gop

package module
Version: v1.0.32 Latest Latest
Warning

This package is not in the latest version of its module.

Go to latest
Published: Dec 1, 2021 License: Apache-2.0 Imports: 0 Imported by: 240

README

The Go+ language for engineering, STEM education, and data science

Build Status Go Report Card Coverage Status GitHub release Tutorials Playground VSCode Readme

  • For engineering: working in the simplest language that can be mastered by children.
  • For STEM education: studying an engineering language that can be used to work in the future.
  • For data science: communicating with engineers in the same language.

How to install

For now, we suggest you install Go+ from source code.

git clone https://github.com/goplus/gop.git
cd gop

# On mac/linux run:
./all.bash
# On Windows run:
all.bat

Actually, all.bash and all.bat will use go run cmd/install.go underneath.

Code style (important)

Summary about Go+

What are mainly impressions about Go+?

  • A static typed language.
  • Fully compatible with the Go language.
  • Script-like style, and more readable code than Go.

For example, the following is legal Go+ source code:

println [1, 2, 3.4]

How do we do this in the Go language?

package main

import "fmt"

func main() {
    fmt.Println([]float64{1, 2, 3.4})
}

Of course, we don't only do less-typing things.

For example, we support list comprehension, which makes data processing easier.

println [x*x for x <- 1:6:2] // output: [1 9 25]

mapData := {"Hi": 1, "Hello": 2, "Go+": 3}
reversedMap := {v: k for k, v <- mapData}
println reversedMap // output: map[1:Hi 2:Hello 3:Go+]

We will keep Go+ simple. This is why we call it Go+, not Go++.

Less is exponentially more.

It's for Go, and it's also for Go+.

Tutorials

Playground

Go+ Playground based on Docker (recommended):

Go+ Playground based on GopherJS (currently only available in v0.7.x):

Compatibility with Go

All Go features will be supported (including partially support cgo, see below).

All Go packages (even these packages use cgo) can be imported by Go+.

import (
    "fmt"
    "strings"
)

x := strings.NewReplacer("?", "!").Replace("hello, world???")
fmt.Println "x:", x

And all Go+ packages can also be imported in Go programs. What you need to do is just using gop command instead of go.

First, let's make a directory named 14-Using-goplus-in-Go.

Then write a Go+ package named foo in it:

package foo

func ReverseMap(m map[string]int) map[int]string {
    return {v: k for k, v <- m}
}

Then use it in a Go package 14-Using-goplus-in-Go/gomain:

package main

import (
    "fmt"

    "github.com/goplus/tutorial/14-Using-goplus-in-Go/foo"
)

func main() {
    rmap := foo.ReverseMap(map[string]int{"Hi": 1, "Hello": 2})
    fmt.Println(rmap)
}

How to build this example? You can use:

gop install -v ./...

Go github.com/goplus/tutorial/14-Using-goplus-in-Go to get the source code.

Bytecode vs. Go code

Go+ supports bytecode backend and Go code generation.

When we use gop command, it generates Go code to covert Go+ package into Go packages.

gop run     # Run a Go+ program
gop install # Build Go+ files and install target to GOBIN
gop build   # Build Go+ files
gop test    # Test Go+ packages
gop fmt     # Format Go+ packages
gop clean   # Clean all Go+ auto generated files
gop go      # Convert Go+ packages into Go packages

When we use igop command, it generates bytecode to execute.

igop  # Run a Go+ program

In bytecode mode, Go+ doesn't support cgo. However, in Go-code-generation mode, Go+ fully supports cgo.

Go+ features

Rational number: bigint, bigrat, bigfloat

We introduce the rational number as native Go+ types. We use suffix r to denote rational literals. For example, (1r << 200) means a big int whose value is equal to 2200. And 4/5r means the rational constant 4/5.

var a bigint = 1r << 65  // bigint, large than int64
var b bigrat = 4/5r      // bigrat
c := b - 1/3r + 3 * 1/2r // bigrat
println a, b, c

var x *big.Int = 1r << 65 // (1r << 65) is untyped bigint, and can be assigned to *big.Int
var y *big.Rat = 4/5r
println x, y

Map literal

x := {"Hello": 1, "xsw": 3.4} // map[string]float64
y := {"Hello": 1, "xsw": "Go+"} // map[string]interface{}
z := {"Hello": 1, "xsw": 3} // map[string]int
empty := {} // map[string]interface{}

