sillyproxy

command module
Version: v0.0.0-...-9e95906 Latest Latest
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Published: Mar 11, 2021 License: Apache-2.0 Imports: 12 Imported by: 0

README

sillyproxy

Sillyproxy is a very simple proxy server that is configured by environment variables. It can be used to demonstrate rolling out edge configuration using Services in Docker Swarm Mode. This is useful for managing canary and blue-green deployments.

Similar production setups can be setup using bash scripts or other templating systems to leverage rolling updates in Services using your favorite proxy system.

Example

Let's go through an example. In this example, we will setup a backend application, with multilpe versions and an edge proxy. The edge proxy will make different application version available on the same port, dividing traffic between two services based on configured weight.

All the examples here were done with Docker for Mac on a single node. These can all work without modification using Docker 1.12+ with any number nodes.

For the purposes of this example, we'll be hitting localhost but that could be replaced with the address of any node in your swarm.

For more complex setup, please consult the Docker documentation.

Initialize the swarm cluster

Make sure that your docker instance is in Swarm-mode. For a single node, the command is simply the following:

$ docker swarm init
Swarm initialized: current node (2wr3rr195xt1bvr7cuwrw3mp8) is now a manager.

To add a worker to this swarm, run the following command:
    docker swarm join \
    --token SWMTKN-1-343oklx5y9zqwc129p4ttvgxeeexh49vpgslavcnqzipjmp2n4-0375hm0z4nto02l8jbt08ga1n \
    192.168.65.2:2377

To add a manager to this swarm, run the following command:
    docker swarm join \
    --token SWMTKN-1-343oklx5y9zqwc129p4ttvgxeeexh49vpgslavcnqzipjmp2n4-bnfuijeolp487mllvj7l9sjil \
    192.168.65.2:2377
Creating the Network

We'll need a backend network for our edge and backend services to communicate on. This traffic will run on an overlay network and only be accessible to other services attached to the same network.

$ docker network create --driver overlay backend
6u9nez4oadt63nadfxgbvwmss
Deploy our Service

We are now ready to deploy the first version of our service. First, we build the image myapp from the directory ./myapp. myapp is a simple web service that displays the container's hostname. It also displays the contents of an http header Color or unknown, if the header is not set.

All commands are done from the sillyproxy root.

Let's start by building the image:

$ docker build -t myapp myapp/
Sending build context to Docker daemon 3.584 kB
Step 1 : FROM golang:1.7-alpine
 ---> 52493611af1e
Step 2 : COPY . /go/src/github.com/stevvooe/sillyproxy/myapp
 ---> 489c65a768e7
Removing intermediate container 3195d1e76f24
Step 3 : RUN go install github.com/stevvooe/sillyproxy/myapp
 ---> Running in 08b2e8a0bef0
 ---> edf64a6a1894
Removing intermediate container 08b2e8a0bef0
Step 4 : EXPOSE 8080
 ---> Running in 47c58faeb679
 ---> 3f83e0bf1717
Removing intermediate container 47c58faeb679
Step 5 : ENTRYPOINT /go/bin/myapp
 ---> Running in 77b163b18105
 ---> 34436cbe5b50
Removing intermediate container 77b163b18105
Successfully built 34436cbe5b50

Once the image is built, we are ready to run our first service. We are going to bind it to the external port 7999 for canary testing, but that is not necessary. We also attach it to the backend network so we can use it with our proxy later.

$ docker service create --name myapp-v1 --network backend -p7999:8080 myapp
ekfaa2wfbxj2j22l6gay0iqoa

We can use docker service ls to confirm it is running:

$ docker service ls
ID            NAME      REPLICAS  IMAGE  COMMAND
ekfaa2wfbxj2  myapp-v1  1/1       myapp

We can also see that we get the expected result by curling the service endpoint:

$ curl http://localhost:7999
unknown e99a62b52d1d
Using the Proxy

While the above could be used to scale and update the service, we'd like to have a little more control over our traffic. Specifically, we'd like to be able to serve up different running versions of the service and direct different amounts of traffic to make sure we are good.

Again, from the project root, let's build an image for our proxy.

$ docker build -t sillyproxy .
Sending build context to Docker daemon 480.3 kB
Step 1 : FROM golang:1.7-alpine
 ---> 52493611af1e
Step 2 : COPY . /go/src/github.com/stevvooe/sillyproxy
 ---> f732e09a9d28
Removing intermediate container 57b0d3368d4a
Step 3 : RUN go install github.com/stevvooe/sillyproxy
 ---> Running in 2cac4703e808
 ---> 400ed84a617a
Removing intermediate container 2cac4703e808
Step 4 : ENTRYPOINT /go/bin/sillyproxy
 ---> Running in a2194801b359
 ---> c42d98b3b82c
Removing intermediate container a2194801b359
Successfully built c42d98b3b82c

With that image, we will create our proxy, directed towards our service:

$ docker service create --name proxy --network backend -p8080:8080 -eBLUE=http://myapp-v1:8080 sillyproxy
6e4pqdozk8wh7s3zou1af7g1r

It's important to note that we've exposed the service on port 8080 across the cluster and attached the proxy to the backend network. Anything attached to the same backend can be accessed using the name of the service as a DNS value. Since myapp-v1 is also on backend, we just use the service name to configure the URL to use for the BLUE service.

We can confirm this is working with curl:

$ curl -v localhost:8080/
blue e99a62b52d1d

Notice that this is the same container id from the backend, which is available on port 7999, except that the proxy has set the Color header:

$ curl localhost:7999                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      master ✱
unknown e99a62b52d1d

At this point, we could remove the export of 7999 if no longer need to get to the service directly.

