errors

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Published: Jan 3, 2019 License: BSD-2-Clause Imports: 5 Imported by: 119495

README

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Package errors provides simple error handling primitives.

go get github.com/pkg/errors

The traditional error handling idiom in Go is roughly akin to

if err != nil {
        return err
}

which applied recursively up the call stack results in error reports without context or debugging information. The errors package allows programmers to add context to the failure path in their code in a way that does not destroy the original value of the error.

Adding context to an error

The errors.Wrap function returns a new error that adds context to the original error. For example

_, err := ioutil.ReadAll(r)
if err != nil {
        return errors.Wrap(err, "read failed")
}

Retrieving the cause of an error

Using errors.Wrap constructs a stack of errors, adding context to the preceding error. Depending on the nature of the error it may be necessary to reverse the operation of errors.Wrap to retrieve the original error for inspection. Any error value which implements this interface can be inspected by errors.Cause.

type causer interface {
        Cause() error
}

errors.Cause will recursively retrieve the topmost error which does not implement causer, which is assumed to be the original cause. For example:

switch err := errors.Cause(err).(type) {
case *MyError:
        // handle specifically
default:
        // unknown error
}

Read the package documentation for more information.

Contributing

We welcome pull requests, bug fixes and issue reports. With that said, the bar for adding new symbols to this package is intentionally set high.

Before proposing a change, please discuss your change by raising an issue.

License

BSD-2-Clause

Documentation

Overview

Package errors provides simple error handling primitives.

The traditional error handling idiom in Go is roughly akin to

if err != nil {
        return err
}

which when applied recursively up the call stack results in error reports without context or debugging information. The errors package allows programmers to add context to the failure path in their code in a way that does not destroy the original value of the error.

Adding context to an error

The errors.Wrap function returns a new error that adds context to the original error by recording a stack trace at the point Wrap is called, together with the supplied message. For example

_, err := ioutil.ReadAll(r)
if err != nil {
        return errors.Wrap(err, "read failed")
}

If additional control is required, the errors.WithStack and errors.WithMessage functions destructure errors.Wrap into its component operations: annotating an error with a stack trace and with a message, respectively.

Retrieving the cause of an error

Using errors.Wrap constructs a stack of errors, adding context to the preceding error. Depending on the nature of the error it may be necessary to reverse the operation of errors.Wrap to retrieve the original error for inspection. Any error value which implements this interface

type causer interface {
        Cause() error
}

can be inspected by errors.Cause. errors.Cause will recursively retrieve the topmost error that does not implement causer, which is assumed to be the original cause. For example:

switch err := errors.Cause(err).(type) {
case *MyError:
        // handle specifically
default:
        // unknown error
}

Although the causer interface is not exported by this package, it is considered a part of its stable public interface.

Formatted printing of errors

All error values returned from this package implement fmt.Formatter and can be formatted by the fmt package. The following verbs are supported:

%s    print the error. If the error has a Cause it will be
      printed recursively.
%v    see %s
%+v   extended format. Each Frame of the error's StackTrace will
      be printed in detail.

Retrieving the stack trace of an error or wrapper

New, Errorf, Wrap, and Wrapf record a stack trace at the point they are invoked. This information can be retrieved with the following interface:

type stackTracer interface {
        StackTrace() errors.StackTrace
}

The returned errors.StackTrace type is defined as

type StackTrace []Frame

The Frame type represents a call site in the stack trace. Frame supports the fmt.Formatter interface that can be used for printing information about the stack trace of this error. For example:

if err, ok := err.(stackTracer); ok {
        for _, f := range err.StackTrace() {
                fmt.Printf("%+s:%d", f)
        }
}

Although the stackTracer interface is not exported by this package, it is considered a part of its stable public interface.

See the documentation for Frame.Format for more details.

Example (StackTrace)
package main

import (
	"fmt"

	"github.com/pkg/errors"
)

func fn() error {
	e1 := errors.New("error")
	e2 := errors.Wrap(e1, "inner")
	e3 := errors.Wrap(e2, "middle")
	return errors.Wrap(e3, "outer")
}

func main() {
	type stackTracer interface {
		StackTrace() errors.StackTrace
	}

	err, ok := errors.Cause(fn()).(stackTracer)
	if !ok {
		panic("oops, err does not implement stackTracer")
	}

	st := err.StackTrace()
	fmt.Printf("%+v", st[0:2]) // top two frames

	// Example output:
	// github.com/pkg/errors_test.fn
	//	/home/dfc/src/github.com/pkg/errors/example_test.go:47
	// github.com/pkg/errors_test.Example_stackTrace
	//	/home/dfc/src/github.com/pkg/errors/example_test.go:127
}
Output:

Index

Examples

Constants

This section is empty.

