iavl

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Published: Aug 3, 2022 License: Apache-2.0 Imports: 28 Imported by: 69

README

IAVL+ Tree

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Note: Requires Go 1.17+

A versioned, snapshottable (immutable) AVL+ tree for persistent data.

The purpose of this data structure is to provide persistent storage for key-value pairs (say to store account balances) such that a deterministic merkle root hash can be computed. The tree is balanced using a variant of the AVL algorithm so all operations are O(log(n)).

Nodes of this tree are immutable and indexed by their hash. Thus any node serves as an immutable snapshot which lets us stage uncommitted transactions from the mempool cheaply, and we can instantly roll back to the last committed state to process transactions of a newly committed block (which may not be the same set of transactions as those from the mempool).

In an AVL tree, the heights of the two child subtrees of any node differ by at most one. Whenever this condition is violated upon an update, the tree is rebalanced by creating O(log(n)) new nodes that point to unmodified nodes of the old tree. In the original AVL algorithm, inner nodes can also hold key-value pairs. The AVL+ algorithm (note the plus) modifies the AVL algorithm to keep all values on leaf nodes, while only using branch-nodes to store keys. This simplifies the algorithm while keeping the merkle hash trail short.

In Ethereum, the analog is Patricia tries. There are tradeoffs. Keys do not need to be hashed prior to insertion in IAVL+ trees, so this provides faster iteration in the key space which may benefit some applications. The logic is simpler to implement, requiring only two types of nodes -- inner nodes and leaf nodes. On the other hand, while IAVL+ trees provide a deterministic merkle root hash, it depends on the order of transactions. In practice this shouldn't be a problem, since you can efficiently encode the tree structure when serializing the tree contents.

Documentation

Overview

Package iavl implements a versioned, snapshottable (immutable) AVL+ tree for persisting key-value pairs.

The tree is not safe for concurrent use, and must be guarded by a Mutex or RWLock as appropriate - the exception is immutable trees returned by MutableTree.GetImmutable() which are safe for concurrent use as long as the version is not deleted via DeleteVersion().

Basic usage of MutableTree:

import "github.com/cosmos/iavl"
import "github.com/tendermint/tm-db"
...

tree := iavl.NewMutableTree(db.NewMemDB(), 128)

tree.IsEmpty() // true

tree.Set([]byte("alice"), []byte("abc"))
tree.SaveVersion(1)

tree.Set([]byte("alice"), []byte("xyz"))
tree.Set([]byte("bob"), []byte("xyz"))
tree.SaveVersion(2)

tree.LatestVersion() // 2

tree.GetVersioned([]byte("alice"), 1) // "abc"
tree.GetVersioned([]byte("alice"), 2) // "xyz"

Proof of existence:

root := tree.Hash()
val, proof, err := tree.GetVersionedWithProof([]byte("bob"), 2) // "xyz", RangeProof, nil
proof.Verify([]byte("bob"), val, root) // nil

Proof of absence:

_, proof, err = tree.GetVersionedWithProof([]byte("tom"), 2) // nil, RangeProof, nil
proof.Verify([]byte("tom"), nil, root) // nil

Now we delete an old version:

tree.DeleteVersion(1)
tree.VersionExists(1) // false
tree.Get([]byte("alice")) // "xyz"
tree.GetVersioned([]byte("alice"), 1) // nil

Can't create a proof of absence for a version we no longer have:

_, proof, err = tree.GetVersionedWithProof([]byte("tom"), 1) // nil, nil, error

Index

Examples

Constants

View Source
const (
	ANSIReset  = "\x1b[0m"
	ANSIBright = "\x1b[1m"

	ANSIFgGreen = "\x1b[32m"
	ANSIFgBlue  = "\x1b[34m"
	ANSIFgCyan  = "\x1b[36m"
)
View Source
const ProofOpIAVLAbsence = "iavl:a"
View Source
const ProofOpIAVLValue = "iavl:v"

Variables

View Source
var (
	ErrCloneLeafNode  = fmt.Errorf("attempt to copy a leaf node")
	ErrEmptyChildHash = fmt.Errorf("found an empty child hash")
	ErrLeftHashIsNil  = fmt.Errorf("node.leftHash was nil in writeBytes")
	ErrRightHashIsNil = fmt.Errorf("node.rightHash was nil in writeBytes")
)
View Source
var (
	ErrNodeMissingHash      = fmt.Errorf("node does not have a hash")
	ErrNodeAlreadyPersisted = fmt.Errorf("shouldn't be calling save on an already persisted node")
	ErrRootMissingHash      = fmt.Errorf("root hash must not be empty")
)
View Source
var (
	// ErrInvalidProof is returned by Verify when a proof cannot be validated.
	ErrInvalidProof = fmt.Errorf("invalid proof")

	// ErrInvalidInputs is returned when the inputs passed to the function are invalid.
	ErrInvalidInputs = fmt.Errorf("invalid inputs")

	// ErrInvalidRoot is returned when the root passed in does not match the proof's.
	ErrInvalidRoot = fmt.Errorf("invalid root")
)
View Source
var (
	Version = ""
	Commit  = ""
	Branch  = ""
)

Version of iavl. Fill in fields with build flags

View Source
var ErrNoImport = errors.New("no import in progress")

ErrNoImport is returned when calling methods on a closed importer

View Source
var ErrVersionDoesNotExist = errors.New("version does not exist")

ErrVersionDoesNotExist is returned if a requested version does not exist.

