atomic

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Published: Aug 28, 2023 License: BSD-3-Clause Imports: 19 Imported by: 1

README

Shared Memory

Shared memory creates a way for blockchains in the Avalanche Ecosystem to communicate with each other by using a shared database to create a bidirectional communication channel between any two blockchains in the same subnet.

Shared Database

Using Shared Base Database

MetalGo uses a single base database (typically leveldb). This database is partitioned using the prefixdb package, so that each recipient of a prefixdb can treat it as if it were its own unique database.

Each blockchain in the Avalanche Ecosystem has its own prefixdb passed in via vm.Initialize(...), which means that the prefixdbs that are given to each blockchain share the same base level database.

Shared Memory, which also uses the same underlying database, leverages this fact to support the ability to combine a database batch performed on shared memory with any other batches that are performed on the same underlying database.

This allows VMs the ability to perform some database operations on their own database, and commit them atomically with operations that need to be applied to shared memory.

Creating a Unique Shared Database

Shared Memory creates a unique sharedID for any pair of blockchains by ordering the two blockchainIDs, marshalling it to a byte array, and taking a hash of the resulting byte array.

This sharedID is used to create a prefixdb on top of shared memory's database. The sharedID prefixed database is the shared database used to create a bidirectional communication channel.

The shared database is split up into two state objects one for each blockchain in the pair.

Shared Memory can then build the interface to send a message from ChainA to ChainB, which can then only be read and deleted by ChainB. Specifically, Shared Memory exposes the following interface:

type SharedMemory interface {
    // Get fetches the values corresponding to [keys] that have been sent from
    // [peerChainID]
    Get(peerChainID ids.ID, keys [][]byte) (values [][]byte, err error)
    // Indexed returns a paginated result of values that possess any of the
    // given traits and were sent from [peerChainID].
    Indexed(
        peerChainID ids.ID,
        traits [][]byte,
        startTrait,
        startKey []byte,
        limit int,
    ) (
        values [][]byte,
        lastTrait,
        lastKey []byte,
        err error,
    )
    // Apply performs the requested set of operations by atomically applying
    // [requests] to their respective chainID keys in the map along with the
    // batches on the underlying DB.
    //
    // Invariant: The underlying database of [batches] must be the same as the
    //            underlying database for SharedMemory.
    Apply(requests map[ids.ID]*Requests, batches ...database.Batch) error
}

When ChainA calls Apply, the requests map keys are the chainIDs on which to perform requests. If ChainA wants to send a Put and Remove request on ChainB, then it will be broken down as follows:

Shared Memory grabs the shared database between ChainA and ChainB and it will first perform the Remove request. ChainA can only remove messages that were sent from ChainB, so the Remove request will be processed by Removing the specified message from ChainA's state.

The Put operation needs to be sent to ChainB, so any Put request will be added to the state of ChainB.

Get and Indexed will both grab the same shared database and then look at the state of ChainA to read the messages that have been sent to ChainA from ChainB.

This setup ensures that the SharedMemory interface passed in to each VM can only send messages to destination chains and can only read and remove messages that were delivered to it by another source chain.

Atomic Elements

Atomic Elements contain a Key, Value, and a list of traits, all of which are byte arrays:

type Element struct {
    Key    []byte   `serialize:"true"`
    Value  []byte   `serialize:"true"`
    Traits [][]byte `serialize:"true"`
}

A Put operation on shared memory contains a list of Elements to be sent to the destination chain. Each Element is then indexed into the state of the recipient chain.

The Shared Memory State is divided into a value database and index database as mentioned above. The value database contains a one-to-one mapping of Key -> Value, to support efficient Get requests for the keys. The index database contains a one-to-many mapping from a Trait to the Keys that possess that Trait.

Therefore, a Put operation performs the following actions to maintain these mappings:

  • Add Key -> Value to the value database
  • Add Trait -> Key for each Trait in the element to the one-to-many mapping in the index database
Accessing the Shared Database

Shared Memory creates a shared resource across multiple chains which operate in parallel. This means that Shared Memory must provide concurrency control. Therefore, when grabbing a shared memory database, we use the functions GetSharedDatabase and ReleaseSharedDatabase, which must be called in conjunction with each other.

Under the hood, memory creates a shared lock when makeLock(sharedID) is called. This returns the lock without grabbing it and tracks the number of callers that have requested access to the shared database. After makeLock(sharedID) is called, releaseLock(sharedID) is called in memory.go to return the same lock and decrement the count of callers that have access to it.

Lock() and Unlock() are not called within makeLock(sharedID) and releaseLock(sharedID), it's up to the caller of these functions to grab and release the returned lock.

Returning the lock instead of grabbing it within the function, ensures that only the thread calling GetSharedDatabase will block. We grab the lock outside of makeLock to avoid grabbing a shared lock while holding onto the lock within memory.go, which allows access to the maintained maps of shared locks.

