package module
v1.9.16 Latest Latest

This package is not in the latest version of its module.

Go to latest
Published: Aug 13, 2020 License: MIT Imports: 22 Imported by: 33,777



GORM V2 moved to https://github.com/go-gorm/gorm

GORM V1 Doc https://v1.gorm.io/




This section is empty.


View Source
var (
	// ErrRecordNotFound returns a "record not found error". Occurs only when attempting to query the database with a struct; querying with a slice won't return this error
	ErrRecordNotFound = errors.New("record not found")
	// ErrInvalidSQL occurs when you attempt a query with invalid SQL
	ErrInvalidSQL = errors.New("invalid SQL")
	// ErrInvalidTransaction occurs when you are trying to `Commit` or `Rollback`
	ErrInvalidTransaction = errors.New("no valid transaction")
	// ErrCantStartTransaction can't start transaction when you are trying to start one with `Begin`
	ErrCantStartTransaction = errors.New("can't start transaction")
	// ErrUnaddressable unaddressable value
	ErrUnaddressable = errors.New("using unaddressable value")
View Source
var DefaultCallback = &Callback{logger: nopLogger{}}

DefaultCallback default callbacks defined by gorm

View Source
var DefaultTableNameHandler = func(db *DB, defaultTableName string) string {
	return defaultTableName

DefaultTableNameHandler default table name handler

View Source
var LogFormatter = func(values ...interface{}) (messages []interface{}) {
	if len(values) > 1 {
		var (
			sql             string
			formattedValues []string
			level           = values[0]
			currentTime     = "\n\033[33m[" + NowFunc().Format("2006-01-02 15:04:05") + "]\033[0m"
			source          = fmt.Sprintf("\033[35m(%v)\033[0m", values[1])

		messages = []interface{}{source, currentTime}

		if len(values) == 2 {

			currentTime = currentTime[1:]

			source = fmt.Sprintf("\033[35m%v\033[0m", values[1])

			messages = []interface{}{currentTime, source}

		if level == "sql" {

			messages = append(messages, fmt.Sprintf(" \033[36;1m[%.2fms]\033[0m ", float64(values[2].(time.Duration).Nanoseconds()/1e4)/100.0))

			for _, value := range values[4].([]interface{}) {
				indirectValue := reflect.Indirect(reflect.ValueOf(value))
				if indirectValue.IsValid() {
					value = indirectValue.Interface()
					if t, ok := value.(time.Time); ok {
						if t.IsZero() {
							formattedValues = append(formattedValues, fmt.Sprintf("'%v'", "0000-00-00 00:00:00"))
						} else {
							formattedValues = append(formattedValues, fmt.Sprintf("'%v'", t.Format("2006-01-02 15:04:05")))
					} else if b, ok := value.([]byte); ok {
						if str := string(b); isPrintable(str) {
							formattedValues = append(formattedValues, fmt.Sprintf("'%v'", str))
						} else {
							formattedValues = append(formattedValues, "'<binary>'")
					} else if r, ok := value.(driver.Valuer); ok {
						if value, err := r.Value(); err == nil && value != nil {
							formattedValues = append(formattedValues, fmt.Sprintf("'%v'", value))
						} else {
							formattedValues = append(formattedValues, "NULL")
					} else {
						switch value.(type) {
						case int, int8, int16, int32, int64, uint, uint8, uint16, uint32, uint64, float32, float64, bool:
							formattedValues = append(formattedValues, fmt.Sprintf("%v", value))
							formattedValues = append(formattedValues, fmt.Sprintf("'%v'", value))
				} else {
					formattedValues = append(formattedValues, "NULL")

			if numericPlaceHolderRegexp.MatchString(values[3].(string)) {
				sql = values[3].(string)
				for index, value := range formattedValues {
					placeholder := fmt.Sprintf(`\$%d([^\d]|$)`, index+1)
					sql = regexp.MustCompile(placeholder).ReplaceAllString(sql, value+"$1")
			} else {
				formattedValuesLength := len(formattedValues)
				for index, value := range sqlRegexp.Split(values[3].(string), -1) {
					sql += value
					if index < formattedValuesLength {
						sql += formattedValues[index]

			messages = append(messages, sql)
			messages = append(messages, fmt.Sprintf(" \n\033[36;31m[%v]\033[0m ", strconv.FormatInt(values[5].(int64), 10)+" rows affected or returned "))
		} else {
			messages = append(messages, "\033[31;1m")
			messages = append(messages, values[2:]...)
			messages = append(messages, "\033[0m")