View Source
var ExportDone = errors.New("export is complete") // nolint:golint

ExportDone is returned by Exporter.Next() when all items have been exported. nolint:revive

Functions

func AbsenceOpDecoder added in v0.15.0

func AbsenceOpDecoder(pop tmmerkle.ProofOp) (merkle.ProofOperator, error)

func Blue added in v0.15.0

func Blue(args ...interface{}) string

func ColoredBytes added in v0.15.0

func ColoredBytes(data []byte, textColor, bytesColor func(...interface{}) string) string

ColoredBytes takes in the byte that you would like to show as a string and byte and will display them in a human readable format. If the environment variable TENDERMINT_IAVL_COLORS_ON is set to a non-empty string then different colors will be used for bytes and strings.

func Cyan added in v0.15.0

func Cyan(args ...interface{}) string

func Green added in v0.15.0

func Green(args ...interface{}) string

func NewIterator added in v0.19.0

func NewIterator(start, end []byte, ascending bool, tree *ImmutableTree) dbm.Iterator

Returns a new iterator over the immutable tree. If the tree is nil, the iterator will be invalid.

func PrintTree added in v0.8.0

func PrintTree(tree *ImmutableTree)

PrintTree prints the whole tree in an indented form.

func Repair013Orphans added in v0.15.0

func Repair013Orphans(db dbm.DB) (uint64, error)

Repair013Orphans repairs incorrect orphan entries written by IAVL 0.13 pruning. To use it, close a database using IAVL 0.13, make a backup copy, and then run this function before opening the database with IAVL 0.14 or later. It returns the number of faulty orphan entries removed. If the 0.13 database was written with KeepEvery:1 (the default) or the last version _ever_ saved to the tree was a multiple of `KeepEvery` and thus saved to disk, this repair is not necessary.

Note that this cannot be used directly on Cosmos SDK databases, since they store multiple IAVL trees in the same underlying database via a prefix scheme.

The pruning functionality enabled with Options.KeepEvery > 1 would write orphans entries to disk for versions that should only have been saved in memory, and these orphan entries were clamped to the last version persisted to disk instead of the version that generated them (so a delete at version 749 might generate an orphan entry ending at version 700 for KeepEvery:100). If the database is reopened at the last persisted version and this version is later deleted, the orphaned nodes can be deleted prematurely or incorrectly, causing data loss and database corruption.

This function removes these incorrect orphan entries by deleting all orphan entries that have a to-version equal to or greater than the latest persisted version. Correct orphans will never have this, since they must have been deleted in a future (non-existent) version for that to be the case.

func ValueOpDecoder added in v0.15.0

func ValueOpDecoder(pop tmmerkle.ProofOp) (merkle.ProofOperator, error)

func WriteDOTGraph

func WriteDOTGraph(w io.Writer, tree *ImmutableTree, paths []PathToLeaf)

Types

type AbsenceOp added in v0.15.0

type AbsenceOp struct {

	// To encode in ProofOp.Data.
	// Proof is nil for an empty tree.
	// The hash of an empty tree is nil.
	Proof *RangeProof `json:"proof"`
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

IAVLAbsenceOp takes a key as its only argument

If the produced root hash matches the expected hash, the proof is good.

func NewAbsenceOp added in v0.15.0

func NewAbsenceOp(key []byte, proof *RangeProof) AbsenceOp

func (AbsenceOp) GetKey added in v0.15.0

func (op AbsenceOp) GetKey() []byte

func (AbsenceOp) ProofOp added in v0.15.0

func (op AbsenceOp) ProofOp() tmmerkle.ProofOp

func (AbsenceOp) Run added in v0.15.0

func (op AbsenceOp) Run(args [][]byte) ([][]byte, error)

func (AbsenceOp) String added in v0.15.0

func (op AbsenceOp) String() string

type ExportNode added in v0.15.0

type ExportNode struct {
	Key     []byte
	Value   []byte
	Version int64
	Height  int8
}

ExportNode contains exported node data.

type Exporter added in v0.15.0

type Exporter struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

Exporter exports nodes from an ImmutableTree. It is created by ImmutableTree.Export().

Exported nodes can be imported into an empty tree with MutableTree.Import(). Nodes are exported depth-first post-order (LRN), this order must be preserved when importing in order to recreate the same tree structure.

func (*Exporter) Close added in v0.15.0

func (e *Exporter) Close()

Close closes the exporter. It is safe to call multiple times.

func (*Exporter) Next added in v0.15.0

func (e *Exporter) Next() (*ExportNode, error)

Next fetches the next exported node, or returns ExportDone when done.

type FastIterator added in v0.19.0

type FastIterator struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

FastIterator is a dbm.Iterator for ImmutableTree it iterates over the latest state via fast nodes, taking advantage of keys being located in sequence in the underlying database.