Using Shared Memory for Cross-Chain Communication

Shared Memory enables generic cross-chain communication. Here we'll go through the lifecycle of a message through shared memory that is used to move assets from ChainA to ChainB.

Issue an export transaction to ChainA

ChainA will verify this transaction is valid within the block containing the transaction. This verification will ensure that it pays an appropriate fee, ensure that the transaction is well formed, and check to ensure that the destination chain, ChainB, is on the same subnet as ChainA. After the block containing this transaction has been verified, it will be issued to consensus. It's important to note that the message to the shared memory of ChainB is added when this transaction is accepted by the VM. This ensures that an import transaction on ChainB is only valid when the atomic UTXO has been finalized on ChainA.

API service uses Indexed to return the set of UTXOs owned by a set of addresses

A user that wants to issue an import transaction may need to look up the UTXOs that they control. Atomic UTXOs use the traits field to include the set of addresses that own them. This allows a VM's API service to use the Indexed call to look up all of the UTXOs owned by a set of addresses and return them to the user. The user can then form an import transaction that spends the given atomic UTXOs.

Issue an import transaction to ChainB

The user issues an import transaction to ChainB, which specifies the atomic UTXOs that it spends from ChainA. This transaction is verified within the block that it was issued in. ChainB will check basic correctness of the transaction as well as confirming that the atomic UTXOs that it needs to spend are valid. This check will contain at least the following checks:

  • Confirm the UTXO is present in shared memory from the sourceChain
  • Confirm that no blocks in processing between the block containing this tx and the last accepted block attempt to spend the same UTXO
  • Confirm that the sourceChain is an eligible source, which means at least that it is on the same subnet

Once the block is accepted, then the atomic UTXOs spent by the transaction will be consumed and removed from shared memory. It's important to note that because we remove UTXOs from shared memory when the transaction is accepted, we need to verify that any processing ancestor of the block we're verifying does not conflict with the atomic UTXOs that are being spent by this block. It is not sufficient to check that the atomic UTXO we want to spend is present in shared memory when the block is verified because there may be another block that has not yet been accepted, which attempts to spend the same atomic UTXO.

For example, there could be a chain of blocks that looks like the following:

L    (last accepted block)
|
B1   (spends atomic UTXOA)
|
B2   (spends atomic UTXOA)

If B1 is processing (has been verified and issued to consensus, but not accepted yet) when block B2 is verified, then ChainB may look at shared memory and see that UTXOA is present in shared memory. However, because its parent also attempts to spend it, block B2 obviously conflicts with B1 and is invalid.

Generic Communication

Shared memory provides the interface for generic communication across blockchains on the same subnet. Cross-chain transactions moving assets between chains is just the first example. The same primitive can be used to send generic messages between blockchains on top of shared memory, but the basic principles of how it works and how to use it correctly remain the same.

Documentation

Overview

Package atomic is a generated GoMock package.

Index

Constants

This section is empty.

Variables

SharedMemoryTests is a list of all shared memory tests

Functions

func TestPutAndRemoveBatch

func TestPutAndRemoveBatch(t *testing.T, chainID0, _ ids.ID, _, sm1 SharedMemory, db database.Database)

TestPutAndRemoveBatch tests to make sure multiple put and remove requests work properly

func TestSharedMemoryCantDuplicatePut

func TestSharedMemoryCantDuplicatePut(t *testing.T, _, chainID1 ids.ID, sm0, _ SharedMemory, _ database.Database)

func TestSharedMemoryCantDuplicateRemove

func TestSharedMemoryCantDuplicateRemove(t *testing.T, _, chainID1 ids.ID, sm0, _ SharedMemory, _ database.Database)

func TestSharedMemoryCommitOnPut

func TestSharedMemoryCommitOnPut(t *testing.T, _, chainID1 ids.ID, sm0, _ SharedMemory, db database.Database)

func TestSharedMemoryCommitOnRemove

func TestSharedMemoryCommitOnRemove(t *testing.T, _, chainID1 ids.ID, sm0, _ SharedMemory, db database.Database)

func TestSharedMemoryIndexed

func TestSharedMemoryIndexed(t *testing.T, chainID0, chainID1 ids.ID, sm0, sm1 SharedMemory, _ database.Database)

func TestSharedMemoryLargeBatchSize

func TestSharedMemoryLargeBatchSize(t *testing.T, _, chainID1 ids.ID, sm0, _ SharedMemory, db database.Database)

TestSharedMemoryLargeBatchSize tests to make sure that the interface can support large batches.

func TestSharedMemoryLargeIndexed

func TestSharedMemoryLargeIndexed(t *testing.T, chainID0, chainID1 ids.ID, sm0, sm1 SharedMemory, _ database.Database)

func TestSharedMemoryLargePutGetAndRemove

func TestSharedMemoryLargePutGetAndRemove(t *testing.T, chainID0, chainID1 ids.ID, sm0, sm1 SharedMemory, _ database.Database)

TestSharedMemoryLargePutGetAndRemove tests to make sure that the interface can support large values.

func TestSharedMemoryPutAndGet

func TestSharedMemoryPutAndGet(t *testing.T, chainID0, chainID1 ids.ID, sm0, sm1 SharedMemory, _ database.Database)

func WriteAll

func WriteAll(baseBatch database.Batch, batches ...database.Batch) error

WriteAll writes all of the batches to the underlying database of baseBatch. Assumes all batches have the same underlying database.