View Source
var NowFunc = func() time.Time {
	return time.Now()

NowFunc returns current time, this function is exported in order to be able to give the flexibility to the developer to customize it according to their needs, e.g:

gorm.NowFunc = func() time.Time {
  return time.Now().UTC()
View Source
var ParseFieldStructForDialect = func(field *StructField, dialect Dialect) (fieldValue reflect.Value, sqlType string, size int, additionalType string) {
	// Get redirected field type
	var (
		reflectType = field.Struct.Type
		dataType, _ = field.TagSettingsGet("TYPE")

	for reflectType.Kind() == reflect.Ptr {
		reflectType = reflectType.Elem()

	fieldValue = reflect.Indirect(reflect.New(reflectType))

	if gormDataType, ok := fieldValue.Interface().(interface {
		GormDataType(Dialect) string
	}); ok {
		dataType = gormDataType.GormDataType(dialect)

	if dataType == "" {
		var getScannerValue func(reflect.Value)
		getScannerValue = func(value reflect.Value) {
			fieldValue = value
			if _, isScanner := reflect.New(fieldValue.Type()).Interface().(sql.Scanner); isScanner && fieldValue.Kind() == reflect.Struct {

	if num, ok := field.TagSettingsGet("SIZE"); ok {
		size, _ = strconv.Atoi(num)
	} else {
		size = 255

	notNull, _ := field.TagSettingsGet("NOT NULL")
	unique, _ := field.TagSettingsGet("UNIQUE")
	additionalType = notNull + " " + unique
	if value, ok := field.TagSettingsGet("DEFAULT"); ok {
		additionalType = additionalType + " DEFAULT " + value

	if value, ok := field.TagSettingsGet("COMMENT"); ok {
		additionalType = additionalType + " COMMENT " + value

	return fieldValue, dataType, size, strings.TrimSpace(additionalType)

ParseFieldStructForDialect get field's sql data type

View Source
var TheNamingStrategy = &NamingStrategy{
	DB:     defaultNamer,
	Table:  defaultNamer,
	Column: defaultNamer,

TheNamingStrategy is being initialized with defaultNamingStrategy


func AddNamingStrategy added in v1.9.2

func AddNamingStrategy(ns *NamingStrategy)

AddNamingStrategy sets the naming strategy

func IsByteArrayOrSlice

func IsByteArrayOrSlice(value reflect.Value) bool

IsByteArrayOrSlice returns true of the reflected value is an array or slice

func IsRecordNotFoundError

func IsRecordNotFoundError(err error) bool

IsRecordNotFoundError returns true if error contains a RecordNotFound error

func RegisterDialect

func RegisterDialect(name string, dialect Dialect)

RegisterDialect register new dialect

func ToColumnName added in v1.9.2

func ToColumnName(name string) string

ToColumnName convert string to db name

func ToDBName

func ToDBName(name string) string

ToDBName convert string to db name

func ToTableName added in v1.9.2

func ToTableName(name string) string

ToTableName convert string to table name


type Association

type Association struct {
	Error error
	// contains filtered or unexported fields

Association Mode contains some helper methods to handle relationship things easily.

func (*Association) Append

func (association *Association) Append(values ...interface{}) *Association

Append append new associations for many2many, has_many, replace current association for has_one, belongs_to

func (*Association) Clear

func (association *Association) Clear() *Association

Clear remove relationship between source & current associations, won't delete those associations

func (*Association) Count

func (association *Association) Count() int

Count return the count of current associations

func (*Association) Delete

func (association *Association) Delete(values ...interface{}) *Association

Delete remove relationship between source & passed arguments, but won't delete those arguments