func NewFastIterator added in v0.19.0

func NewFastIterator(start, end []byte, ascending bool, ndb *nodeDB) *FastIterator

func (*FastIterator) Close added in v0.19.0

func (iter *FastIterator) Close() error

Close implements dbm.Iterator

func (*FastIterator) Domain added in v0.19.0

func (iter *FastIterator) Domain() ([]byte, []byte)

Domain implements dbm.Iterator. Maps the underlying nodedb iterator domain, to the 'logical' keys involved.

func (*FastIterator) Error added in v0.19.0

func (iter *FastIterator) Error() error

Error implements dbm.Iterator

func (*FastIterator) Key added in v0.19.0

func (iter *FastIterator) Key() []byte

Key implements dbm.Iterator

func (*FastIterator) Next added in v0.19.0

func (iter *FastIterator) Next()

Next implements dbm.Iterator

func (*FastIterator) Valid added in v0.19.0

func (iter *FastIterator) Valid() bool

Valid implements dbm.Iterator.

func (*FastIterator) Value added in v0.19.0

func (iter *FastIterator) Value() []byte

Value implements dbm.Iterator

type FastNode added in v0.19.0

type FastNode struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

func DeserializeFastNode added in v0.19.0

func DeserializeFastNode(key []byte, buf []byte) (*FastNode, error)

DeserializeFastNode constructs an *FastNode from an encoded byte slice.

func NewFastNode added in v0.19.0

func NewFastNode(key []byte, value []byte, version int64) *FastNode

NewFastNode returns a new fast node from a value and version.

func (*FastNode) GetKey added in v0.19.1

func (fn *FastNode) GetKey() []byte

type ImmutableTree added in v0.10.0

type ImmutableTree struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

ImmutableTree contains the immutable tree at a given version. It is typically created by calling MutableTree.GetImmutable(), in which case the returned tree is safe for concurrent access as long as the version is not deleted via DeleteVersion() or the tree's pruning settings.

Returned key/value byte slices must not be modified, since they may point to data located inside IAVL which would also be modified.

func NewImmutableTree added in v0.10.0

func NewImmutableTree(db dbm.DB, cacheSize int) *ImmutableTree

NewImmutableTree creates both in-memory and persistent instances

func NewImmutableTreeWithOpts added in v0.15.0

func NewImmutableTreeWithOpts(db dbm.DB, cacheSize int, opts *Options) *ImmutableTree

NewImmutableTreeWithOpts creates an ImmutableTree with the given options.

func (*ImmutableTree) Export added in v0.15.0

func (t *ImmutableTree) Export() *Exporter

Export returns an iterator that exports tree nodes as ExportNodes. These nodes can be imported with MutableTree.Import() to recreate an identical tree.

func (*ImmutableTree) Get added in v0.10.0

func (t *ImmutableTree) Get(key []byte) ([]byte, error)

Get returns the value of the specified key if it exists, or nil. The returned value must not be modified, since it may point to data stored within IAVL. Get potentially employs a more performant strategy than GetWithIndex for retrieving the value.

func (*ImmutableTree) GetByIndex added in v0.10.0

func (t *ImmutableTree) GetByIndex(index int64) (key []byte, value []byte, err error)

GetByIndex gets the key and value at the specified index.

func (*ImmutableTree) GetMembershipProof added in v0.15.0

func (t *ImmutableTree) GetMembershipProof(key []byte) (*ics23.CommitmentProof, error)

GetMembershipProof will produce a CommitmentProof that the given key (and queries value) exists in the iavl tree. If the key doesn't exist in the tree, this will return an error.

func (*ImmutableTree) GetNonMembershipProof added in v0.15.0

func (t *ImmutableTree) GetNonMembershipProof(key []byte) (*ics23.CommitmentProof, error)

GetNonMembershipProof will produce a CommitmentProof that the given key doesn't exist in the iavl tree. If the key exists in the tree, this will return an error.

func (*ImmutableTree) GetRangeWithProof added in v0.10.0

func (t *ImmutableTree) GetRangeWithProof(startKey []byte, endKey []byte, limit int) (keys, values [][]byte, proof *RangeProof, err error)

GetRangeWithProof gets key/value pairs within the specified range and limit.

func (*ImmutableTree) GetWithIndex added in v0.19.0

func (t *ImmutableTree) GetWithIndex(key []byte) (int64, []byte, error)

GetWithIndex returns the index and value of the specified key if it exists, or nil and the next index otherwise. The returned value must not be modified, since it may point to data stored within IAVL.

The index is the index in the list of leaf nodes sorted lexicographically by key. The leftmost leaf has index 0. It's neighbor has index 1 and so on.

func (*ImmutableTree) GetWithProof added in v0.10.0

func (t *ImmutableTree) GetWithProof(key []byte) (value []byte, proof *RangeProof, err error)

GetWithProof gets the value under the key if it exists, or returns nil. A proof of existence or absence is returned alongside the value.

func (*ImmutableTree) Has added in v0.10.0

func (t *ImmutableTree) Has(key []byte) (bool, error)

Has returns whether or not a key exists.

func (*ImmutableTree) Hash added in v0.10.0

func (t *ImmutableTree) Hash() ([]byte, error)

Hash returns the root hash.

func (*ImmutableTree) Height added in v0.10.0

func (t *ImmutableTree) Height() int8

Height returns the height of the tree.

