Package gax contains a set of modules which aid the development of APIs for clients and servers based on gRPC and Google API conventions.

    Application code will rarely need to use this library directly. However, code generated automatically from API definition files can use it to simplify code generation and to provide more convenient and idiomatic API surfaces.




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    const Version = "2.0.4"

      Version specifies the gax-go version being used.


      This section is empty.


      func Invoke

      func Invoke(ctx context.Context, call APICall, opts ...CallOption) error

        Invoke calls the given APICall, performing retries as specified by opts, if any.

        func Sleep

        func Sleep(ctx context.Context, d time.Duration) error

          Sleep is similar to time.Sleep, but it can be interrupted by ctx.Done() closing. If interrupted, Sleep returns ctx.Err().

          func XGoogHeader

          func XGoogHeader(keyval ...string) string

            XGoogHeader is for use by the Google Cloud Libraries only.

            XGoogHeader formats key-value pairs. The resulting string is suitable for x-goog-api-client header.


            type APICall

            type APICall func(context.Context, CallSettings) error

              APICall is a user defined call stub.

              type Backoff

              type Backoff struct {
              	// Initial is the initial value of the retry envelope, defaults to 1 second.
              	Initial time.Duration
              	// Max is the maximum value of the retry envelope, defaults to 30 seconds.
              	Max time.Duration
              	// Multiplier is the factor by which the retry envelope increases.
              	// It should be greater than 1 and defaults to 2.
              	Multiplier float64
              	// contains filtered or unexported fields

                Backoff implements exponential backoff. The wait time between retries is a random value between 0 and the "retry envelope". The envelope starts at Initial and increases by the factor of Multiplier every retry, but is capped at Max.

                func (*Backoff) Pause

                func (bo *Backoff) Pause() time.Duration

                  Pause returns the next time.Duration that the caller should use to backoff.

                  type CallOption

                  type CallOption interface {
                  	// Resolve applies the option by modifying cs.
                  	Resolve(cs *CallSettings)

                    CallOption is an option used by Invoke to control behaviors of RPC calls. CallOption works by modifying relevant fields of CallSettings.

                    func WithGRPCOptions

                    func WithGRPCOptions(opt ...grpc.CallOption) CallOption

                      WithGRPCOptions allows passing gRPC call options during client creation.

                      func WithRetry

                      func WithRetry(fn func() Retryer) CallOption

                        WithRetry sets CallSettings.Retry to fn.

                        type CallSettings

                        type CallSettings struct {
                        	// Retry returns a Retryer to be used to control retry logic of a method call.
                        	// If Retry is nil or the returned Retryer is nil, the call will not be retried.
                        	Retry func() Retryer
                        	// CallOptions to be forwarded to GRPC.
                        	GRPC []grpc.CallOption

                          CallSettings allow fine-grained control over how calls are made.

                          type Retryer

                          type Retryer interface {
                          	// Retry reports whether a request should be retriedand how long to pause before retrying
                          	// if the previous attempt returned with err. Invoke never calls Retry with nil error.
                          	Retry(err error) (pause time.Duration, shouldRetry bool)

                            Retryer is used by Invoke to determine retry behavior.

                            func OnCodes

                            func OnCodes(cc []codes.Code, bo Backoff) Retryer

                              OnCodes returns a Retryer that retries if and only if the previous attempt returns a GRPC error whose error code is stored in cc. Pause times between retries are specified by bo.

                              bo is only used for its parameters; each Retryer has its own copy.



                              package main
                              import (
                              const someRPCTimeout = 5 * time.Minute
                              // Some result that the client might return.
                              type fakeResponse struct{}
                              // Some client that can perform RPCs.
                              type fakeClient struct{}
                              // PerformSomeRPC is a fake RPC that a client might perform.
                              func (c *fakeClient) PerformSomeRPC(ctx context.Context) (*fakeResponse, error) {
                              	// An actual client would return something meaningful here.
                              	return nil, nil
                              func main() {
                              	ctx := context.Background()
                              	c := &fakeClient{}
                              	// UNKNOWN and UNAVAILABLE are typically safe to retry for idempotent RPCs.
                              	retryer := gax.OnCodes([]codes.Code{codes.Unknown, codes.Unavailable}, gax.Backoff{
                              		Initial:    time.Second,
                              		Max:        32 * time.Second,
                              		Multiplier: 2,
                              	performSomeRPCWithRetry := func(ctx context.Context) (*fakeResponse, error) {
                              		for {
                              			resp, err := c.PerformSomeRPC(ctx)
                              			if err != nil {
                              				if delay, shouldRetry := retryer.Retry(err); shouldRetry {
                              					if err := gax.Sleep(ctx, delay); err != nil {
                              						return nil, err
                              				return nil, err
                              			return resp, err
                              	// It's recommended to set deadlines on RPCs and around retrying. This is
                              	// also usually preferred over setting some fixed number of retries: one
                              	// advantage this has is that backoff settings can be changed independently
                              	// of the deadline, whereas with a fixed number of retries the deadline
                              	// would be a constantly-shifting goalpost.
                              	ctxWithTimeout, cancel := context.WithDeadline(ctx, time.Now().Add(someRPCTimeout))
                              	defer cancel()
                              	resp, err := performSomeRPCWithRetry(ctxWithTimeout)
                              	if err != nil {
                              		// TODO: handle err
                              	_ = resp // TODO: use resp if err is nil