Scaling the Service

At this point, we are looking great for production, except that we are running a single instance. If an instance goes down or we need to spread load across a set of nodes, we can add more instances to the backend. We do this by setting the number of replicas for a service.

To see the current number of replicas, we use the docker service ls command:

$ docker service ls
ID            NAME      REPLICAS  IMAGE       COMMAND
6e4pqdozk8wh  proxy     1/1       sillyproxy
ekfaa2wfbxj2  myapp-v1  1/1       myapp

For our use case, we'll need two proxy instances and four backends. We do this using the docker service scale command:

$ docker service scale myapp-v1=4 proxy=2

After the new containers are started, you'll see the following:

$ docker service ls
ID            NAME      REPLICAS  IMAGE       COMMAND
6e4pqdozk8wh  proxy     2/2       sillyproxy
ekfaa2wfbxj2  myapp-v1  4/4       myapp

Using curl to hit the proxy, we can see we get four different backends:

$ curl localhost:8080
blue 7f5d3eacb82d
$ curl localhost:8080
blue 7f5d3eacb82d
$ curl localhost:8080
blue 788e2a92dbce
$ curl localhost:8080
blue 788e2a92dbce
$ curl localhost:8080
blue 7f973b247aff
$ curl localhost:8080
blue 7f973b247aff
$ curl localhost:8080
blue e99a62b52d1d

By using the service name myapp-v1, that we configured when we created the proxy service, docker will route connections to all the backends available as the service scales. This uses a linux kernel feature called IPVS and a gossip network to notify peers of the locations for running replicas of a service. All we've told the proxy to do is hit http://localhost:8080 and docker is doing the rest. Even though we are hitting localhost:8080 for the proxy, those connections are also being load balanced between the two instances of the proxy.

The same result can be achieved by hitting the service directly on port 7999, expect that the Color value will be unknown.

Deploying a new version

At this point, we'd like to deploy a new version of our service. myapp has a feature switch that will display the container id in HTML rather than plain text. This is activated by the environment variable V2 but this could just as well be another image.

Let's create the new service and confirm it is running:

$ docker service create --name myapp-v2 --network backend -e V2=1 -p7998:8080 myapp
f5l4xujsn904uhu2xv229rgez
$ docker service ls
ID            NAME      REPLICAS  IMAGE       COMMAND
6e4pqdozk8wh  proxy     2/2       sillyproxy
ekfaa2wfbxj2  myapp-v1  4/4       myapp
f5l4xujsn904  myapp-v2  1/1       myapp

We've made the new service accessible on port 7998 for testing. Let's go ahead and hit with curl:

~/g/s/g/s/sillyproxy ❯❯❯ curl localhost:7998                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      master ✱

<h1>be0dc0efaba2 (unknown)</h1>

Woohoo! HTML!!!

Clearly, production ready. Let's add this to sillyproxy, but let's be conservative and only route 20% of traffic to the new version. We do this using the docker service update command with additional environment variables:

docker service update --env-add GREEN=http://myapp-v2:8080/ --env-add GREEN_WEIGHT=1 --env-add BLUE_WEIGHT=4 proxy

We add GREEN, with a weight of 1, and modify BLUE to have a weight of 4. The above kicks off a rolling update of the service with new environment variables.

Any proxy can be setup to coordinate this setup using their own weight system.

With curl, we can see that certain requests receive HTML, rather than plain text:

$ curl localhost:8080
blue e99a62b52d1d
$ curl localhost:8080
blue 7f5d3eacb82d
$ curl localhost:8080
blue 788e2a92dbce
$ curl localhost:8080

<h1>be0dc0efaba2 (green)</h1>
$ curl localhost:8080
blue 7f973b247aff
$ curl localhost:8080

<h1>be0dc0efaba2 (green)</h1>
$ curl localhost:8080
blue e99a62b52d1d
Moving to Green

People are wild about HTML! UX testing has confirmed and we are ready to go GREEN across the board.

Before we do this, let's scale the myapp-v2, the GREEN backend, to production levels:

$ docker service scale myapp-v2=4
myapp-v2 scaled to 4

Now, that we are ready, we just kick off another rolling update to go full green:

$ docker service update --env-rm GREEN_WEIGHT --env-rm BLUE_WEIGHT --env-rm BLUE proxy
proxy

Let's use docker service ls to monitor the deployment:

$ docker service ls
ID            NAME      REPLICAS  IMAGE       COMMAND
6e4pqdozk8wh  proxy     2/2       sillyproxy
ekfaa2wfbxj2  myapp-v1  4/4       myapp
f5l4xujsn904  myapp-v2  4/4       myapp

Hitting the endpoint, we can see that we now only hit the GREEN backend, with the HTML output, load balanced among the myapp-v2 replicas:

$ curl localhost:8080

<h1>583ef5bfc936 (green)</h1>
$ curl localhost:8080

<h1>be5901cf1337 (green)</h1>
$ curl localhost:8080

<h1>bb907389b5ea (green)</h1>
Rollback

Well, it turns out that HTML is costing a massive amount of bandwidth and we cannot it afford the extra traffic. We have to rollback.

Luckily, this is just another rolling update:

$ docker service update --env-rm GREEN --env-add BLUE=http://myapp-v1:8080 proxy
proxy

And we are back to plain text:

$ curl localhost:8080
blue e99a62b52d1d

Notes

The above demonstrates the basics of blue-green deployment. There are many other things one may want in a production system that are not covered here, but hopefully on can extrapolate more complex setups from this.

The key takeaway from this is to use Docker Services with rolling updates to control the proxy configuration. Anything that can be updated on a service can drive a configuration push for the proxy. This is not limited to environment includes image, volumes, bind mounts or anything else.

This could also be combined with templating and key-value stores to employ your favorite proxy, using the docker service update command to control the point at which your new service version goes live.

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