consul-template

command module
Version: v0.1.0 Latest Latest
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Published: Oct 21, 2014 License: MPL-2.0 Imports: 23 Imported by: 0

README

Consul Template

This project provides a convienent way to populate values from Consul into the filesystem using the consul-template daemon.

The daemon consul-template queries a Consul instance and updates any number of specified templates on the filesystem. As an added bonus, consul-template can optionally run arbitrary commands when the update process completes. See the Examples section for some scenarios were this functionality might prove useful.

Installation

You can download a released consul-template artifact from the Consul Template release page on GitHub. If you wish to compile from source, you will need to have buildtools and Go installed:

$ git clone https://github.com/hashicorp/consul-template.git
$ cd consul-template
$ make

This process will create bin/consul-template which make be invoked as a binary.

Usage

Options
Option Required Description
consul (required) The location of the Consul instance to query (may be an IP address or FQDN) with port.
template (required) The input template, output path, and optional command separated by a colon (:). This option is additive and may be specified multiple times for multiple templates.
token The Consul API token.
config The path to a configuration file on disk, relative to the current working directory. Values specified on the CLI take precedence over values specified in the configuration file
wait The minimum(:maximum) to wait before rendering a new template to disk and triggering a command, separated by a colon (:). If the optional maximum value is omitted, it is assumed to be 4x the required minimum value.
dry Dump generated templates to the console. If specified, generated templates are not committed to disk and commands are not invoked.
once Run Consul Template once and exit (as opposed to the default behavior of daemon).
Command Line

The CLI interface supports all of the options detailed above.

Query the nyc1 demo Consul instance, rendering the template on disk at /tmp/template.ctmpl to /tmp/result, running Consul Template as a service until stopped:

$ consul-template \
  -consul demo.consul.io \
  -template "/tmp/template.ctmpl:/tmp/result"

Query a local Consul instance, rendering the template and restarting nginx if the template has changed, once:

$ consul-template \
  -consul 127.0.0.1:8500 \
  -template "/tmp/template.ctmpl:/var/www/nginx.conf:service nginx restart"
  -once

Query a Consul instance, rendering multiple templates and commands as a service until stopped:

$ consul-template \
  -consul my.consul.internal:6124 \
  -template "/tmp/nginx.ctmpl:/var/nginx/nginx.conf:service nginx restart" \
  -template "/tmp/redis.ctmpl:/var/redis/redis.conf:service redis restart" \
  -template "/tmp/haproxy.ctmpl:/var/haproxy/haproxy.conf"

Query a Consul instance that requires authentication, dumping the templates to stdout instead of writing to disk. In this example, the second and third parameters to the -template option are required but ignored. The file will not be written to disk and the optional command will not be executed:

$ consul-template \
  -consul my.consul.internal:6124 \
  -template "/tmp/template.ctmpl:/tmp/result:service nginx restart"
  -dry
Configuration File

The Consul Template configuration file is written in HashiCorp Configuration Language (HCL). By proxy, this means the Consul Template configuration file is JSON-compatible. For more information, please see the HCL specification.

The Configuration file syntax interface supports all of the options detailed above.

consul = "127.0.0.1:8500"
token = "abcd1234"

template {
  source = "/path/on/disk/to/template"
  destination = "/path/on/disk/where/template/will/render"
  command = "optional command to run when the template is updated"
}

template {
  // Multiple definitions are supported
}

Query the nyc1 demo Consul instance, rendering the template on disk at /tmp/template.ctmpl to /tmp/result, running Consul Template as a service until stopped:

consul = "nyc1.demo.consul.io"

template {
  source = "/tmp/template.ctmpl"
  destination  = "/tmp/result"
}

Commands specified on the command line take precedence over those defined in a config file!

Templating Language

Consul Template consumes template files in the Go Template format. If you are not familiar with the syntax, we recommend reading the documentation, but it is similar in appearance to Mustache, Handlebars, or Liquid.

In addition to the Go-provided template functions, Consul Template exposes the following functions:

service

Query Consul for the service group(s) matching the given pattern. Services are queried using the following syntax:

{{service "release.webapp@east-aws:8000"}}

The example above is querying Consul for the "webapp" service, with the "release" tag, in the "east-aws" datacenter, using port "8000". The tag, datacenter and port attributes are optional. To query all nodes in the "webapp" service (regardless of tag, datacenter, etc):

{{service "webapp"}}

The function returns a []*Service struct which can be used for ranging in a template:

{{range service "webapp@datacenter"}}
server {{.Name}} {{.Address}}:{{.Port}}{{end}}

which would produce something like:

server nyc_web_01 123.456.789.10:8080
server nyc_web_02 456.789.101.213:8080
key

Query Consul for the value at the given key. If the key cannot be converted to a string-like value, an error will occur. Keys are queried using the following syntax:

{{key "service/redis/maxconns@east-aws"}}

The example above is querying Consul for the service/redis/maxconns in the east-aws datacenter. If you omit the datacenter attribute, the local Consul datacenter will be queried:

{{key "service/redis/maxconns"}}

The beauty of Consul is that the key-value structure is entirely up to you!

keyPrefix

Query Consul for all the key-value pairs at the given prefix. If any of the values cannot be converted to a string-like value, an error will occur. KeyPrefixes are queried using the following syntax:

{{range keyPrefix "service/redis@east-aws"}}
{{.Key}} {{.Value}}{{end}}

If the Consul instance had the correct structure at service/redis in the east-aws datacenter, the resulting template could look like:

minconns 2
maxconns 12

Like key, if you omit the datacenter attribute on keyPrefix, the local Consul datacenter will be queried. For more examples of the templating language, see the Examples section below.