func (*Association) Find

func (association *Association) Find(value interface{}) *Association

Find find out all related associations

func (*Association) Replace

func (association *Association) Replace(values ...interface{}) *Association

Replace replace current associations with new one

type Callback

type Callback struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields

Callback is a struct that contains all CRUD callbacks

Field `creates` contains callbacks will be call when creating object
Field `updates` contains callbacks will be call when updating object
Field `deletes` contains callbacks will be call when deleting object
Field `queries` contains callbacks will be call when querying object with query methods like Find, First, Related, Association...
Field `rowQueries` contains callbacks will be call when querying object with Row, Rows...
Field `processors` contains all callback processors, will be used to generate above callbacks in order

func (*Callback) Create

func (c *Callback) Create() *CallbackProcessor

Create could be used to register callbacks for creating object

db.Callback().Create().After("gorm:create").Register("plugin:run_after_create", func(*Scope) {
  // business logic

  // set error if some thing wrong happened, will rollback the creating

func (*Callback) Delete

func (c *Callback) Delete() *CallbackProcessor

Delete could be used to register callbacks for deleting object, refer `Create` for usage

func (*Callback) Query

func (c *Callback) Query() *CallbackProcessor

Query could be used to register callbacks for querying objects with query methods like `Find`, `First`, `Related`, `Association`... Refer `Create` for usage

func (*Callback) RowQuery

func (c *Callback) RowQuery() *CallbackProcessor

RowQuery could be used to register callbacks for querying objects with `Row`, `Rows`, refer `Create` for usage

func (*Callback) Update

func (c *Callback) Update() *CallbackProcessor

Update could be used to register callbacks for updating object, refer `Create` for usage

type CallbackProcessor

type CallbackProcessor struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields

CallbackProcessor contains callback informations

func (*CallbackProcessor) After

func (cp *CallbackProcessor) After(callbackName string) *CallbackProcessor

After insert a new callback after callback `callbackName`, refer `Callbacks.Create`

func (*CallbackProcessor) Before

func (cp *CallbackProcessor) Before(callbackName string) *CallbackProcessor

Before insert a new callback before callback `callbackName`, refer `Callbacks.Create`

func (*CallbackProcessor) Get

func (cp *CallbackProcessor) Get(callbackName string) (callback func(scope *Scope))

Get registered callback


func (*CallbackProcessor) Register

func (cp *CallbackProcessor) Register(callbackName string, callback func(scope *Scope))

Register a new callback, refer `Callbacks.Create`

func (*CallbackProcessor) Remove

func (cp *CallbackProcessor) Remove(callbackName string)

Remove a registered callback


func (*CallbackProcessor) Replace

func (cp *CallbackProcessor) Replace(callbackName string, callback func(scope *Scope))

Replace a registered callback with new callback

    db.Callback().Create().Replace("gorm:update_time_stamp_when_create", func(*Scope) {
		   scope.SetColumn("CreatedAt", now)
		   scope.SetColumn("UpdatedAt", now)

type DB

type DB struct {
	Value        interface{}
	Error        error
	RowsAffected int64
	// contains filtered or unexported fields

DB contains information for current db connection

func Open

func Open(dialect string, args ...interface{}) (db *DB, err error)

Open initialize a new db connection, need to import driver first, e.g:

import _ "github.com/go-sql-driver/mysql"
func main() {
  db, err := gorm.Open("mysql", "user:password@/dbname?charset=utf8&parseTime=True&loc=Local")

GORM has wrapped some drivers, for easier to remember driver's import path, so you could import the mysql driver with

import _ "github.com/jinzhu/gorm/dialects/mysql"
// import _ "github.com/jinzhu/gorm/dialects/postgres"
// import _ "github.com/jinzhu/gorm/dialects/sqlite"
// import _ "github.com/jinzhu/gorm/dialects/mssql"

func (*DB) AddError

func (s *DB) AddError(err error) error

AddError add error to the db

func (*DB) AddForeignKey

func (s *DB) AddForeignKey(field string, dest string, onDelete string, onUpdate string) *DB

