README

Terraform

Terraform

Terraform is a tool for building, changing, and versioning infrastructure safely and efficiently. Terraform can manage existing and popular service providers as well as custom in-house solutions.

The key features of Terraform are:

  • Infrastructure as Code: Infrastructure is described using a high-level configuration syntax. This allows a blueprint of your datacenter to be versioned and treated as you would any other code. Additionally, infrastructure can be shared and re-used.

  • Execution Plans: Terraform has a "planning" step where it generates an execution plan. The execution plan shows what Terraform will do when you call apply. This lets you avoid any surprises when Terraform manipulates infrastructure.

  • Resource Graph: Terraform builds a graph of all your resources, and parallelizes the creation and modification of any non-dependent resources. Because of this, Terraform builds infrastructure as efficiently as possible, and operators get insight into dependencies in their infrastructure.

  • Change Automation: Complex changesets can be applied to your infrastructure with minimal human interaction. With the previously mentioned execution plan and resource graph, you know exactly what Terraform will change and in what order, avoiding many possible human errors.

For more information, see the introduction section of the Terraform website.

Getting Started & Documentation

All documentation is available on the Terraform website.

Developing Terraform

If you wish to work on Terraform itself or any of its built-in providers, you'll first need Go installed on your machine (version 1.8+ is required). Alternatively, you can use the Vagrantfile in the root of this repo to stand up a virtual machine with the appropriate dev tooling already set up for you.

For local dev first make sure Go is properly installed, including setting up a GOPATH. You will also need to add $GOPATH/bin to your $PATH.

Next, using Git, clone this repository into $GOPATH/src/github.com/hashicorp/terraform. All the necessary dependencies are either vendored or automatically installed, so you just need to type make. This will compile the code and then run the tests. If this exits with exit status 0, then everything is working!

$ cd "$GOPATH/src/github.com/hashicorp/terraform"
$ make

To compile a development version of Terraform and the built-in plugins, run make dev. This will build everything using gox and put Terraform binaries in the bin and $GOPATH/bin folders:

$ make dev
...
$ bin/terraform
...

If you're developing a specific package, you can run tests for just that package by specifying the TEST variable. For example below, onlyterraform package tests will be run.

$ make test TEST=./terraform
...

If you're working on a specific provider and only wish to rebuild that provider, you can use the plugin-dev target. For example, to build only the Azure provider:

$ make plugin-dev PLUGIN=provider-azure

If you're working on the core of Terraform, and only wish to rebuild that without rebuilding providers, you can use the core-dev target. It is important to note that some types of changes may require both core and providers to be rebuilt - for example work on the RPC interface. To build just the core of Terraform:

$ make core-dev
Dependencies

Terraform stores its dependencies under vendor/, which Go 1.6+ will automatically recognize and load. We use govendor to manage the vendored dependencies.

If you're developing Terraform, there are a few tasks you might need to perform.

Adding a dependency

If you're adding a dependency, you'll need to vendor it in the same Pull Request as the code that depends on it. You should do this in a separate commit from your code, as makes PR review easier and Git history simpler to read in the future.

To add a dependency:

Assuming your work is on a branch called my-feature-branch, the steps look like this:

  1. Add the new package to your GOPATH:

    go get github.com/hashicorp/my-project
    
  2. Add the new package to your vendor/ directory:

    govendor add github.com/hashicorp/my-project/package
    
  3. Review the changes in git and commit them.

Updating a dependency

To update a dependency:

  1. Fetch the dependency:

    govendor fetch github.com/hashicorp/my-project
    
  2. Review the changes in git and commit them.

Acceptance Tests

Terraform has a comprehensive acceptance test suite covering the built-in providers. Our Contributing Guide includes details about how and when to write and run acceptance tests in order to help contributions get accepted quickly.

Cross Compilation and Building for Distribution

If you wish to cross-compile Terraform for another architecture, you can set the XC_OS and XC_ARCH environment variables to values representing the target operating system and architecture before calling make. The output is placed in the pkg subdirectory tree both expanded in a directory representing the OS/architecture combination and as a ZIP archive.