func (*ImmutableTree) IsFastCacheEnabled added in v0.19.0

func (t *ImmutableTree) IsFastCacheEnabled() (bool, error)

IsFastCacheEnabled returns true if fast cache is enabled, false otherwise. For fast cache to be enabled, the following 2 conditions must be met: 1. The tree is of the latest version. 2. The underlying storage has been upgraded to fast cache

func (*ImmutableTree) Iterate added in v0.10.0

func (t *ImmutableTree) Iterate(fn func(key []byte, value []byte) bool) (bool, error)

Iterate iterates over all keys of the tree. The keys and values must not be modified, since they may point to data stored within IAVL. Returns true if stopped by callback, false otherwise

func (*ImmutableTree) IterateRange added in v0.10.0

func (t *ImmutableTree) IterateRange(start, end []byte, ascending bool, fn func(key []byte, value []byte) bool) (stopped bool)

IterateRange makes a callback for all nodes with key between start and end non-inclusive. If either are nil, then it is open on that side (nil, nil is the same as Iterate). The keys and values must not be modified, since they may point to data stored within IAVL.

func (*ImmutableTree) IterateRangeInclusive added in v0.10.0

func (t *ImmutableTree) IterateRangeInclusive(start, end []byte, ascending bool, fn func(key, value []byte, version int64) bool) (stopped bool)

IterateRangeInclusive makes a callback for all nodes with key between start and end inclusive. If either are nil, then it is open on that side (nil, nil is the same as Iterate). The keys and values must not be modified, since they may point to data stored within IAVL.

func (*ImmutableTree) Iterator added in v0.17.2

func (t *ImmutableTree) Iterator(start, end []byte, ascending bool) (dbm.Iterator, error)

Iterator returns an iterator over the immutable tree.

func (*ImmutableTree) RenderShape added in v0.15.0

func (t *ImmutableTree) RenderShape(indent string, encoder NodeEncoder) ([]string, error)

RenderShape provides a nested tree shape, ident is prepended in each level Returns an array of strings, one per line, to join with "\n" or display otherwise

func (*ImmutableTree) Size added in v0.10.0

func (t *ImmutableTree) Size() int64

Size returns the number of leaf nodes in the tree.

func (*ImmutableTree) String added in v0.10.0

func (t *ImmutableTree) String() string

String returns a string representation of Tree.

func (*ImmutableTree) Version added in v0.10.0

func (t *ImmutableTree) Version() int64

Version returns the version of the tree.

type Importer added in v0.15.0

type Importer struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

Importer imports data into an empty MutableTree. It is created by MutableTree.Import(). Users must call Close() when done.

ExportNodes must be imported in the order returned by Exporter, i.e. depth-first post-order (LRN).

Importer is not concurrency-safe, it is the caller's responsibility to ensure the tree is not modified while performing an import.

Example
tree, err := NewMutableTree(db.NewMemDB(), 0)
if err != nil {
	// handle err
}

tree.Set([]byte("a"), []byte{1})
tree.Set([]byte("b"), []byte{2})
tree.Set([]byte("c"), []byte{3})
_, version, err := tree.SaveVersion()
if err != nil {
	// handle err
}

itree, err := tree.GetImmutable(version)
if err != nil {
	// handle err
}
exporter := itree.Export()
defer exporter.Close()
exported := []*ExportNode{}
for {
	var node *ExportNode
	node, err = exporter.Next()
	if err == ExportDone {
		break
	} else if err != nil {
		// handle err
	}
	exported = append(exported, node)
}

newTree, err := NewMutableTree(db.NewMemDB(), 0)
if err != nil {
	// handle err
}
importer, err := newTree.Import(version)
if err != nil {
	// handle err
}
defer importer.Close()
for _, node := range exported {
	err = importer.Add(node)
	if err != nil {
		// handle err
	}
}
err = importer.Commit()
if err != nil {
	// handle err
}
Output:

func (*Importer) Add added in v0.15.0

func (i *Importer) Add(exportNode *ExportNode) error

Add adds an ExportNode to the import. ExportNodes must be added in the order returned by Exporter, i.e. depth-first post-order (LRN). Nodes are periodically flushed to the database, but the imported version is not visible until Commit() is called.

func (*Importer) Close added in v0.15.0

func (i *Importer) Close()

Close frees all resources. It is safe to call multiple times. Uncommitted nodes may already have been flushed to the database, but will not be visible.

func (*Importer) Commit added in v0.15.0

func (i *Importer) Commit() error

Commit finalizes the import by flushing any outstanding nodes to the database, making the version visible, and updating the tree metadata. It can only be called once, and calls Close() internally.

type Iterator added in v0.17.2

type Iterator struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

Iterator is a dbm.Iterator for ImmutableTree

func (*Iterator) Close added in v0.17.2

func (iter *Iterator) Close() error

Close implements dbm.Iterator

func (*Iterator) Domain added in v0.17.2

func (iter *Iterator) Domain() ([]byte, []byte)

Domain implements dbm.Iterator.

