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Published: Mar 25, 2022 License: Apache-2.0 Imports: 13 Imported by: 138




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func NewWitness added in v0.6.1

func NewWitness(assignment Circuit, curveID ecc.ID, opts ...WitnessOption) (*witness.Witness, error)

NewWitness build an orderded vector of field elements from the given assignment (Circuit) if PublicOnly is specified, returns the public part of the witness only else returns [public | secret]. The result can then be serialized to / from json & binary

Returns an error if the assignment has missing entries


type API added in v0.5.2

type API interface {

	// Add returns res =
	Add(i1, i2 Variable, in ...Variable) Variable

	// Neg returns -i
	Neg(i1 Variable) Variable

	// Sub returns res = i1 - i2 -
	Sub(i1, i2 Variable, in ...Variable) Variable

	// Mul returns res = i1 * i2 * ... in
	Mul(i1, i2 Variable, in ...Variable) Variable

	// DivUnchecked returns i1 / i2 . if i1 == i2 == 0, returns 0
	DivUnchecked(i1, i2 Variable) Variable

	// Div returns i1 / i2
	Div(i1, i2 Variable) Variable

	// Inverse returns res = 1 / i1
	Inverse(i1 Variable) Variable

	// ToBinary unpacks a Variable in binary,
	// n is the number of bits to select (starting from lsb)
	// n default value is fr.Bits the number of bits needed to represent a field element
	// The result in in little endian (first bit= lsb)
	ToBinary(i1 Variable, n []Variable

	// FromBinary packs b, seen as a fr.Element in little endian
	FromBinary(b ...Variable) Variable

	// Xor returns a ^ b
	// a and b must be 0 or 1
	Xor(a, b Variable) Variable

	// Or returns a | b
	// a and b must be 0 or 1
	Or(a, b Variable) Variable

	// Or returns a & b
	// a and b must be 0 or 1
	And(a, b Variable) Variable

	// Select if b is true, yields i1 else yields i2
	Select(b Variable, i1, i2 Variable) Variable

	// Lookup2 performs a 2-bit lookup between i1, i2, i3, i4 based on bits b0
	// and b1. Returns i0 if b0=b1=0, i1 if b0=1 and b1=0, i2 if b0=0 and b1=1
	// and i3 if b0=b1=1.
	Lookup2(b0, b1 Variable, i0, i1, i2, i3 Variable) Variable

	// IsZero returns 1 if a is zero, 0 otherwise
	IsZero(i1 Variable) Variable

	// Cmp returns 1 if i1>i2, 0 if i1=i2, -1 if i1<i2
	Cmp(i1, i2 Variable) Variable

	// AssertIsEqual fails if i1 != i2
	AssertIsEqual(i1, i2 Variable)

	// AssertIsDifferent fails if i1 == i2
	AssertIsDifferent(i1, i2 Variable)

	// AssertIsBoolean fails if v != 0 ∥ v != 1
	AssertIsBoolean(i1 Variable)

	// AssertIsLessOrEqual fails if  v > bound
	AssertIsLessOrEqual(v Variable, bound Variable)

	// Println behaves like fmt.Println but accepts cd.Variable as parameter
	// whose value will be resolved at runtime when computed by the solver
	Println(a ...Variable)

	// Compiler returns the compiler object for advanced circuit development
	Compiler() Compiler

	// NewHint is a shorcut to api.Compiler().NewHint()
	// Deprecated: use api.Compiler().NewHint() instead
	NewHint(f hint.Function, nbOutputs int, inputs ...Variable) ([]Variable, error)

	// Tag is a shorcut to api.Compiler().Tag()
	// Deprecated: use api.Compiler().Tag() instead
	Tag(name string) Tag

	// AddCounter is a shorcut to api.Compiler().AddCounter()
	// Deprecated: use api.Compiler().AddCounter() instead
	AddCounter(from, to Tag)