AddForeignKey Add foreign key to the given scope, e.g:

db.Model(&User{}).AddForeignKey("city_id", "cities(id)", "RESTRICT", "RESTRICT")

func (*DB) AddIndex

func (s *DB) AddIndex(indexName string, columns ...string) *DB

AddIndex add index for columns with given name

func (*DB) AddUniqueIndex

func (s *DB) AddUniqueIndex(indexName string, columns ...string) *DB

AddUniqueIndex add unique index for columns with given name

func (*DB) Assign

func (s *DB) Assign(attrs ...interface{}) *DB

Assign assign result with argument regardless it is found or not with `FirstOrInit` https://jinzhu.github.io/gorm/crud.html#firstorinit or `FirstOrCreate` https://jinzhu.github.io/gorm/crud.html#firstorcreate

func (*DB) Association

func (s *DB) Association(column string) *Association

Association start `Association Mode` to handler relations things easir in that mode, refer: https://jinzhu.github.io/gorm/associations.html#association-mode

func (*DB) Attrs

func (s *DB) Attrs(attrs ...interface{}) *DB

Attrs initialize struct with argument if record not found with `FirstOrInit` https://jinzhu.github.io/gorm/crud.html#firstorinit or `FirstOrCreate` https://jinzhu.github.io/gorm/crud.html#firstorcreate

func (*DB) AutoMigrate

func (s *DB) AutoMigrate(values ...interface{}) *DB

AutoMigrate run auto migration for given models, will only add missing fields, won't delete/change current data

func (*DB) Begin

func (s *DB) Begin() *DB

Begin begins a transaction

func (*DB) BeginTx added in v1.9.9

func (s *DB) BeginTx(ctx context.Context, opts *sql.TxOptions) *DB

BeginTx begins a transaction with options

func (*DB) BlockGlobalUpdate

func (s *DB) BlockGlobalUpdate(enable bool) *DB

BlockGlobalUpdate if true, generates an error on update/delete without where clause. This is to prevent eventual error with empty objects updates/deletions

func (*DB) Callback

func (s *DB) Callback() *Callback

Callback return `Callbacks` container, you could add/change/delete callbacks with it

db.Callback().Create().Register("update_created_at", updateCreated)

Refer https://jinzhu.github.io/gorm/development.html#callbacks

func (*DB) Close

func (s *DB) Close() error

Close close current db connection. If database connection is not an io.Closer, returns an error.

func (*DB) Commit

func (s *DB) Commit() *DB

Commit commit a transaction

func (*DB) CommonDB

func (s *DB) CommonDB() SQLCommon

CommonDB return the underlying `*sql.DB` or `*sql.Tx` instance, mainly intended to allow coexistence with legacy non-GORM code.

func (*DB) Count

func (s *DB) Count(value interface{}) *DB

Count get how many records for a model

func (*DB) Create

func (s *DB) Create(value interface{}) *DB

Create insert the value into database

func (*DB) CreateTable

func (s *DB) CreateTable(models ...interface{}) *DB

CreateTable create table for models

func (*DB) DB

func (s *DB) DB() *sql.DB

DB get `*sql.DB` from current connection If the underlying database connection is not a *sql.DB, returns nil

func (*DB) Debug

func (s *DB) Debug() *DB

Debug start debug mode

func (*DB) Delete

func (s *DB) Delete(value interface{}, where ...interface{}) *DB

Delete delete value match given conditions, if the value has primary key, then will including the primary key as condition WARNING If model has DeletedAt field, GORM will only set field DeletedAt's value to current time

func (*DB) Dialect

func (s *DB) Dialect() Dialect

Dialect get dialect

func (*DB) DropColumn

func (s *DB) DropColumn(column string) *DB

DropColumn drop a column

func (*DB) DropTable

func (s *DB) DropTable(values ...interface{}) *DB

DropTable drop table for models

func (*DB) DropTableIfExists

func (s *DB) DropTableIfExists(values ...interface{}) *DB

DropTableIfExists drop table if it is exist

func (*DB) Exec

func (s *DB) Exec(sql string, values ...interface{}) *DB

Exec execute raw sql

func (*DB) Find

func (s *DB) Find(out interface{}, where ...interface{}) *DB

Find find records that match given conditions

func (*DB) First

func (s *DB) First(out interface{}, where ...interface{}) *DB

First find first record that match given conditions, order by primary key

func (*DB) FirstOrCreate

func (s *DB) FirstOrCreate(out interface{}, where ...interface{}) *DB

FirstOrCreate find first matched record or create a new one with given conditions (only works with struct, map conditions) https://jinzhu.github.io/gorm/crud.html#firstorcreate

func (*DB) FirstOrInit

func (s *DB) FirstOrInit(out interface{}, where ...interface{}) *DB

FirstOrInit find first matched record or initialize a new one with given conditions (only works with struct, map conditions) https://jinzhu.github.io/gorm/crud.html#firstorinit

func (*DB) Get

func (s *DB) Get(name string) (value interface{}, ok bool)