File Permission Caveats

Consul Template uses Go's file modification libraries under the hood. If a file at the destination path already exists, Consul Template will do its best to preserve the existing file permissions. For non-existent files, Go will default to the system default. If you require specific file permissions on the output file, you can use the optional command parameter and chmod, for example:

consul-template \
  -template "/tmp/nginx.ctmpl:/var/nginx/nginx.conf:chmod 644 /var/nginx/nginx.conf && sudo restart nginx"
template {
  source = "/tmp/nginx.ctmpl"
  destination = "/var/nginx/nginx.conf"
  command = "chmod 644 /var/nginx/nginx.conf && sudo restart nginx"
}

Examples

HAProxy

HAProxy is a very common load balancer. You can read more about the HAProxy configuration file syntax in the HAProxy documentation, but here is an example template for rendering an HAProxy configuration file with Consul Template:

global
    daemon
    maxconn {{key "service/haproxy/maxconn"}}

defaults
    mode {{key "service/haproxy/mode"}}{{range keyPrefix "service/haproxy/timeouts"}}
    timeout {{.Key}}{{.Value}}{{end}}

listen http-in
    bind *:8000{{range service "release.webapp"}}
    server {{.Node}} {{.Address}}:{{.Port}}{{end}}

Save this file to disk as haproxy.ctmpl and run the consul-template daemon:

$ consul-template \
  -consul demo.consul.io \
  -template haproxy.ctmpl:/etc/haproxy/haproxy.conf
  -dry

Depending on the state of the demo Consul instance, you could see the following output:

global
    daemon
    maxconn 4

defaults
    mode default
    timeout 5

listen http-in
    bind *:8000
    server nyc3-worker-2 104.131.109.224:80
    server nyc3-worker-3 104.131.59.59:80
    server nyc3-worker-1 104.131.86.92:80

For more information on how to save this result to disk or for the full list of functionality available inside a Consul template file, please consult the API documentation.

Varnish

Varnish is an common caching engine that can also act as a proxy. You can read more about the Varnish configuration file syntax in the Varnish documentation, but here is an example template for rendering a Varnish configuration file with Consul Template:

import directors;
{{range service "consul"}}
backend {{.Name}}_{{.Name}} {
    .host = "{{.Address}}";
    .port = "{{.Port}}";"
}{{end}}

sub vcl_init {
  new bar = directors.round_robin();
{{range service "consul"}}
  bar.add_backend({{.Name}}_{{.ID}});{{end}}
}

sub vcl_recv {
  set req.backend_hint = bar.backend();
}

Save this file to disk as varnish.ctmpl and run the consul-template daemon:

$ consul-template \
  -consul nyc1.demo.consul.io:80 \
  -template varnish.ctmpl:/etc/varnish/varnish.conf
  -dry

You should see the following output:

import directors;

backend consul_consul {
    .host = "104.131.109.106";
    .port = "8300";"
}

sub vcl_init {
  new bar = directors.round_robin();

  bar.add_backend(consul_consul);
}

sub vcl_recv {
  set req.backend_hint = bar.backend();
}

Debugging

Consul Template can print verbose debugging output. To set the log level for Consul Template, use the CONSUL_TEMPLATE_LOG environment variable:

$ CONSUL_TEMPLATE_LOG=info consul-template ...
<timestamp> [INFO] (cli) received redis from Watcher
<timestamp> [INFO] (cli) invoking Runner
# ...

You can also specify the level as debug:

$ CONSUL_TEMPLATE_LOG=debug consul-template ...
<timestamp> [DEBUG] (cli) creating Runner
<timestamp> [DEBUG] (cli) creating Consul API client
<timestamp> [DEBUG] (cli) creating Watcher
<timestamp> [DEBUG] (cli) looping for data
<timestamp> [DEBUG] (watcher) starting watch
<timestamp> [DEBUG] (watcher) all pollers have started, waiting for finish
<timestamp> [DEBUG] (redis) starting poll
<timestamp> [DEBUG] (service redis) querying Consul with &{...}
<timestamp> [DEBUG] (service redis) Consul returned 2 services
<timestamp> [DEBUG] (redis) writing data to channel
<timestamp> [DEBUG] (redis) starting poll
<timestamp> [INFO] (cli) received redis from Watcher
<timestamp> [INFO] (cli) invoking Runner
<timestamp> [DEBUG] (service redis) querying Consul with &{...}
# ...

Contributing

To hack on Consul Template, you will need a modern Go environment. To compile the consul-template binary and run the test suite, simply execute:

$ make

This will compile the consul-template bintary into bin/consul-template and run the test suite.

If you just want to run the tests:

$ make

Or to run a specific test in the suite:

go test ./... -run SomeTestFunction_name

Submit Pull Requests and Issues to the Consul Template project on GitHub.

Documentation

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There is no documentation for this package.

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