	// ConstantValue is a shorcut to api.Compiler().ConstantValue()
	// Deprecated: use api.Compiler().ConstantValue() instead
	ConstantValue(v Variable) (*big.Int, bool)

	// Curve is a shorcut to api.Compiler().Curve()
	// Deprecated: use api.Compiler().Curve() instead
	Curve() ecc.ID

	// Backend is a shorcut to api.Compiler().Backend()
	// Deprecated: use api.Compiler().Backend() instead
	Backend() backend.ID

API represents the available functions to circuit developers

type Builder added in v0.6.0

type Builder interface {

	// Compile is called after circuit.Define() to produce a final IR (CompiledConstraintSystem)
	Compile() (CompiledConstraintSystem, error)

	// SetSchema is used internally by frontend.Compile to set the circuit schema

	// AddPublicVariable is called by the compiler when parsing the circuit schema. It panics if
	// called inside circuit.Define()
	AddPublicVariable(name string) Variable

	// AddSecretVariable is called by the compiler when parsing the circuit schema. It panics if
	// called inside circuit.Define()
	AddSecretVariable(name string) Variable

Builder represents a constraint system builder

type Circuit

type Circuit interface {
	// Define declares the circuit's Constraints
	Define(api API) error

Circuit must be implemented by user-defined circuits

the tag format is as follow:

type MyCircuit struct {
	Y frontend.Variable `gnark:"name,option"`

if empty, default resolves to variable name (here "Y") and secret visibility similarly to json or xml struct tags, these are valid:

`gnark:",public"` or `gnark:"-"`

using "-" marks the variable as ignored by the Compile method. This can be useful when you need to declare variables as aliases that are already allocated. For example

type MyCircuit struct {
	Y frontend.Variable `gnark:",public"`
	Z frontend.Variable `gnark:"-"`

it is then the developer responsability to do circuit.Z = circuit.Y in the Define() method

type CompileConfig added in v0.7.0

type CompileConfig struct {
	Capacity                  int
	IgnoreUnconstrainedInputs bool

type CompileOption added in v0.5.2

type CompileOption func(opt *CompileConfig) error

CompileOption defines option for altering the behaviour of the Compile method. See the descriptions of the functions returning instances of this type for available options.

func IgnoreUnconstrainedInputs added in v0.5.2

func IgnoreUnconstrainedInputs() CompileOption

IgnoreUnconstrainedInputs is a compile option which allow compiling input circuits where not all inputs are not constrained. If not set, then the compiler returns an error if there exists an unconstrained input.

This option is useful for debugging circuits, but should not be used in production settings as it means that there is a potential error in the circuit definition or that it is possible to optimize witness size.

func WithCapacity added in v0.5.2

func WithCapacity(capacity int) CompileOption

WithCapacity is a compile option that specifies the estimated capacity needed for internal variables and constraints. If not set, then the initial capacity is 0 and is dynamically allocated as needed.

type CompiledConstraintSystem added in v0.4.0

type CompiledConstraintSystem interface {

	// IsSolved returns nil if given witness solves the constraint system and error otherwise
	IsSolved(witness *witness.Witness, opts ...backend.ProverOption) error

	// GetNbVariables return number of internal, secret and public Variables
	GetNbVariables() (internal, secret, public int)
	GetNbConstraints() int
	GetNbCoefficients() int

	CurveID() ecc.ID
	FrSize() int

	// GetCounters return the collected constraint counters, if any
	GetCounters() []compiled.Counter

	GetSchema() *schema.Schema

	// GetConstraints return a human readable representation of the constraints
	GetConstraints() [][]string

CompiledConstraintSystem interface that a compiled (=typed, and correctly routed) should implement.

func Compile

func Compile(curveID ecc.ID, newBuilder NewBuilder, circuit Circuit, opts ...CompileOption) (CompiledConstraintSystem, error)

