wasm

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Published: Jun 30, 2021 License: BSD-3-Clause Imports: 3 Imported by: 0

README

TinyGo WebAssembly examples

The examples here show two different ways of using WebAssembly with TinyGo:

  1. Defining and exporting functions via the //export <name> directive. See the export folder for an example of this. Additionally, the Wasm module (which has a default value of env) can be specified using //go:wasm-module <module>.
  2. Defining and executing a func main(). This is similar to how the Go standard library implementation works. See the main folder for an example of this.

Building

Build using the tinygo compiler:

$ tinygo build -o ./wasm.wasm -target wasm ./main/main.go

This creates a wasm.wasm file, which we can load in JavaScript and execute in a browser.

This examples folder contains two examples that can be built using make:

$ make export
$ make main

Running

Start the local web server:

$ go run server.go
Serving ./html on http://localhost:8080

Use your web browser to visit http://localhost:8080.

  • The wasm "export" example displays a simple math equation using HTML, with the result calculated dynamically using WebAssembly. Changing any of the values on the left hand side triggers the exported wasm update function to recalculate the result.
  • The wasm "main" example uses println to write to your browser JavaScript console. You may need to open the browser development tools console to see it.

How it works

Execution of the contents require a few JavaScript helper functions which are called from WebAssembly.

We have defined these in wasm_exec.js. It is based on $GOROOT/misc/wasm/wasm_exec.js from the standard library, but is slightly different. Ensure you are using the same version of wasm_exec.js as the version of tinygo you are using to compile.

The general steps required to run the WebAssembly file in the browser includes loading it into JavaScript with WebAssembly.instantiateStreaming, or WebAssembly.instantiate in some browsers:

const go = new Go(); // Defined in wasm_exec.js
const WASM_URL = 'wasm.wasm';

var wasm;

if ('instantiateStreaming' in WebAssembly) {
	WebAssembly.instantiateStreaming(fetch(WASM_URL), go.importObject).then(function (obj) {
		wasm = obj.instance;
		go.run(wasm);
	})
} else {
	fetch(WASM_URL).then(resp =>
		resp.arrayBuffer()
	).then(bytes =>
		WebAssembly.instantiate(bytes, go.importObject).then(function (obj) {
			wasm = obj.instance;
			go.run(wasm);
		})
	)
}

If you have used explicit exports, you can call them by invoking them under the wasm.exports namespace. See the export directory for an example of this.

In addition to the JavaScript, it is important the wasm file is served with the Content-Type header set to application/wasm. Without it, most browsers won't run it.

package main

import (
	"log"
	"net/http"
	"strings"
)

const dir = "./html"

func main() {
	fs := http.FileServer(http.Dir(dir))
	log.Print("Serving " + dir + " on http://localhost:8080")
	http.ListenAndServe(":8080", http.HandlerFunc(func(resp http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		resp.Header().Add("Cache-Control", "no-cache")
		if strings.HasSuffix(req.URL.Path, ".wasm") {
			resp.Header().Set("content-type", "application/wasm")
		}
		fs.ServeHTTP(resp, req)
	}))}

This simple server serves anything inside the ./html directory on port 8080, setting any *.wasm files Content-Type header appropriately.

For development purposes (only!), it also sets the Cache-Control header so your browser doesn't cache the files. This is useful while developing, to ensure your browser displays the newest wasm when you recompile.

In a production environment you probably wouldn't want to set the Cache-Control header like this. Caching is generally beneficial for end users.

Further information on the Cache-Control header can be found here:

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