func (*Iterator) Error added in v0.17.2

func (iter *Iterator) Error() error

Error implements dbm.Iterator

func (*Iterator) IsFast added in v0.19.0

func (iter *Iterator) IsFast() bool

IsFast returnts true if iterator uses fast strategy

func (*Iterator) Key added in v0.17.2

func (iter *Iterator) Key() []byte

Key implements dbm.Iterator

func (*Iterator) Next added in v0.17.2

func (iter *Iterator) Next()

Next implements dbm.Iterator

func (*Iterator) Valid added in v0.17.2

func (iter *Iterator) Valid() bool

Valid implements dbm.Iterator.

func (*Iterator) Value added in v0.17.2

func (iter *Iterator) Value() []byte

Value implements dbm.Iterator

type KeyFormat added in v0.11.0

type KeyFormat struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

Provides a fixed-width lexicographically sortable []byte key format

func NewKeyFormat added in v0.11.0

func NewKeyFormat(prefix byte, layout ...int) *KeyFormat

Create a []byte key format based on a single byte prefix and fixed width key segments each of whose length is specified by by the corresponding element of layout.

For example, to store keys that could index some objects by a version number and their SHA256 hash using the form: 'c<version uint64><hash [32]byte>' then you would define the KeyFormat with:

var keyFormat = NewKeyFormat('c', 8, 32)

Then you can create a key with:

func ObjectKey(version uint64, objectBytes []byte) []byte {
	hasher := sha256.New()
	hasher.Sum(nil)
	return keyFormat.Key(version, hasher.Sum(nil))
}

if the last term of the layout ends in 0

func (*KeyFormat) Key added in v0.11.0

func (kf *KeyFormat) Key(args ...interface{}) []byte

Format the args passed into the key format - will panic if the arguments passed do not match the length of the segment to which they correspond. When called with no arguments returns the raw prefix (useful as a start element of the entire keys space when sorted lexicographically).

func (*KeyFormat) KeyBytes added in v0.11.0

func (kf *KeyFormat) KeyBytes(segments ...[]byte) []byte

Format the byte segments into the key format - will panic if the segment lengths do not match the layout.

func (*KeyFormat) Prefix added in v0.11.0

func (kf *KeyFormat) Prefix() string

Return the prefix as a string.

func (*KeyFormat) Scan added in v0.11.0

func (kf *KeyFormat) Scan(key []byte, args ...interface{})

Extracts the segments into the values pointed to by each of args. Each arg must be a pointer to int64, uint64, or []byte, and the width of the args must match layout.

func (*KeyFormat) ScanBytes added in v0.11.0

func (kf *KeyFormat) ScanBytes(key []byte) [][]byte

Reads out the bytes associated with each segment of the key format from key.

type MutableTree added in v0.10.0

type MutableTree struct {
	*ImmutableTree // The current, working tree.
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

MutableTree is a persistent tree which keeps track of versions. It is not safe for concurrent use, and should be guarded by a Mutex or RWLock as appropriate. An immutable tree at a given version can be returned via GetImmutable, which is safe for concurrent access.

Given and returned key/value byte slices must not be modified, since they may point to data located inside IAVL which would also be modified.

The inner ImmutableTree should not be used directly by callers.

func NewMutableTree added in v0.10.0

func NewMutableTree(db dbm.DB, cacheSize int) (*MutableTree, error)

NewMutableTree returns a new tree with the specified cache size and datastore.

func NewMutableTreeWithOpts added in v0.15.0

func NewMutableTreeWithOpts(db dbm.DB, cacheSize int, opts *Options) (*MutableTree, error)

NewMutableTreeWithOpts returns a new tree with the specified options.

func (*MutableTree) AvailableVersions added in v0.15.0

func (tree *MutableTree) AvailableVersions() []int

AvailableVersions returns all available versions in ascending order

func (*MutableTree) DeleteVersion added in v0.10.0

func (tree *MutableTree) DeleteVersion(version int64) error

DeleteVersion deletes a tree version from disk. The version can then no longer be accessed.

func (*MutableTree) DeleteVersions added in v0.15.0

func (tree *MutableTree) DeleteVersions(versions ...int64) error

DeleteVersions deletes a series of versions from the MutableTree. Deprecated: please use DeleteVersionsRange instead.

func (*MutableTree) DeleteVersionsRange added in v0.15.0

func (tree *MutableTree) DeleteVersionsRange(fromVersion, toVersion int64) error

DeleteVersionsRange removes versions from an interval from the MutableTree (not inclusive). An error is returned if any single version has active readers. All writes happen in a single batch with a single commit.

func (*MutableTree) Get added in v0.19.0

func (tree *MutableTree) Get(key []byte) ([]byte, error)

Get returns the value of the specified key if it exists, or nil otherwise. The returned value must not be modified, since it may point to data stored within IAVL.

func (*MutableTree) GetImmutable added in v0.10.0

func (tree *MutableTree) GetImmutable(version int64) (*ImmutableTree, error)

GetImmutable loads an ImmutableTree at a given version for querying. The returned tree is safe for concurrent access, provided the version is not deleted, e.g. via `DeleteVersion()`.

func (*MutableTree) GetVersioned added in v0.10.0

func (tree *MutableTree) GetVersioned(key []byte, version int64) ([]byte, error)

GetVersioned gets the value at the specified key and version. The returned value must not be modified, since it may point to data stored within IAVL.