Slice literal

x := [1, 3.4] // []float64
y := [1] // []int
z := [1+2i, "xsw"] // []interface{}
a := [1, 3.4, 3+4i] // []complex128
b := [5+6i] // []complex128
c := ["xsw", 3] // []interface{}
empty := [] // []interface{}

Lambda expression

func plot(fn func(x float64) float64) {
    // ...
}

func plot2(fn func(x float64) (float64, float64)) {
    // ...
}

plot x => x * x           // plot(func(x float64) float64 { return x * x })
plot2 x => (x * x, x + x) // plot2(func(x float64) (float64, float64) { return x * x, x + x })

Deduce struct type

type Config struct {
    Dir   string
    Level int
}

func foo(conf *Config) {
    // ...
}

foo {Dir: "/foo/bar", Level: 1}

Here foo {Dir: "/foo/bar", Level: 1} is equivalent to foo(&Config{Dir: "/foo/bar", Level: 1}). However, you can't replace foo(&Config{"/foo/bar", 1}) with foo {"/foo/bar", 1}, because it is confusing to consider {"/foo/bar", 1} as a struct literal.

You also can omit struct types in a return statement. For example:

type Result struct {
    Text string
}

func foo() *Result {
    return {Text: "Hi, Go+"} // return &Result{Text: "Hi, Go+"}
}

List comprehension

a := [x*x for x <- [1, 3, 5, 7, 11]]
b := [x*x for x <- [1, 3, 5, 7, 11], x > 3]
c := [i+v for i, v <- [1, 3, 5, 7, 11], i%2 == 1]
d := [k+","+s for k, s <- {"Hello": "xsw", "Hi": "Go+"}]

arr := [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]
e := [[a, b] for a <- arr, a < b for b <- arr, b > 2]

x := {x: i for i, x <- [1, 3, 5, 7, 11]}
y := {x: i for i, x <- [1, 3, 5, 7, 11], i%2 == 1}
z := {v: k for k, v <- {1: "Hello", 3: "Hi", 5: "xsw", 7: "Go+"}, k > 3}

Select data from a collection

type student struct {
    name  string
    score int
}

students := [student{"Ken", 90}, student{"Jason", 80}, student{"Lily", 85}]

unknownScore, ok := {x.score for x <- students, x.name == "Unknown"}
jasonScore := {x.score for x <- students, x.name == "Jason"}

println unknownScore, ok // output: 0 false
println jasonScore // output: 80

Check if data exists in a collection

type student struct {
    name  string
    score int
}

students := [student{"Ken", 90}, student{"Jason", 80}, student{"Lily", 85}]

hasJason := {for x <- students, x.name == "Jason"} // is any student named Jason?
hasFailed := {for x <- students, x.score < 60}     // is any student failed?

For loop

sum := 0
for x <- [1, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17], x > 3 {
    sum += x
}

Range expression (start:end:step)

for i <- :10 {
    println i
}

for i := range :10:2 {
    println i
}

for i := range 1:10:3 {
    println i
}

for range :10 {
    println "Range expression"
}

For range of UDT

type Foo struct {
}

// Gop_Enum(proc func(val ValType)) or:
// Gop_Enum(proc func(key KeyType, val ValType))
func (p *Foo) Gop_Enum(proc func(key int, val string)) {
    // ...
}

foo := &Foo{}
for k, v := range foo {
    println k, v
}

for k, v <- foo {
    println k, v
}

println {v: k for k, v <- foo}

Note: you can't use break/continue or return statements in for range of udt.Gop_Enum(callback).

For range of UDT2

type FooIter struct {
}

// (Iterator) Next() (val ValType, ok bool) or:
// (Iterator) Next() (key KeyType, val ValType, ok bool)
func (p *FooIter) Next() (key int, val string, ok bool) {
    // ...
}

type Foo struct {
}

// Gop_Enum() Iterator
func (p *Foo) Gop_Enum() *FooIter {
    // ...
}

foo := &Foo{}
for k, v := range foo {
    println k, v
}

for k, v <- foo {
    println k, v
}

println {v: k for k, v <- foo}

Overload operators

import "math/big"

type MyBigInt struct {
    *big.Int
}

func Int(v *big.Int) MyBigInt {
    return MyBigInt{v}
}

func (a MyBigInt) + (b MyBigInt) MyBigInt { // binary operator
    return MyBigInt{new(big.Int).Add(a.Int, b.Int)}
}

func (a MyBigInt) += (b MyBigInt) {
    a.Int.Add(a.Int, b.Int)
}

func -(a MyBigInt) MyBigInt { // unary operator
    return MyBigInt{new(big.Int).Neg(a.Int)}
}