For example, to compile 64-bit Linux binaries on Mac OS X, you can run:

$ XC_OS=linux XC_ARCH=amd64 make bin
...
$ file pkg/linux_amd64/terraform
terraform: ELF 64-bit LSB executable, x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), statically linked, not stripped

XC_OS and XC_ARCH can be space separated lists representing different combinations of operating system and architecture. For example, to compile for both Linux and Mac OS X, targeting both 32- and 64-bit architectures, you can run:

$ XC_OS="linux darwin" XC_ARCH="386 amd64" make bin
...
$ tree ./pkg/ -P "terraform|*.zip"
./pkg/
├── darwin_386
│   └── terraform
├── darwin_386.zip
├── darwin_amd64
│   └── terraform
├── darwin_amd64.zip
├── linux_386
│   └── terraform
├── linux_386.zip
├── linux_amd64
│   └── terraform
└── linux_amd64.zip

4 directories, 8 files

Note: Cross-compilation uses gox, which requires toolchains to be built with versions of Go prior to 1.5. In order to successfully cross-compile with older versions of Go, you will need to run gox -build-toolchain before running the commands detailed above.

Docker

When using docker you don't need to have any of the Go development tools installed and you can clone terraform to any location on disk (doesn't have to be in your $GOPATH). This is useful for users who want to build master or a specific branch for testing without setting up a proper Go environment.

For example, run the following command to build terraform in a linux-based container for macOS.

docker run --rm -v $(pwd):/go/src/github.com/hashicorp/terraform -w /go/src/github.com/hashicorp/terraform -e XC_OS=darwin -e XC_ARCH=amd64 golang:latest bash -c "apt-get update && apt-get install -y zip && make bin"
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Documentation

