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math / bits

Package bits

go1.15.3
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The highest tagged major version is .

Published: Oct 14, 2020 | License: BSD-3-Clause | Standard library

Overview

Package bits implements bit counting and manipulation functions for the predeclared unsigned integer types.

Index

Examples

Constants

const UintSize = uintSize

UintSize is the size of a uint in bits.

func Add

func Add(x, y, carry uint) (sum, carryOut uint)

Add returns the sum with carry of x, y and carry: sum = x + y + carry. The carry input must be 0 or 1; otherwise the behavior is undefined. The carryOut output is guaranteed to be 0 or 1.

This function's execution time does not depend on the inputs.

func Add32

func Add32(x, y, carry uint32) (sum, carryOut uint32)

Add32 returns the sum with carry of x, y and carry: sum = x + y + carry. The carry input must be 0 or 1; otherwise the behavior is undefined. The carryOut output is guaranteed to be 0 or 1.

This function's execution time does not depend on the inputs.

func Add64

func Add64(x, y, carry uint64) (sum, carryOut uint64)

Add64 returns the sum with carry of x, y and carry: sum = x + y + carry. The carry input must be 0 or 1; otherwise the behavior is undefined. The carryOut output is guaranteed to be 0 or 1.

This function's execution time does not depend on the inputs.

func Div

func Div(hi, lo, y uint) (quo, rem uint)

Div returns the quotient and remainder of (hi, lo) divided by y: quo = (hi, lo)/y, rem = (hi, lo)%y with the dividend bits' upper half in parameter hi and the lower half in parameter lo. Div panics for y == 0 (division by zero) or y <= hi (quotient overflow).

func Div32

func Div32(hi, lo, y uint32) (quo, rem uint32)

Div32 returns the quotient and remainder of (hi, lo) divided by y: quo = (hi, lo)/y, rem = (hi, lo)%y with the dividend bits' upper half in parameter hi and the lower half in parameter lo. Div32 panics for y == 0 (division by zero) or y <= hi (quotient overflow).

func Div64

func Div64(hi, lo, y uint64) (quo, rem uint64)

Div64 returns the quotient and remainder of (hi, lo) divided by y: quo = (hi, lo)/y, rem = (hi, lo)%y with the dividend bits' upper half in parameter hi and the lower half in parameter lo. Div64 panics for y == 0 (division by zero) or y <= hi (quotient overflow).

func LeadingZeros

func LeadingZeros(x uint) int

LeadingZeros returns the number of leading zero bits in x; the result is UintSize for x == 0.

func LeadingZeros16

func LeadingZeros16(x uint16) int

LeadingZeros16 returns the number of leading zero bits in x; the result is 16 for x == 0.

Example

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"math/bits"
)

func main() {
	fmt.Printf("LeadingZeros16(%016b) = %d\n", 1, bits.LeadingZeros16(1))
}
LeadingZeros16(0000000000000001) = 15

func LeadingZeros32

func LeadingZeros32(x uint32) int

LeadingZeros32 returns the number of leading zero bits in x; the result is 32 for x == 0.

Example

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"math/bits"
)

func main() {
	fmt.Printf("LeadingZeros32(%032b) = %d\n", 1, bits.LeadingZeros32(1))
}
LeadingZeros32(00000000000000000000000000000001) = 31

func LeadingZeros64

func LeadingZeros64(x uint64) int

LeadingZeros64 returns the number of leading zero bits in x; the result is 64 for x == 0.

Example

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"math/bits"
)

func main() {
	fmt.Printf("LeadingZeros64(%064b) = %d\n", 1, bits.LeadingZeros64(1))
}
LeadingZeros64(0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001) = 63

func LeadingZeros8

func LeadingZeros8(x uint8) int

LeadingZeros8 returns the number of leading zero bits in x; the result is 8 for x == 0.

Example

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"math/bits"
)

func main() {
	fmt.Printf("LeadingZeros8(%08b) = %d\n", 1, bits.LeadingZeros8(1))
}
LeadingZeros8(00000001) = 7

func Len

func Len(x uint) int

Len returns the minimum number of bits required to represent x; the result is 0 for x == 0.

func Len16

func Len16(x uint16) (n int)

Len16 returns the minimum number of bits required to represent x; the result is 0 for x == 0.