func (*MutableTree) GetVersionedRangeWithProof added in v0.10.0

func (tree *MutableTree) GetVersionedRangeWithProof(startKey, endKey []byte, limit int, version int64) (
	keys, values [][]byte, proof *RangeProof, err error)

GetVersionedRangeWithProof gets key/value pairs within the specified range and limit.

func (*MutableTree) GetVersionedWithProof added in v0.10.0

func (tree *MutableTree) GetVersionedWithProof(key []byte, version int64) ([]byte, *RangeProof, error)

GetVersionedWithProof gets the value under the key at the specified version if it exists, or returns nil.

func (*MutableTree) Hash added in v0.10.0

func (tree *MutableTree) Hash() ([]byte, error)

Hash returns the hash of the latest saved version of the tree, as returned by SaveVersion. If no versions have been saved, Hash returns nil.

func (*MutableTree) Import added in v0.15.0

func (tree *MutableTree) Import(version int64) (*Importer, error)

Import returns an importer for tree nodes previously exported by ImmutableTree.Export(), producing an identical IAVL tree. The caller must call Close() on the importer when done.

version should correspond to the version that was initially exported. It must be greater than or equal to the highest ExportNode version number given.

Import can only be called on an empty tree. It is the callers responsibility that no other modifications are made to the tree while importing.

func (*MutableTree) IsEmpty added in v0.10.0

func (tree *MutableTree) IsEmpty() bool

IsEmpty returns whether or not the tree has any keys. Only trees that are not empty can be saved.

func (*MutableTree) IsUpgradeable added in v0.19.0

func (tree *MutableTree) IsUpgradeable() (bool, error)

Returns true if the tree may be auto-upgraded, false otherwise An example of when an upgrade may be performed is when we are enaling fast storage for the first time or need to overwrite fast nodes due to mismatch with live state.

func (*MutableTree) Iterate added in v0.19.0

func (tree *MutableTree) Iterate(fn func(key []byte, value []byte) bool) (stopped bool, err error)

Iterate iterates over all keys of the tree. The keys and values must not be modified, since they may point to data stored within IAVL. Returns true if stopped by callnack, false otherwise

func (*MutableTree) Iterator added in v0.19.0

func (tree *MutableTree) Iterator(start, end []byte, ascending bool) (dbm.Iterator, error)

Iterator returns an iterator over the mutable tree. CONTRACT: no updates are made to the tree while an iterator is active.

func (*MutableTree) LazyLoadVersion added in v0.15.0

func (tree *MutableTree) LazyLoadVersion(targetVersion int64) (int64, error)

LazyLoadVersion attempts to lazy load only the specified target version without loading previous roots/versions. Lazy loading should be used in cases where only reads are expected. Any writes to a lazy loaded tree may result in unexpected behavior. If the targetVersion is non-positive, the latest version will be loaded by default. If the latest version is non-positive, this method performs a no-op. Otherwise, if the root does not exist, an error will be returned.

func (*MutableTree) Load added in v0.10.0

func (tree *MutableTree) Load() (int64, error)

Load the latest versioned tree from disk.

func (*MutableTree) LoadVersion added in v0.10.0

func (tree *MutableTree) LoadVersion(targetVersion int64) (int64, error)

Returns the version number of the latest version found

func (*MutableTree) LoadVersionForOverwriting added in v0.11.1

func (tree *MutableTree) LoadVersionForOverwriting(targetVersion int64) (int64, error)

LoadVersionForOverwriting attempts to load a tree at a previously committed version, or the latest version below it. Any versions greater than targetVersion will be deleted.

func (*MutableTree) Remove added in v0.10.0

func (tree *MutableTree) Remove(key []byte) ([]byte, bool, error)

Remove removes a key from the working tree. The given key byte slice should not be modified after this call, since it may point to data stored inside IAVL.

func (*MutableTree) Rollback added in v0.10.0

func (tree *MutableTree) Rollback()

Rollback resets the working tree to the latest saved version, discarding any unsaved modifications.

func (*MutableTree) SaveVersion added in v0.10.0

func (tree *MutableTree) SaveVersion() ([]byte, int64, error)

SaveVersion saves a new tree version to disk, based on the current state of the tree. Returns the hash and new version number.

func (*MutableTree) Set added in v0.10.0

func (tree *MutableTree) Set(key, value []byte) (updated bool, err error)

Set sets a key in the working tree. Nil values are invalid. The given key/value byte slices must not be modified after this call, since they point to slices stored within IAVL. It returns true when an existing value was updated, while false means it was a new key.

func (*MutableTree) SetInitialVersion added in v0.15.0

func (tree *MutableTree) SetInitialVersion(version uint64)

SetInitialVersion sets the initial version of the tree, replacing Options.InitialVersion. It is only used during the initial SaveVersion() call for a tree with no other versions, and is otherwise ignored.

func (*MutableTree) String added in v0.10.0

func (tree *MutableTree) String() (string, error)

String returns a string representation of the tree.

func (*MutableTree) VersionExists added in v0.10.0

func (tree *MutableTree) VersionExists(version int64) bool

VersionExists returns whether or not a version exists.

func (*MutableTree) WorkingHash added in v0.10.0

func (tree *MutableTree) WorkingHash() ([]byte, error)

WorkingHash returns the hash of the current working tree.

type Node

type Node struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

Node represents a node in a Tree.

func MakeNode

func MakeNode(buf []byte) (*Node, error)

MakeNode constructs an *Node from an encoded byte slice.