Overview

go:generate go run ./scripts/generate-plugins.go

Directories

Path Synopsis
backend Package backend provides interfaces that the CLI uses to interact with Terraform.
backend/atlas
backend/init Package init contains the list of backends that can be initialized and basic helper functions for initializing those backends.
backend/legacy Package legacy contains a backend implementation that can be used with the legacy remote state clients.
backend/local
backend/remote-state Package remotestate implements a Backend for remote state implementations from the state/remote package that also implement a backend schema for configuration.
backend/remote-state/consul
backend/remote-state/inmem
backend/remote-state/s3
builtin/bins/provider-archive
builtin/bins/provider-arukas
builtin/bins/provider-atlas
builtin/bins/provider-aws
builtin/bins/provider-azure
builtin/bins/provider-azurerm
builtin/bins/provider-bitbucket
builtin/bins/provider-chef
builtin/bins/provider-clc
builtin/bins/provider-cloudflare
builtin/bins/provider-cloudstack
builtin/bins/provider-cobbler
builtin/bins/provider-consul
builtin/bins/provider-datadog
builtin/bins/provider-digitalocean
builtin/bins/provider-dme
builtin/bins/provider-dns
builtin/bins/provider-dnsimple
builtin/bins/provider-docker
builtin/bins/provider-dyn
builtin/bins/provider-external
builtin/bins/provider-fastly
builtin/bins/provider-github
builtin/bins/provider-google
builtin/bins/provider-grafana
builtin/bins/provider-heroku
builtin/bins/provider-ignition
builtin/bins/provider-influxdb
builtin/bins/provider-librato
builtin/bins/provider-localfile
builtin/bins/provider-logentries
builtin/bins/provider-mailgun
builtin/bins/provider-mysql
builtin/bins/provider-ns1
builtin/bins/provider-null
builtin/bins/provider-opc
builtin/bins/provider-openstack
builtin/bins/provider-opsgenie
builtin/bins/provider-packet
builtin/bins/provider-pagerduty
builtin/bins/provider-postgresql
builtin/bins/provider-powerdns
builtin/bins/provider-profitbricks
builtin/bins/provider-rancher
builtin/bins/provider-random
builtin/bins/provider-rundeck
builtin/bins/provider-scaleway
builtin/bins/provider-softlayer
builtin/bins/provider-spotinst
builtin/bins/provider-statuscake
builtin/bins/provider-template
builtin/bins/provider-terraform
builtin/bins/provider-test
builtin/bins/provider-tls
builtin/bins/provider-triton
builtin/bins/provider-ultradns
builtin/bins/provider-vault
builtin/bins/provider-vcd
builtin/bins/provider-vsphere
builtin/bins/provisioner-chef
builtin/bins/provisioner-file
builtin/bins/provisioner-local-exec
builtin/bins/provisioner-remote-exec
builtin/providers/alicloud
builtin/providers/archive
builtin/providers/arukas
builtin/providers/atlas
builtin/providers/aws
builtin/providers/azure
builtin/providers/azurerm
builtin/providers/bitbucket
builtin/providers/chef
builtin/providers/circonus
builtin/providers/clc
builtin/providers/cloudflare
builtin/providers/cloudstack
builtin/providers/cobbler
builtin/providers/consul
builtin/providers/datadog
builtin/providers/digitalocean
builtin/providers/dme
builtin/providers/dns
builtin/providers/dnsimple
builtin/providers/docker
builtin/providers/dyn
builtin/providers/external
builtin/providers/external/test-programs/tf-acc-external-data-source
builtin/providers/fastly
builtin/providers/github
builtin/providers/google
builtin/providers/grafana
builtin/providers/heroku
builtin/providers/icinga2
builtin/providers/ignition
builtin/providers/influxdb
builtin/providers/kubernetes
builtin/providers/librato
builtin/providers/local
builtin/providers/logentries
builtin/providers/logentries/expect
builtin/providers/mailgun
builtin/providers/mysql
builtin/providers/newrelic
builtin/providers/nomad
builtin/providers/ns1
builtin/providers/null
builtin/providers/oneandone
builtin/providers/opc
builtin/providers/openstack
builtin/providers/opsgenie
builtin/providers/packet
builtin/providers/pagerduty
builtin/providers/postgresql
builtin/providers/powerdns
builtin/providers/profitbricks
builtin/providers/rabbitmq
builtin/providers/rancher
builtin/providers/random
builtin/providers/rundeck
builtin/providers/scaleway
builtin/providers/softlayer
builtin/providers/spotinst
builtin/providers/statuscake
builtin/providers/template
builtin/providers/terraform
builtin/providers/test
builtin/providers/tls
builtin/providers/triton
builtin/providers/ultradns
builtin/providers/vault
builtin/providers/vcd
builtin/providers/vsphere
builtin/provisioners/chef
builtin/provisioners/file
builtin/provisioners/local-exec
builtin/provisioners/remote-exec
command This file is automatically generated by scripts/generate-plugins.go -- Do not edit!
command/clistate Package state exposes common helpers for working with state from the CLI.
command/format Package format contains helpers for formatting various Terraform structures for human-readabout output.
communicator
communicator/remote
communicator/shared
communicator/ssh
communicator/winrm
config The config package is responsible for loading and validating the configuration.
config/module
dag
digraph
flatmap
helper/acctest Package acctest contains for Terraform Acceptance Tests
helper/config
helper/copy
helper/diff
helper/encryption
helper/experiment experiment package contains helper functions for tracking experimental features throughout Terraform.
helper/hashcode
helper/hilmapstructure
helper/logging
helper/mutexkv
helper/pathorcontents Helpers for dealing with file paths and their contents
helper/resource
helper/schema schema is a high-level framework for easily writing new providers for Terraform.
helper/shadow
helper/signalwrapper Package signalwrapper is used to run functions that are sensitive to signals that may be received from outside the process.
helper/slowmessage
helper/structure
helper/validation
helper/variables Package variables provides functions and types for working with Terraform variables provided as input.
helper/wrappedreadline wrappedreadline is a package that has helpers for interacting with readline from a panicwrap executable.
helper/wrappedstreams Package wrappedstreams provides access to the standard OS streams (stdin, stdout, stderr) even if wrapped under panicwrap.
plugin
repl Package repl provides the structs and functions necessary to run REPL for Terraform.
scripts Generate Plugins is a small program that updates the lists of plugins in command/internal_plugin_list.go so they will be compiled into the main terraform binary.
state
state/remote
terraform