Types

type Element

type Element struct {
	Key    []byte   `serialize:"true"`
	Value  []byte   `serialize:"true"`
	Traits [][]byte `serialize:"true"`
}

type Memory

type Memory struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

Memory is used to set up a bidirectional communication channel between a pair of chains.

For any such pair, we compute a hash of the ordered pair of IDs to use as a prefix DB that can be shared across the two chains. On top of the prefix DB shared among two chains, we use constant prefixes to determine the inbound/outbound and value/index database assignments.

func NewMemory added in v1.8.4

func NewMemory(db database.Database) *Memory

func (*Memory) GetSharedDatabase

func (m *Memory) GetSharedDatabase(db database.Database, sharedID ids.ID) database.Database

GetSharedDatabase returns a new locked prefix db on top of an existing database

Invariant: ReleaseSharedDatabase must be called after to free the database associated with [sharedID]

func (*Memory) NewSharedMemory

func (m *Memory) NewSharedMemory(chainID ids.ID) SharedMemory

func (*Memory) ReleaseSharedDatabase

func (m *Memory) ReleaseSharedDatabase(sharedID ids.ID)

ReleaseSharedDatabase unlocks the provided DB

Note: ReleaseSharedDatabase must be called only after a corresponding call to GetSharedDatabase. If ReleaseSharedDatabase is called without a corresponding one-to-one call with GetSharedDatabase, it will panic.

type MockSharedMemory added in v1.8.4

type MockSharedMemory struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

MockSharedMemory is a mock of SharedMemory interface.

func NewMockSharedMemory added in v1.8.4

func NewMockSharedMemory(ctrl *gomock.Controller) *MockSharedMemory

NewMockSharedMemory creates a new mock instance.

func (*MockSharedMemory) Apply added in v1.8.4

func (m *MockSharedMemory) Apply(arg0 map[ids.ID]*Requests, arg1 ...database.Batch) error

Apply mocks base method.

func (*MockSharedMemory) EXPECT added in v1.8.4

EXPECT returns an object that allows the caller to indicate expected use.

func (*MockSharedMemory) Get added in v1.8.4

func (m *MockSharedMemory) Get(arg0 ids.ID, arg1 [][]byte) ([][]byte, error)

Get mocks base method.

func (*MockSharedMemory) Indexed added in v1.8.4

func (m *MockSharedMemory) Indexed(arg0 ids.ID, arg1 [][]byte, arg2, arg3 []byte, arg4 int) ([][]byte, []byte, []byte, error)

Indexed mocks base method.

type MockSharedMemoryMockRecorder added in v1.8.4

type MockSharedMemoryMockRecorder struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

MockSharedMemoryMockRecorder is the mock recorder for MockSharedMemory.

func (*MockSharedMemoryMockRecorder) Apply added in v1.8.4

func (mr *MockSharedMemoryMockRecorder) Apply(arg0 interface{}, arg1 ...interface{}) *gomock.Call

Apply indicates an expected call of Apply.

func (*MockSharedMemoryMockRecorder) Get added in v1.8.4

func (mr *MockSharedMemoryMockRecorder) Get(arg0, arg1 interface{}) *gomock.Call

Get indicates an expected call of Get.

func (*MockSharedMemoryMockRecorder) Indexed added in v1.8.4

func (mr *MockSharedMemoryMockRecorder) Indexed(arg0, arg1, arg2, arg3, arg4 interface{}) *gomock.Call

Indexed indicates an expected call of Indexed.

type Requests

type Requests struct {
	RemoveRequests [][]byte   `serialize:"true"`
	PutRequests    []*Element `serialize:"true"`
	// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

type SharedMemory

type SharedMemory interface {
	// Get fetches the values corresponding to [keys] that have been sent from
	// [peerChainID]
	//
	// Invariant: Get guarantees that the resulting values array is the same
	//            length as keys.
	Get(peerChainID ids.ID, keys [][]byte) (values [][]byte, err error)
	// Indexed returns a paginated result of values that possess any of the
	// given traits and were sent from [peerChainID].
	Indexed(
		peerChainID ids.ID,
		traits [][]byte,
		startTrait,
		startKey []byte,
		limit int,
	) (
		values [][]byte,
		lastTrait,
		lastKey []byte,
		err error,
	)
	// Apply performs the requested set of operations by atomically applying
	// [requests] to their respective chainID keys in the map along with the
	// batches on the underlying DB.
	//
	// Invariant: The underlying database of [batches] must be the same as the
	//            underlying database for SharedMemory.
	Apply(requests map[ids.ID]*Requests, batches ...database.Batch) error
}

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