Example

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"math/bits"
)

func main() {
	fmt.Printf("Len16(%016b) = %d\n", 8, bits.Len16(8))
}
Len16(0000000000001000) = 4

func Len32

func Len32(x uint32) (n int)

Len32 returns the minimum number of bits required to represent x; the result is 0 for x == 0.

Example

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"math/bits"
)

func main() {
	fmt.Printf("Len32(%032b) = %d\n", 8, bits.Len32(8))
}
Len32(00000000000000000000000000001000) = 4

func Len64

func Len64(x uint64) (n int)

Len64 returns the minimum number of bits required to represent x; the result is 0 for x == 0.

Example

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"math/bits"
)

func main() {
	fmt.Printf("Len64(%064b) = %d\n", 8, bits.Len64(8))
}
Len64(0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001000) = 4

func Len8

func Len8(x uint8) int

Len8 returns the minimum number of bits required to represent x; the result is 0 for x == 0.

Example

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"math/bits"
)

func main() {
	fmt.Printf("Len8(%08b) = %d\n", 8, bits.Len8(8))
}
Len8(00001000) = 4

func Mul

func Mul(x, y uint) (hi, lo uint)

Mul returns the full-width product of x and y: (hi, lo) = x * y with the product bits' upper half returned in hi and the lower half returned in lo.

This function's execution time does not depend on the inputs.

func Mul32

func Mul32(x, y uint32) (hi, lo uint32)

Mul32 returns the 64-bit product of x and y: (hi, lo) = x * y with the product bits' upper half returned in hi and the lower half returned in lo.

This function's execution time does not depend on the inputs.

func Mul64

func Mul64(x, y uint64) (hi, lo uint64)

Mul64 returns the 128-bit product of x and y: (hi, lo) = x * y with the product bits' upper half returned in hi and the lower half returned in lo.

This function's execution time does not depend on the inputs.

func OnesCount

func OnesCount(x uint) int

OnesCount returns the number of one bits ("population count") in x.

Example

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"math/bits"
)

func main() {
	fmt.Printf("OnesCount(%b) = %d\n", 14, bits.OnesCount(14))
}
OnesCount(1110) = 3

func OnesCount16

func OnesCount16(x uint16) int

OnesCount16 returns the number of one bits ("population count") in x.

Example

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"math/bits"
)

func main() {
	fmt.Printf("OnesCount16(%016b) = %d\n", 14, bits.OnesCount16(14))
}
OnesCount16(0000000000001110) = 3

func OnesCount32

func OnesCount32(x uint32) int

OnesCount32 returns the number of one bits ("population count") in x.

Example

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"math/bits"
)

func main() {
	fmt.Printf("OnesCount32(%032b) = %d\n", 14, bits.OnesCount32(14))
}
OnesCount32(00000000000000000000000000001110) = 3

func OnesCount64

func OnesCount64(x uint64) int

OnesCount64 returns the number of one bits ("population count") in x.

Example

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"math/bits"
)

func main() {
	fmt.Printf("OnesCount64(%064b) = %d\n", 14, bits.OnesCount64(14))
}
OnesCount64(0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001110) = 3

func OnesCount8

func OnesCount8(x uint8) int

OnesCount8 returns the number of one bits ("population count") in x.

Example

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"math/bits"
)

func main() {
	fmt.Printf("OnesCount8(%08b) = %d\n", 14, bits.OnesCount8(14))
}
OnesCount8(00001110) = 3

func Rem

func Rem(hi, lo, y uint) uint

Rem returns the remainder of (hi, lo) divided by y. Rem panics for y == 0 (division by zero) but, unlike Div, it doesn't panic on a quotient overflow.

func Rem32

func Rem32(hi, lo, y uint32) uint32

Rem32 returns the remainder of (hi, lo) divided by y. Rem32 panics for y == 0 (division by zero) but, unlike Div32, it doesn't panic on a quotient overflow.

func Rem64

func Rem64(hi, lo, y uint64) uint64

Rem64 returns the remainder of (hi, lo) divided by y. Rem64 panics for y == 0 (division by zero) but, unlike Div64, it doesn't panic on a quotient overflow.

func Reverse

func Reverse(x uint) uint

Reverse returns the value of x with its bits in reversed order.

func Reverse16

func Reverse16(x uint16) uint16

Reverse16 returns the value of x with its bits in reversed order.

