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Published: Jan 26, 2021 License: Apache-2.0 Imports: 0 Imported by: 1,554


Wire: Automated Initialization in Go

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Wire is a code generation tool that automates connecting components using dependency injection. Dependencies between components are represented in Wire as function parameters, encouraging explicit initialization instead of global variables. Because Wire operates without runtime state or reflection, code written to be used with Wire is useful even for hand-written initialization.

For an overview, see the introductory blog post.


Install Wire by running:

go get github.com/google/wire/cmd/wire

and ensuring that $GOPATH/bin is added to your $PATH.


Project status

As of version v0.3.0, Wire is beta and is considered feature complete. It works well for the tasks it was designed to perform, and we prefer to keep it as simple as possible.

We'll not be accepting new features at this time, but will gladly accept bug reports and fixes.


For questions, please use GitHub Discussions.

This project is covered by the Go Code of Conduct.



Package wire contains directives for Wire code generation. For an overview of working with Wire, see the user guide at https://github.com/google/wire/blob/master/docs/guide.md

The directives in this package are used as input to the Wire code generation tool. The entry point of Wire's analysis are injector functions: function templates denoted by only containing a call to Build. The arguments to Build describes a set of providers and the Wire code generation tool builds a directed acylic graph of the providers' output types. The generated code will fill in the function template by using the providers from the provider set to instantiate any needed types.



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func Build

func Build(...interface{}) string

Build is placed in the body of an injector function template to declare the providers to use. The Wire code generation tool will fill in an implementation of the function. The arguments to Build are interpreted the same as NewSet: they determine the provider set presented to Wire's dependency graph. Build returns an error message that can be sent to a call to panic().

The parameters of the injector function are used as inputs in the dependency graph.

Similar to provider functions passed into NewSet, the first return value is the output of the injector function, the optional second return value is a cleanup function, and the optional last return value is an error. If any of the provider functions in the injector function's provider set return errors or cleanup functions, the corresponding return value must be present in the injector function template.


func injector(ctx context.Context) (*sql.DB, error) {
	wire.Build(otherpkg.FooSet, myProviderFunc)
	return nil, nil

func injector(ctx context.Context) (*sql.DB, error) {
	panic(wire.Build(otherpkg.FooSet, myProviderFunc))


type Binding

type Binding struct{}

A Binding maps an interface to a concrete type.

func Bind

func Bind(iface, to interface{}) Binding

Bind declares that a concrete type should be used to satisfy a dependency on the type of iface. iface must be a pointer to an interface type, to must be a pointer to a concrete type.


type Fooer interface {

type MyFoo struct{}

func (MyFoo) Foo() {}

var MySet = wire.NewSet(
	wire.Bind(new(Fooer), new(MyFoo)))

type ProvidedValue

type ProvidedValue struct{}

A ProvidedValue is an expression that is copied to the generated injector.

func InterfaceValue

func InterfaceValue(typ interface{}, x interface{}) ProvidedValue

InterfaceValue binds an expression to provide a specific interface type. The first argument is a pointer to the interface which user wants to provide. The second argument is the actual variable value whose type implements the interface.


var MySet = wire.NewSet(wire.InterfaceValue(new(io.Reader), os.Stdin))

func Value

func Value(interface{}) ProvidedValue

Value binds an expression to provide the type of the expression. The expression may not be an interface value; use InterfaceValue for that.


var MySet = wire.NewSet(wire.Value([]string(nil)))

type ProviderSet

type ProviderSet struct{}

ProviderSet is a marker type that collects a group of providers.

func NewSet

func NewSet(...interface{}) ProviderSet

NewSet creates a new provider set that includes the providers in its arguments. Each argument is a function value, a provider set, a call to Struct, a call to Bind, a call to Value, a call to InterfaceValue or a call to FieldsOf.

Passing a function value to NewSet declares that the function's first return value type will be provided by calling the function. The arguments to the function will come from the providers for their types. As such, all the function's parameters must be of non-identical types. The function may optionally return an error as its last return value and a cleanup function as the second return value. A cleanup function must be of type func() and is guaranteed to be called before the cleanup function of any of the provider's inputs. If any provider returns an error, the injector function will call all the appropriate cleanup functions and return the error from the injector function.

Passing a ProviderSet to NewSet is the same as if the set's contents were passed as arguments to NewSet directly.

The behavior of passing the result of a call to other functions in this package are described in their respective doc comments.

For compatibility with older versions of Wire, passing a struct value of type S to NewSet declares that both S and *S will be provided by creating a new value of the appropriate type by filling in each field of S using the provider of the field's type. This form is deprecated and will be removed in a future version of Wire: new providers sets should use wire.Struct.

type StructFields added in v0.3.0

type StructFields struct{}

StructFields is a collection of the fields from a struct.

func FieldsOf added in v0.3.0

func FieldsOf(structType interface{}, fieldNames ...string) StructFields

FieldsOf declares that the fields named of the given struct type will be used to provide the types of those fields. The structType argument must be a pointer to the struct or a pointer to a pointer to the struct it wishes to reference.

The following example would provide Foo and Bar using S.MyFoo and S.MyBar respectively:

type S struct {
	MyFoo Foo
	MyBar Bar

func NewStruct() S { /* ... */ }
var Set = wire.NewSet(wire.FieldsOf(new(S), "MyFoo", "MyBar"))


func NewStruct() *S { /* ... */ }
var Set = wire.NewSet(wire.FieldsOf(new(*S), "MyFoo", "MyBar"))

If the structType argument is a pointer to a pointer to a struct, then FieldsOf
additionally provides a pointer to each field type (e.g., *Foo and *Bar in the
example above).

type StructProvider added in v0.3.0

type StructProvider struct{}

A StructProvider represents a named struct.

func Struct added in v0.3.0

func Struct(structType interface{}, fieldNames ...string) StructProvider

Struct specifies that the given struct type will be provided by filling in the fields in the struct that have the names given.

The first argument must be a pointer to the struct type. For a struct type Foo, Wire will use field-filling to provide both Foo and *Foo. The remaining arguments are field names to fill in. As a special case, if a single name "*" is given, then all of the fields in the struct will be filled in.

For example:

type S struct {
  MyFoo *Foo
  MyBar *Bar
var Set = wire.NewSet(wire.Struct(new(S), "MyFoo")) -> inject only S.MyFoo
var Set = wire.NewSet(wire.Struct(new(S), "*")) -> inject all fields


Path Synopsis
The greeter binary simulates an event with greeters greeting guests.
The greeter binary simulates an event with greeters greeting guests.
Wire is a compile-time dependency injection tool.
Wire is a compile-time dependency injection tool.
Package wire provides compile-time dependency injection logic as a Go library.
Package wire provides compile-time dependency injection logic as a Go library.

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