Get get setting by name

func (*DB) GetErrors

func (s *DB) GetErrors() []error

GetErrors get happened errors from the db

func (*DB) Group

func (s *DB) Group(query string) *DB

Group specify the group method on the find

func (*DB) HasBlockGlobalUpdate

func (s *DB) HasBlockGlobalUpdate() bool

HasBlockGlobalUpdate return state of block

func (*DB) HasTable

func (s *DB) HasTable(value interface{}) bool

HasTable check has table or not

func (*DB) Having

func (s *DB) Having(query interface{}, values ...interface{}) *DB

Having specify HAVING conditions for GROUP BY

func (*DB) InstantSet

func (s *DB) InstantSet(name string, value interface{}) *DB

InstantSet instant set setting, will affect current db

func (*DB) Joins

func (s *DB) Joins(query string, args ...interface{}) *DB

Joins specify Joins conditions

db.Joins("JOIN emails ON emails.user_id = users.id AND emails.email = ?", "jinzhu@example.org").Find(&user)

func (*DB) Last

func (s *DB) Last(out interface{}, where ...interface{}) *DB

Last find last record that match given conditions, order by primary key

func (*DB) Limit

func (s *DB) Limit(limit interface{}) *DB

Limit specify the number of records to be retrieved

func (*DB) LogMode

func (s *DB) LogMode(enable bool) *DB

LogMode set log mode, `true` for detailed logs, `false` for no log, default, will only print error logs

func (*DB) Model

func (s *DB) Model(value interface{}) *DB

Model specify the model you would like to run db operations

// update all users's name to `hello`
db.Model(&User{}).Update("name", "hello")
// if user's primary key is non-blank, will use it as condition, then will only update the user's name to `hello`
db.Model(&user).Update("name", "hello")

func (*DB) ModifyColumn

func (s *DB) ModifyColumn(column string, typ string) *DB

ModifyColumn modify column to type

func (*DB) New

func (s *DB) New() *DB

New clone a new db connection without search conditions

func (*DB) NewRecord

func (s *DB) NewRecord(value interface{}) bool

NewRecord check if value's primary key is blank

func (*DB) NewScope

func (s *DB) NewScope(value interface{}) *Scope

NewScope create a scope for current operation

func (*DB) Not

func (s *DB) Not(query interface{}, args ...interface{}) *DB

Not filter records that don't match current conditions, similar to `Where`

func (*DB) Offset

func (s *DB) Offset(offset interface{}) *DB

Offset specify the number of records to skip before starting to return the records

func (*DB) Omit

func (s *DB) Omit(columns ...string) *DB

Omit specify fields that you want to ignore when saving to database for creating, updating

func (*DB) Or

func (s *DB) Or(query interface{}, args ...interface{}) *DB

Or filter records that match before conditions or this one, similar to `Where`

func (*DB) Order

func (s *DB) Order(value interface{}, reorder ...bool) *DB

Order specify order when retrieve records from database, set reorder to `true` to overwrite defined conditions

db.Order("name DESC")
db.Order("name DESC", true) // reorder
db.Order(gorm.Expr("name = ? DESC", "first")) // sql expression

func (*DB) Pluck

func (s *DB) Pluck(column string, value interface{}) *DB

Pluck used to query single column from a model as a map

var ages []int64
db.Find(&users).Pluck("age", &ages)

func (*DB) Preload

func (s *DB) Preload(column string, conditions ...interface{}) *DB

Preload preload associations with given conditions

db.Preload("Orders", "state NOT IN (?)", "cancelled").Find(&users)