The new node doesn't have its hash saved or set. The caller must set it afterwards.

func NewNode

func NewNode(key []byte, value []byte, version int64) *Node

NewNode returns a new node from a key, value and version.

func (*Node) GetKey added in v0.19.1

func (n *Node) GetKey() []byte

func (*Node) PathToLeaf added in v0.8.0

func (node *Node) PathToLeaf(t *ImmutableTree, key []byte) (PathToLeaf, *Node, error)

If the key does not exist, returns the path to the next leaf left of key (w/ path), except when key is less than the least item, in which case it returns a path to the least item.

func (*Node) String

func (node *Node) String() string

String returns a string representation of the node.

type NodeEncoder added in v0.15.0

type NodeEncoder func(id []byte, depth int, isLeaf bool) string

NodeEncoder will take an id (hash, or key for leaf nodes), the depth of the node, and whether or not this is a leaf node. It returns the string we wish to print, for iaviwer

type Options added in v0.15.0

type Options struct {
	// Sync synchronously flushes all writes to storage, using e.g. the fsync syscall.
	// Disabling this significantly improves performance, but can lose data on e.g. power loss.
	Sync bool

	// InitialVersion specifies the initial version number. If any versions already exist below
	// this, an error is returned when loading the tree. Only used for the initial SaveVersion()
	// call.
	InitialVersion uint64

	// When Stat is not nil, statistical logic needs to be executed
	Stat *Statistics
}

Options define tree options.

func DefaultOptions added in v0.15.0

func DefaultOptions() Options

DefaultOptions returns the default options for IAVL.

type PathToLeaf added in v0.8.0

type PathToLeaf []ProofInnerNode

PathToLeaf represents an inner path to a leaf node. Note that the nodes are ordered such that the last one is closest to the root of the tree.

func (PathToLeaf) Index added in v0.9.1

func (pl PathToLeaf) Index() (idx int64)

returns -1 if invalid.

func (PathToLeaf) String added in v0.8.0

func (pl PathToLeaf) String() string

type ProofInnerNode added in v0.15.0

type ProofInnerNode struct {
	Height  int8   `json:"height"`
	Size    int64  `json:"size"`
	Version int64  `json:"version"`
	Left    []byte `json:"left"`
	Right   []byte `json:"right"`
}

func (ProofInnerNode) Hash added in v0.15.0

func (pin ProofInnerNode) Hash(childHash []byte) ([]byte, error)

func (ProofInnerNode) String added in v0.15.0

func (pin ProofInnerNode) String() string

type ProofLeafNode added in v0.15.0

type ProofLeafNode struct {
	Key       hexbytes.HexBytes `json:"key"`
	ValueHash hexbytes.HexBytes `json:"value"`
	Version   int64             `json:"version"`
}

func (ProofLeafNode) Hash added in v0.15.0

func (pln ProofLeafNode) Hash() ([]byte, error)

func (ProofLeafNode) String added in v0.15.0

func (pln ProofLeafNode) String() string

type RangeProof added in v0.8.0

type RangeProof struct {
	// You don't need the right path because
	// it can be derived from what we have.
	LeftPath   PathToLeaf      `json:"left_path"`
	InnerNodes []PathToLeaf    `json:"inner_nodes"`
	Leaves     []ProofLeafNode `json:"leaves"`
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

func RangeProofFromProto added in v0.15.0

func RangeProofFromProto(pbProof *iavlproto.RangeProof) (RangeProof, error)

rangeProofFromProto generates a RangeProof from a Protobuf RangeProof.

func (*RangeProof) ComputeRootHash added in v0.9.1

func (proof *RangeProof) ComputeRootHash() []byte

ComputeRootHash computes the root hash with leaves. Returns nil if error or proof is nil. Does not verify the root hash.

func (*RangeProof) Keys added in v0.9.1

func (proof *RangeProof) Keys() (keys [][]byte)

Keys returns all the keys in the RangeProof. NOTE: The keys here may include more keys than provided by tree.GetRangeWithProof or MutableTree.GetVersionedRangeWithProof. The keys returned there are only in the provided [startKey,endKey){limit} range. The keys returned here may include extra keys, such as: - the key before startKey if startKey is provided and doesn't exist; - the key after a queried key with tree.GetWithProof, when the key is absent.

func (*RangeProof) LeftIndex added in v0.9.1

func (proof *RangeProof) LeftIndex() int64

The index of the first leaf (of the whole tree). Returns -1 if the proof is nil.

func (*RangeProof) String added in v0.8.0

func (proof *RangeProof) String() string

String returns a string representation of the proof.

func (*RangeProof) StringIndented added in v0.8.0

func (proof *RangeProof) StringIndented(indent string) string

func (*RangeProof) ToProto added in v0.15.0

func (proof *RangeProof) ToProto() *iavlproto.RangeProof

toProto converts the proof to a Protobuf representation, for use in ValueOp and AbsenceOp.