Example

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"math/bits"
)

func main() {
	fmt.Printf("%016b\n", 19)
	fmt.Printf("%016b\n", bits.Reverse16(19))
}
0000000000010011
1100100000000000

func Reverse32

func Reverse32(x uint32) uint32

Reverse32 returns the value of x with its bits in reversed order.

Example

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"math/bits"
)

func main() {
	fmt.Printf("%032b\n", 19)
	fmt.Printf("%032b\n", bits.Reverse32(19))
}
00000000000000000000000000010011
11001000000000000000000000000000

func Reverse64

func Reverse64(x uint64) uint64

Reverse64 returns the value of x with its bits in reversed order.

Example

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"math/bits"
)

func main() {
	fmt.Printf("%064b\n", 19)
	fmt.Printf("%064b\n", bits.Reverse64(19))
}
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000010011
1100100000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000

func Reverse8

func Reverse8(x uint8) uint8

Reverse8 returns the value of x with its bits in reversed order.

Example

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"math/bits"
)

func main() {
	fmt.Printf("%08b\n", 19)
	fmt.Printf("%08b\n", bits.Reverse8(19))
}
00010011
11001000

func ReverseBytes

func ReverseBytes(x uint) uint

ReverseBytes returns the value of x with its bytes in reversed order.

This function's execution time does not depend on the inputs.

func ReverseBytes16

func ReverseBytes16(x uint16) uint16

ReverseBytes16 returns the value of x with its bytes in reversed order.

This function's execution time does not depend on the inputs.

Example

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"math/bits"
)

func main() {
	fmt.Printf("%016b\n", 15)
	fmt.Printf("%016b\n", bits.ReverseBytes16(15))
}
0000000000001111
0000111100000000

func ReverseBytes32

func ReverseBytes32(x uint32) uint32

ReverseBytes32 returns the value of x with its bytes in reversed order.

This function's execution time does not depend on the inputs.

Example

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"math/bits"
)

func main() {
	fmt.Printf("%032b\n", 15)
	fmt.Printf("%032b\n", bits.ReverseBytes32(15))
}
00000000000000000000000000001111
00001111000000000000000000000000

func ReverseBytes64

func ReverseBytes64(x uint64) uint64

ReverseBytes64 returns the value of x with its bytes in reversed order.

This function's execution time does not depend on the inputs.

Example

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"math/bits"
)

func main() {
	fmt.Printf("%064b\n", 15)
	fmt.Printf("%064b\n", bits.ReverseBytes64(15))
}
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001111
0000111100000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000

func RotateLeft

func RotateLeft(x uint, k int) uint

RotateLeft returns the value of x rotated left by (k mod UintSize) bits. To rotate x right by k bits, call RotateLeft(x, -k).

This function's execution time does not depend on the inputs.

func RotateLeft16

func RotateLeft16(x uint16, k int) uint16

RotateLeft16 returns the value of x rotated left by (k mod 16) bits. To rotate x right by k bits, call RotateLeft16(x, -k).

This function's execution time does not depend on the inputs.

Example

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"math/bits"
)

func main() {
	fmt.Printf("%016b\n", 15)
	fmt.Printf("%016b\n", bits.RotateLeft16(15, 2))
	fmt.Printf("%016b\n", bits.RotateLeft16(15, -2))
}
0000000000001111
0000000000111100
1100000000000011

func RotateLeft32

func RotateLeft32(x uint32, k int) uint32

RotateLeft32 returns the value of x rotated left by (k mod 32) bits. To rotate x right by k bits, call RotateLeft32(x, -k).

This function's execution time does not depend on the inputs.