Compile will generate a ConstraintSystem from the given circuit

1. it will first allocate the user inputs (see type Tag for more info) example:

type MyCircuit struct {
	Y frontend.Variable `gnark:"exponent,public"`

in that case, Compile() will allocate one public variable with id "exponent"

2. it then calls circuit.Define(curveID, R1CS) to build the internal constraint system from the declarative code

  1. finally, it converts that to a ConstraintSystem. if zkpID == backend.GROTH16 → R1CS if zkpID == backend.PLONK → SparseR1CS

initialCapacity is an optional parameter that reserves memory in slices it should be set to the estimated number of constraints in the circuit, if known.

type Compiler added in v0.7.0

type Compiler interface {
	// MarkBoolean sets (but do not constraint!) v to be boolean
	// This is useful in scenarios where a variable is known to be boolean through a constraint
	// that is not api.AssertIsBoolean. If v is a constant, this is a no-op.
	MarkBoolean(v Variable)

	// IsBoolean returns true if given variable was marked as boolean in the compiler (see MarkBoolean)
	// Use with care; variable may not have been **constrained** to be boolean
	// This returns true if the v is a constant and v == 0 || v == 1.
	IsBoolean(v Variable) bool

	// NewHint initializes internal variables whose value will be evaluated
	// using the provided hint function at run time from the inputs. Inputs must
	// be either variables or convertible to *big.Int. The function returns an
	// error if the number of inputs is not compatible with f.
	// The hint function is provided at the proof creation time and is not
	// embedded into the circuit. From the backend point of view, the variable
	// returned by the hint function is equivalent to the user-supplied witness,
	// but its actual value is assigned by the solver, not the caller.
	// No new constraints are added to the newly created wire and must be added
	// manually in the circuit. Failing to do so leads to solver failure.
	// If nbOutputs is specified, it must be >= 1 and <= f.NbOutputs
	NewHint(f hint.Function, nbOutputs int, inputs ...Variable) ([]Variable, error)

	// Tag creates a tag at a given place in a circuit. The state of the tag may contain informations needed to
	// measure constraints, variables and coefficients creations through AddCounter
	Tag(name string) Tag

	// AddCounter measures the number of constraints, variables and coefficients created between two tags
	// note that the PlonK statistics are contextual since there is a post-compile phase where linear expressions
	// are factorized. That is, measuring 2 times the "repeating" piece of circuit may give less constraints the second time
	AddCounter(from, to Tag)

	// ConstantValue returns the big.Int value of v and true if op is a success.
	// nil and false if failure. This API returns a boolean to allow for future refactoring
	// replacing *big.Int with fr.Element
	ConstantValue(v Variable) (*big.Int, bool)

	// CurveID returns the ecc.ID injected by the compiler
	Curve() ecc.ID

	// Backend returns the backend.ID injected by the compiler
	Backend() backend.ID

Compiler represents a constraint system compiler

type Counter added in v0.6.0

type Counter struct {
	From, To      Tag
	NbVariables   int
	NbConstraints int

Counter contains measurements of useful statistics between two Tag

type NewBuilder added in v0.6.0

type NewBuilder func(ecc.ID, CompileConfig) (Builder, error)

type Tag

type Tag struct {
	Name     string
	VID, CID int

Tag contains informations needed to measure and display statistics of a delimited piece of circuit

type Variable

type Variable interface{}

Variable represents a variable in the circuit. Any integer type (e.g. int, *big.Int, fr.Element) can be assigned to it. It is also allowed to set a base-10 encoded string representing an integer value. The only purpose of putting this defintion here is to avoid the import cycles (cs/plonk <-> frontend) and (cs/r1cs <-> frontend)

type WitnessOption added in v0.6.1

type WitnessOption func(*witnessConfig) error

WitnessOption sets optional parameter to witness instantiation from an assigment

func PublicOnly added in v0.6.1

func PublicOnly() WitnessOption

PublicOnly enables to instantiate a witness with the public part only of the assignment


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