a := Int(1r)
a += Int(2r)
println a + Int(3r)
println -a

Error handling

We reinvent the error handling specification in Go+. We call them ErrWrap expressions:

expr! // panic if err
expr? // return if err
expr?:defval // use defval if err

How to use them? Here is an example:

import (
    "strconv"
)

func add(x, y string) (int, error) {
    return strconv.Atoi(x)? + strconv.Atoi(y)?, nil
}

func addSafe(x, y string) int {
    return strconv.Atoi(x)?:0 + strconv.Atoi(y)?:0
}

println `add("100", "23"):`, add("100", "23")!

sum, err := add("10", "abc")
println `add("10", "abc"):`, sum, err

println `addSafe("10", "abc"):`, addSafe("10", "abc")

The output of this example is:

add("100", "23"): 123
add("10", "abc"): 0 strconv.Atoi: parsing "abc": invalid syntax

===> errors stack:
main.add("10", "abc")
    /Users/xsw/tutorial/15-ErrWrap/err_wrap.gop:6 strconv.Atoi(y)?

addSafe("10", "abc"): 10

Compared to corresponding Go code, It is clear and more readable.

And the most interesting thing is, the return error contains the full error stack. When we got an error, it is very easy to position what the root cause is.

How these ErrWrap expressions work? See Error Handling for more information.

Auto property

Let's see an example written in Go+:

import "gop/ast/goptest"

doc := goptest.New(`... Go+ code ...`)!

println doc.Any().FuncDecl().Name()

In many languages, there is a concept named property who has get and set methods.

Suppose we have get property, the above example will be:

import "gop/ast/goptest"

doc := goptest.New(`... Go+ code ...`)!

println doc.any.funcDecl.name

In Go+, we introduce a concept named auto property. It is a get property, but is implemented automatically. If we have a method named Bar(), then we will have a get property named bar at the same time.

Unix shebang

You can use Go+ programs as shell scripts now. For example:

#!/usr/bin/env -S gop run

println "Hello, Go+"

println 1r << 129
println 1/3r + 2/7r*2

arr := [1, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19]
println arr
println [x*x for x <- arr, x > 3]

m := {"Hi": 1, "Go+": 2}
println m
println {v: k for k, v <- m}
println [k for k, _ <- m]
println [v for v <- m]

Go 20-Unix-Shebang/shebang to get the source code.

Go features

All Go features (including partially support cgo) will be supported. In bytecode mode, Go+ doesn't support cgo. However, in Go-code-generation mode, Go+ fully supports cgo.

IDE Plugins

Contributing

The Go+ project welcomes all contributors. We appreciate your help!

Here are list of Go+ Contributors. We award an email account (XXX@goplus.org) for every contributor. And we suggest you commit code by using this email account:

git config --global user.email XXX@goplus.org

If you did this, remember to add your XXX@goplus.org email to https://github.com/settings/emails.

What does a contributor to Go+ mean? You must meet one of the following conditions:

  • At least one pull request of a full-featured implemention.
  • At least three pull requests of feature enhancements.
  • At least ten pull requests of any kind issues.

Where can you start?

  • Issues
  • Issues
  • Issues
  • Issues
  • TODOs

Documentation

The Go Gopher

There is no documentation for this package.

Source Files

Directories

Path Synopsis
ast
Package ast declares the types used to represent syntax trees for Go+ packages.
Package ast declares the types used to represent syntax trees for Go+ packages.
Package cl compiles Go+ syntax trees (ast).
Package cl compiles Go+ syntax trees (ast).
cmd
gop
Package format implements standard formatting of Go+ source.
Package format implements standard formatting of Go+ source.
Package parser implements a parser for Go+ source files.
Package parser implements a parser for Go+ source files.
Package printer implements printing of AST nodes.
Package printer implements printing of AST nodes.
Package scanner implements a scanner for Go+ source text.
Package scanner implements a scanner for Go+ source text.
Package token defines constants representing the lexical tokens of the Go+ programming language and basic operations on tokens (printing, predicates).
Package token defines constants representing the lexical tokens of the Go+ programming language and basic operations on tokens (printing, predicates).
x
mod/modfile
* Copyright (c) 2021 The GoPlus Authors (goplus.org).
* Copyright (c) 2021 The GoPlus Authors (goplus.org).

Jump to

Keyboard shortcuts

? : This menu
/ : Search site
f or F : Jump to
y or Y : Canonical URL