Variables

This section is empty.

Functions

func Cause

func Cause(err error) error

Cause returns the underlying cause of the error, if possible. An error value has a cause if it implements the following interface:

type causer interface {
       Cause() error
}

If the error does not implement Cause, the original error will be returned. If the error is nil, nil will be returned without further investigation.

Example
package main

import (
	"fmt"

	"github.com/pkg/errors"
)

func fn() error {
	e1 := errors.New("error")
	e2 := errors.Wrap(e1, "inner")
	e3 := errors.Wrap(e2, "middle")
	return errors.Wrap(e3, "outer")
}

func main() {
	err := fn()
	fmt.Println(err)
	fmt.Println(errors.Cause(err))

}
Output:

outer: middle: inner: error
error
Example (Printf)
package main

import (
	"fmt"

	"github.com/pkg/errors"
)

func main() {
	err := errors.Wrap(func() error {
		return func() error {
			return errors.Errorf("hello %s", fmt.Sprintf("world"))
		}()
	}(), "failed")

	fmt.Printf("%v", err)

}
Output:

failed: hello world

func Errorf

func Errorf(format string, args ...interface{}) error

Errorf formats according to a format specifier and returns the string as a value that satisfies error. Errorf also records the stack trace at the point it was called.

Example (Extended)
package main

import (
	"fmt"

	"github.com/pkg/errors"
)

func main() {
	err := errors.Errorf("whoops: %s", "foo")
	fmt.Printf("%+v", err)

	// Example output:
	// whoops: foo
	// github.com/pkg/errors_test.ExampleErrorf
	//         /home/dfc/src/github.com/pkg/errors/example_test.go:101
	// testing.runExample
	//         /home/dfc/go/src/testing/example.go:114
	// testing.RunExamples
	//         /home/dfc/go/src/testing/example.go:38
	// testing.(*M).Run
	//         /home/dfc/go/src/testing/testing.go:744
	// main.main
	//         /github.com/pkg/errors/_test/_testmain.go:102
	// runtime.main
	//         /home/dfc/go/src/runtime/proc.go:183
	// runtime.goexit
	//         /home/dfc/go/src/runtime/asm_amd64.s:2059
}
Output:

func New

func New(message string) error

New returns an error with the supplied message. New also records the stack trace at the point it was called.

Example
package main

import (
	"fmt"

	"github.com/pkg/errors"
)

func main() {
	err := errors.New("whoops")
	fmt.Println(err)

}
Output:

whoops
Example (Printf)
package main

import (
	"fmt"

	"github.com/pkg/errors"
)

func main() {
	err := errors.New("whoops")
	fmt.Printf("%+v", err)

	// Example output:
	// whoops
	// github.com/pkg/errors_test.ExampleNew_printf
	//         /home/dfc/src/github.com/pkg/errors/example_test.go:17
	// testing.runExample
	//         /home/dfc/go/src/testing/example.go:114
	// testing.RunExamples
	//         /home/dfc/go/src/testing/example.go:38
	// testing.(*M).Run
	//         /home/dfc/go/src/testing/testing.go:744
	// main.main
	//         /github.com/pkg/errors/_test/_testmain.go:106
	// runtime.main
	//         /home/dfc/go/src/runtime/proc.go:183
	// runtime.goexit
	//         /home/dfc/go/src/runtime/asm_amd64.s:2059
}
Output:

func WithMessage

func WithMessage(err error, message string) error

WithMessage annotates err with a new message. If err is nil, WithMessage returns nil.

Example
package main

import (
	"fmt"

	"github.com/pkg/errors"
)

func main() {
	cause := errors.New("whoops")
	err := errors.WithMessage(cause, "oh noes")
	fmt.Println(err)

}
Output:

oh noes: whoops

func WithMessagef

func WithMessagef(err error, format string, args ...interface{}) error

WithMessagef annotates err with the format specifier. If err is nil, WithMessagef returns nil.

func WithStack

func WithStack(err error) error

WithStack annotates err with a stack trace at the point WithStack was called. If err is nil, WithStack returns nil.