Example

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"math/bits"
)

func main() {
	fmt.Printf("%032b\n", 15)
	fmt.Printf("%032b\n", bits.RotateLeft32(15, 2))
	fmt.Printf("%032b\n", bits.RotateLeft32(15, -2))
}
00000000000000000000000000001111
00000000000000000000000000111100
11000000000000000000000000000011

func RotateLeft64

func RotateLeft64(x uint64, k int) uint64

RotateLeft64 returns the value of x rotated left by (k mod 64) bits. To rotate x right by k bits, call RotateLeft64(x, -k).

This function's execution time does not depend on the inputs.

Example

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"math/bits"
)

func main() {
	fmt.Printf("%064b\n", 15)
	fmt.Printf("%064b\n", bits.RotateLeft64(15, 2))
	fmt.Printf("%064b\n", bits.RotateLeft64(15, -2))
}
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001111
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000111100
1100000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000011

func RotateLeft8

func RotateLeft8(x uint8, k int) uint8

RotateLeft8 returns the value of x rotated left by (k mod 8) bits. To rotate x right by k bits, call RotateLeft8(x, -k).

This function's execution time does not depend on the inputs.

Example

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"math/bits"
)

func main() {
	fmt.Printf("%08b\n", 15)
	fmt.Printf("%08b\n", bits.RotateLeft8(15, 2))
	fmt.Printf("%08b\n", bits.RotateLeft8(15, -2))
}
00001111
00111100
11000011

func Sub

func Sub(x, y, borrow uint) (diff, borrowOut uint)

Sub returns the difference of x, y and borrow: diff = x - y - borrow. The borrow input must be 0 or 1; otherwise the behavior is undefined. The borrowOut output is guaranteed to be 0 or 1.

This function's execution time does not depend on the inputs.

func Sub32

func Sub32(x, y, borrow uint32) (diff, borrowOut uint32)

Sub32 returns the difference of x, y and borrow, diff = x - y - borrow. The borrow input must be 0 or 1; otherwise the behavior is undefined. The borrowOut output is guaranteed to be 0 or 1.

This function's execution time does not depend on the inputs.

func Sub64

func Sub64(x, y, borrow uint64) (diff, borrowOut uint64)

Sub64 returns the difference of x, y and borrow: diff = x - y - borrow. The borrow input must be 0 or 1; otherwise the behavior is undefined. The borrowOut output is guaranteed to be 0 or 1.

This function's execution time does not depend on the inputs.

func TrailingZeros

func TrailingZeros(x uint) int

TrailingZeros returns the number of trailing zero bits in x; the result is UintSize for x == 0.

func TrailingZeros16

func TrailingZeros16(x uint16) int

TrailingZeros16 returns the number of trailing zero bits in x; the result is 16 for x == 0.

Example

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"math/bits"
)

func main() {
	fmt.Printf("TrailingZeros16(%016b) = %d\n", 14, bits.TrailingZeros16(14))
}
TrailingZeros16(0000000000001110) = 1

func TrailingZeros32

func TrailingZeros32(x uint32) int

TrailingZeros32 returns the number of trailing zero bits in x; the result is 32 for x == 0.

Example

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"math/bits"
)

func main() {
	fmt.Printf("TrailingZeros32(%032b) = %d\n", 14, bits.TrailingZeros32(14))
}
TrailingZeros32(00000000000000000000000000001110) = 1

func TrailingZeros64

func TrailingZeros64(x uint64) int

TrailingZeros64 returns the number of trailing zero bits in x; the result is 64 for x == 0.

Example

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"math/bits"
)

func main() {
	fmt.Printf("TrailingZeros64(%064b) = %d\n", 14, bits.TrailingZeros64(14))
}
TrailingZeros64(0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001110) = 1

func TrailingZeros8

func TrailingZeros8(x uint8) int

TrailingZeros8 returns the number of trailing zero bits in x; the result is 8 for x == 0.

Example

Code:

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"math/bits"
)

func main() {
	fmt.Printf("TrailingZeros8(%08b) = %d\n", 14, bits.TrailingZeros8(14))
}
TrailingZeros8(00001110) = 1
Documentation was rendered with GOOS=linux and GOARCH=amd64.

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