time you implement the code, you may not want all of the intervening test-case executions to fail (e.g. tests launched by an automated build). The following example illustrates how to mark a test case as PENDING:

  @login-required
  Scenario: View empty Hosts page
    When PENDING I am on the hosts page
    Then I should see "Applications"
      And I should see "No Data Found"
      And I should see "0 Results"
Page Object Model

The combination of Cucumber and Capybara offer huge advantages in terms of being able to write tests using a simple, expressive DSL that describes how to interact with your application's UI. However, as your application and your tests grow, you can easily run into situations where implementation details about a particular page or reusable element are either 'leaking' into Step statements explicitly, or they are constantly repeated across step definitions. For instances, things like the IDs or CSS/Xpath expressions used to identify specific elements on a page can end up being repeated over and over again. When the actual page definition is changed by a developer, then you have to make the same refactor across multiple places in your tests.

A Page Object Model is a DSL for describing for the page itself. Think of it as a secondary DSL "below" the DSL expresssed in the test features. The Page Object Model should encapsulate all of the implementation detail like DOM identifiers, CSS/xpath matching expressions, etc.

These tests use Site Prism to implement a Page Object Model. The various page objects are is defined in the ui/features/pages directory and used in the step definitions. For instance, the login page is defined in ui/features/pages/login.rb, and it is used in ui/features/steps/login_steps.rb.

For more discussion of the Page Object Model, see

Guidelines

Please follow these guidelines when writing or modifying tests.

TODOs

  • Add example of CLI validation using Cucumber.
  • The code in 'common' is an altered copy of the CLI wrapper specific to the UI tests. There were gem dependency issues (mime-types) when trying to reuse the code as is -- maybe fork cucumber-api and try updating the rest-client gem.
  • In order to share common code, the 'common' folder is mounted and symlinked in the container. There is a file called common_include that is pulling in dependencies from common, since cucumber can't find them even though they are under the 'features' folder.'

Known Issues

  • With upgrade to zenoss/capybara:1.1.0, the --debug option stopped working.
  • The tests don't work on Mac OSX for a variety of reasons:
    • The run script makes Linux-specific assumptions about mapping timezone definitions into the container.
    • On Mac OSX with boot2docker, if you have problems reaching archive.ubuntu.com while trying to run dockerBuild.sh, refer to the workaround here.
    • On Mac OSX with boot2docker, boot2docker will automagically map the root user of the docker container to the current user of the host OS. This use-case needs more testing.

References

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