Example
package main

import (
	"fmt"

	"github.com/pkg/errors"
)

func main() {
	cause := errors.New("whoops")
	err := errors.WithStack(cause)
	fmt.Println(err)

}
Output:

whoops
Example (Printf)
package main

import (
	"fmt"

	"github.com/pkg/errors"
)

func main() {
	cause := errors.New("whoops")
	err := errors.WithStack(cause)
	fmt.Printf("%+v", err)

	// Example Output:
	// whoops
	// github.com/pkg/errors_test.ExampleWithStack_printf
	//         /home/fabstu/go/src/github.com/pkg/errors/example_test.go:55
	// testing.runExample
	//         /usr/lib/go/src/testing/example.go:114
	// testing.RunExamples
	//         /usr/lib/go/src/testing/example.go:38
	// testing.(*M).Run
	//         /usr/lib/go/src/testing/testing.go:744
	// main.main
	//         github.com/pkg/errors/_test/_testmain.go:106
	// runtime.main
	//         /usr/lib/go/src/runtime/proc.go:183
	// runtime.goexit
	//         /usr/lib/go/src/runtime/asm_amd64.s:2086
	// github.com/pkg/errors_test.ExampleWithStack_printf
	//         /home/fabstu/go/src/github.com/pkg/errors/example_test.go:56
	// testing.runExample
	//         /usr/lib/go/src/testing/example.go:114
	// testing.RunExamples
	//         /usr/lib/go/src/testing/example.go:38
	// testing.(*M).Run
	//         /usr/lib/go/src/testing/testing.go:744
	// main.main
	//         github.com/pkg/errors/_test/_testmain.go:106
	// runtime.main
	//         /usr/lib/go/src/runtime/proc.go:183
	// runtime.goexit
	//         /usr/lib/go/src/runtime/asm_amd64.s:2086
}
Output:

func Wrap

func Wrap(err error, message string) error

Wrap returns an error annotating err with a stack trace at the point Wrap is called, and the supplied message. If err is nil, Wrap returns nil.

Example
package main

import (
	"fmt"

	"github.com/pkg/errors"
)

func main() {
	cause := errors.New("whoops")
	err := errors.Wrap(cause, "oh noes")
	fmt.Println(err)

}
Output:

oh noes: whoops
Example (Extended)
package main

import (
	"fmt"

	"github.com/pkg/errors"
)

func fn() error {
	e1 := errors.New("error")
	e2 := errors.Wrap(e1, "inner")
	e3 := errors.Wrap(e2, "middle")
	return errors.Wrap(e3, "outer")
}

func main() {
	err := fn()
	fmt.Printf("%+v\n", err)

	// Example output:
	// error
	// github.com/pkg/errors_test.fn
	//         /home/dfc/src/github.com/pkg/errors/example_test.go:47
	// github.com/pkg/errors_test.ExampleCause_printf
	//         /home/dfc/src/github.com/pkg/errors/example_test.go:63
	// testing.runExample
	//         /home/dfc/go/src/testing/example.go:114
	// testing.RunExamples
	//         /home/dfc/go/src/testing/example.go:38
	// testing.(*M).Run
	//         /home/dfc/go/src/testing/testing.go:744
	// main.main
	//         /github.com/pkg/errors/_test/_testmain.go:104
	// runtime.main
	//         /home/dfc/go/src/runtime/proc.go:183
	// runtime.goexit
	//         /home/dfc/go/src/runtime/asm_amd64.s:2059
	// github.com/pkg/errors_test.fn
	// 	  /home/dfc/src/github.com/pkg/errors/example_test.go:48: inner
	// github.com/pkg/errors_test.fn
	//        /home/dfc/src/github.com/pkg/errors/example_test.go:49: middle
	// github.com/pkg/errors_test.fn
	//      /home/dfc/src/github.com/pkg/errors/example_test.go:50: outer
}
Output:

func Wrapf

func Wrapf(err error, format string, args ...interface{}) error

Wrapf returns an error annotating err with a stack trace at the point Wrapf is called, and the format specifier. If err is nil, Wrapf returns nil.

Example
package main

import (
	"fmt"

	"github.com/pkg/errors"
)

func main() {
	cause := errors.New("whoops")
	err := errors.Wrapf(cause, "oh noes #%d", 2)
	fmt.Println(err)

}
Output:

oh noes #2: whoops

Types

type Frame

type Frame uintptr

Frame represents a program counter inside a stack frame.

func (Frame) Format

func (f Frame) Format(s fmt.State, verb rune)

Format formats the frame according to the fmt.Formatter interface.

%s    source file
%d    source line
%n    function name
%v    equivalent to %s:%d

Format accepts flags that alter the printing of some verbs, as follows:

%+s   function name and path of source file relative to the compile time
      GOPATH separated by \n\t (<funcname>\n\t<path>)
%+v   equivalent to %+s:%d

type StackTrace

type StackTrace []Frame

StackTrace is stack of Frames from innermost (newest) to outermost (oldest).

func (StackTrace) Format

func (st StackTrace) Format(s fmt.State, verb rune)

Format formats the stack of Frames according to the fmt.Formatter interface.

%s	lists source files for each Frame in the stack
%v	lists the source file and line number for each Frame in the stack

Format accepts flags that alter the printing of some verbs, as follows:

%+v   Prints filename, function, and line number for each Frame in the stack.

Source Files

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