func (*DB) Preloads added in v1.9.2

func (s *DB) Preloads(out interface{}) *DB

Preloads preloads relations, don`t touch out

func (*DB) QueryExpr

func (s *DB) QueryExpr() *SqlExpr

QueryExpr returns the query as SqlExpr object

func (*DB) Raw

func (s *DB) Raw(sql string, values ...interface{}) *DB

Raw use raw sql as conditions, won't run it unless invoked by other methods

db.Raw("SELECT name, age FROM users WHERE name = ?", 3).Scan(&result)

func (*DB) RecordNotFound

func (s *DB) RecordNotFound() bool

RecordNotFound check if returning ErrRecordNotFound error

func (*DB) Related

func (s *DB) Related(value interface{}, foreignKeys ...string) *DB

Related get related associations

func (*DB) RemoveForeignKey

func (s *DB) RemoveForeignKey(field string, dest string) *DB

RemoveForeignKey Remove foreign key from the given scope, e.g:

db.Model(&User{}).RemoveForeignKey("city_id", "cities(id)")

func (*DB) RemoveIndex

func (s *DB) RemoveIndex(indexName string) *DB

RemoveIndex remove index with name

func (*DB) Rollback

func (s *DB) Rollback() *DB

Rollback rollback a transaction

func (*DB) RollbackUnlessCommitted added in v1.9.9

func (s *DB) RollbackUnlessCommitted() *DB

RollbackUnlessCommitted rollback a transaction if it has not yet been committed.

func (*DB) Row

func (s *DB) Row() *sql.Row

Row return `*sql.Row` with given conditions

func (*DB) Rows

func (s *DB) Rows() (*sql.Rows, error)

Rows return `*sql.Rows` with given conditions

func (*DB) Save

func (s *DB) Save(value interface{}) *DB

Save update value in database, if the value doesn't have primary key, will insert it

func (*DB) Scan

func (s *DB) Scan(dest interface{}) *DB

Scan scan value to a struct

func (*DB) ScanRows

func (s *DB) ScanRows(rows *sql.Rows, result interface{}) error

ScanRows scan `*sql.Rows` to give struct

func (*DB) Scopes

func (s *DB) Scopes(funcs ...func(*DB) *DB) *DB

Scopes pass current database connection to arguments `func(*DB) *DB`, which could be used to add conditions dynamically

func AmountGreaterThan1000(db *gorm.DB) *gorm.DB {
    return db.Where("amount > ?", 1000)

func OrderStatus(status []string) func (db *gorm.DB) *gorm.DB {
    return func (db *gorm.DB) *gorm.DB {
        return db.Scopes(AmountGreaterThan1000).Where("status in (?)", status)

db.Scopes(AmountGreaterThan1000, OrderStatus([]string{"paid", "shipped"})).Find(&orders)

Refer https://jinzhu.github.io/gorm/crud.html#scopes

func (*DB) Select

func (s *DB) Select(query interface{}, args ...interface{}) *DB

Select specify fields that you want to retrieve from database when querying, by default, will select all fields; When creating/updating, specify fields that you want to save to database

func (*DB) Set

func (s *DB) Set(name string, value interface{}) *DB

Set set setting by name, which could be used in callbacks, will clone a new db, and update its setting

func (*DB) SetJoinTableHandler

func (s *DB) SetJoinTableHandler(source interface{}, column string, handler JoinTableHandlerInterface)

SetJoinTableHandler set a model's join table handler for a relation

func (*DB) SetLogger

func (s *DB) SetLogger(log logger)

SetLogger replace default logger

func (*DB) SetNowFuncOverride added in v1.9.9

func (s *DB) SetNowFuncOverride(nowFuncOverride func() time.Time) *DB

SetNowFuncOverride set the function to be used when creating a new timestamp

func (*DB) SingularTable

func (s *DB) SingularTable(enable bool)

SingularTable use singular table by default

func (*DB) SubQuery

func (s *DB) SubQuery() *SqlExpr

SubQuery returns the query as sub query

func (*DB) Table

func (s *DB) Table(name string) *DB

Table specify the table you would like to run db operations

func (*DB) Take

func (s *DB) Take(out interface{}, where ...interface{}) *DB

Take return a record that match given conditions, the order will depend on the database implementation

func (*DB) Transaction added in v1.9.12

func (s *DB) Transaction(fc func(tx *DB) error) (err error)