func (*RangeProof) Verify added in v0.8.0

func (proof *RangeProof) Verify(root []byte) error

Verify that proof is valid.

func (*RangeProof) VerifyAbsence added in v0.8.0

func (proof *RangeProof) VerifyAbsence(key []byte) error

Verify that proof is valid absence proof for key. Does not assume that the proof itself is valid. For that, use Verify(root).

func (*RangeProof) VerifyItem added in v0.8.0

func (proof *RangeProof) VerifyItem(key, value []byte) error

Also see LeftIndex(). Verify that a key has some value. Does not assume that the proof itself is valid, call Verify() first.

type Statistics added in v0.19.0

type Statistics struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

Statisc about db runtime state

func (*Statistics) GetCacheHitCnt added in v0.19.0

func (stat *Statistics) GetCacheHitCnt() uint64

func (*Statistics) GetCacheMissCnt added in v0.19.0

func (stat *Statistics) GetCacheMissCnt() uint64

func (*Statistics) GetFastCacheHitCnt added in v0.19.0

func (stat *Statistics) GetFastCacheHitCnt() uint64

func (*Statistics) GetFastCacheMissCnt added in v0.19.0

func (stat *Statistics) GetFastCacheMissCnt() uint64

func (*Statistics) IncCacheHitCnt added in v0.19.0

func (stat *Statistics) IncCacheHitCnt()

func (*Statistics) IncCacheMissCnt added in v0.19.0

func (stat *Statistics) IncCacheMissCnt()

func (*Statistics) IncFastCacheHitCnt added in v0.19.0

func (stat *Statistics) IncFastCacheHitCnt()

func (*Statistics) IncFastCacheMissCnt added in v0.19.0

func (stat *Statistics) IncFastCacheMissCnt()

func (*Statistics) Reset added in v0.19.0

func (stat *Statistics) Reset()

type UnsavedFastIterator added in v0.19.0

type UnsavedFastIterator struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

UnsavedFastIterator is a dbm.Iterator for ImmutableTree it iterates over the latest state via fast nodes, taking advantage of keys being located in sequence in the underlying database.

func NewUnsavedFastIterator added in v0.19.0

func NewUnsavedFastIterator(start, end []byte, ascending bool, ndb *nodeDB, unsavedFastNodeAdditions map[string]*FastNode, unsavedFastNodeRemovals map[string]interface{}) *UnsavedFastIterator

func (*UnsavedFastIterator) Close added in v0.19.0

func (iter *UnsavedFastIterator) Close() error

Close implements dbm.Iterator

func (*UnsavedFastIterator) Domain added in v0.19.0

func (iter *UnsavedFastIterator) Domain() ([]byte, []byte)

Domain implements dbm.Iterator. Maps the underlying nodedb iterator domain, to the 'logical' keys involved.

func (*UnsavedFastIterator) Error added in v0.19.0

func (iter *UnsavedFastIterator) Error() error

Error implements dbm.Iterator

func (*UnsavedFastIterator) Key added in v0.19.0

func (iter *UnsavedFastIterator) Key() []byte

Key implements dbm.Iterator

func (*UnsavedFastIterator) Next added in v0.19.0

func (iter *UnsavedFastIterator) Next()

Next implements dbm.Iterator Its effectively running the constant space overhead algorithm for streaming through sorted lists: the sorted lists being underlying fast nodes & unsavedFastNodeChanges

func (*UnsavedFastIterator) Valid added in v0.19.0

func (iter *UnsavedFastIterator) Valid() bool

Valid implements dbm.Iterator.

func (*UnsavedFastIterator) Value added in v0.19.0

func (iter *UnsavedFastIterator) Value() []byte

Value implements dbm.Iterator

type ValueOp added in v0.15.0

type ValueOp struct {

	// To encode in ProofOp.Data.
	// Proof is nil for an empty tree.
	// The hash of an empty tree is nil.
	Proof *RangeProof `json:"proof"`
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

IAVLValueOp takes a key and a single value as argument and produces the root hash.

If the produced root hash matches the expected hash, the proof is good.

func NewValueOp added in v0.15.0

func NewValueOp(key []byte, proof *RangeProof) ValueOp

func (ValueOp) GetKey added in v0.15.0

func (op ValueOp) GetKey() []byte

func (ValueOp) ProofOp added in v0.15.0

func (op ValueOp) ProofOp() tmmerkle.ProofOp

func (ValueOp) Run added in v0.15.0

func (op ValueOp) Run(args [][]byte) ([][]byte, error)

func (ValueOp) String added in v0.15.0

func (op ValueOp) String() string

type VersionInfo added in v0.15.0

type VersionInfo struct {
	IAVL      string `json:"iavl"`
	GitCommit string `json:"commit"`
	Branch    string `json:"branch"`
	GoVersion string `json:"go"`
}

VersionInfo contains useful versioning information in struct

func GetVersionInfo added in v0.15.0

func GetVersionInfo() VersionInfo

Returns VersionInfo with global vars filled in

func (VersionInfo) String added in v0.15.0

func (v VersionInfo) String() string

Directories

Path Synopsis
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Package mock is a generated GoMock package.
Package mock is a generated GoMock package.
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