Transaction start a transaction as a block, return error will rollback, otherwise to commit.

func (*DB) Unscoped

func (s *DB) Unscoped() *DB

Unscoped return all record including deleted record, refer Soft Delete https://jinzhu.github.io/gorm/crud.html#soft-delete

func (*DB) Update

func (s *DB) Update(attrs ...interface{}) *DB

Update update attributes with callbacks, refer: https://jinzhu.github.io/gorm/crud.html#update WARNING when update with struct, GORM will not update fields that with zero value

func (*DB) UpdateColumn

func (s *DB) UpdateColumn(attrs ...interface{}) *DB

UpdateColumn update attributes without callbacks, refer: https://jinzhu.github.io/gorm/crud.html#update

func (*DB) UpdateColumns

func (s *DB) UpdateColumns(values interface{}) *DB

UpdateColumns update attributes without callbacks, refer: https://jinzhu.github.io/gorm/crud.html#update

func (*DB) Updates

func (s *DB) Updates(values interface{}, ignoreProtectedAttrs ...bool) *DB

Updates update attributes with callbacks, refer: https://jinzhu.github.io/gorm/crud.html#update

func (*DB) Where

func (s *DB) Where(query interface{}, args ...interface{}) *DB

Where return a new relation, filter records with given conditions, accepts `map`, `struct` or `string` as conditions, refer http://jinzhu.github.io/gorm/crud.html#query

type DefaultForeignKeyNamer

type DefaultForeignKeyNamer struct {

DefaultForeignKeyNamer contains the default foreign key name generator method

func (DefaultForeignKeyNamer) BuildKeyName

func (DefaultForeignKeyNamer) BuildKeyName(kind, tableName string, fields ...string) string

BuildKeyName returns a valid key name (foreign key, index key) for the given table, field and reference

type Dialect

type Dialect interface {
	// GetName get dialect's name
	GetName() string

	// SetDB set db for dialect
	SetDB(db SQLCommon)

	// BindVar return the placeholder for actual values in SQL statements, in many dbs it is "?", Postgres using $1
	BindVar(i int) string
	// Quote quotes field name to avoid SQL parsing exceptions by using a reserved word as a field name
	Quote(key string) string
	// DataTypeOf return data's sql type
	DataTypeOf(field *StructField) string

	// HasIndex check has index or not
	HasIndex(tableName string, indexName string) bool
	// HasForeignKey check has foreign key or not
	HasForeignKey(tableName string, foreignKeyName string) bool
	// RemoveIndex remove index
	RemoveIndex(tableName string, indexName string) error
	// HasTable check has table or not
	HasTable(tableName string) bool
	// HasColumn check has column or not
	HasColumn(tableName string, columnName string) bool
	// ModifyColumn modify column's type
	ModifyColumn(tableName string, columnName string, typ string) error

	// LimitAndOffsetSQL return generated SQL with Limit and Offset, as mssql has special case
	LimitAndOffsetSQL(limit, offset interface{}) (string, error)
	// SelectFromDummyTable return select values, for most dbs, `SELECT values` just works, mysql needs `SELECT value FROM DUAL`
	SelectFromDummyTable() string
	// LastInsertIDOutputInterstitial most dbs support LastInsertId, but mssql needs to use `OUTPUT`
	LastInsertIDOutputInterstitial(tableName, columnName string, columns []string) string
	// LastInsertIdReturningSuffix most dbs support LastInsertId, but postgres needs to use `RETURNING`
	LastInsertIDReturningSuffix(tableName, columnName string) string
	// DefaultValueStr
	DefaultValueStr() string

	// BuildKeyName returns a valid key name (foreign key, index key) for the given table, field and reference
	BuildKeyName(kind, tableName string, fields ...string) string

	// NormalizeIndexAndColumn returns valid index name and column name depending on each dialect
	NormalizeIndexAndColumn(indexName, columnName string) (string, string)

	// CurrentDatabase return current database name
	CurrentDatabase() string

Dialect interface contains behaviors that differ across SQL database

func GetDialect added in v1.9.2

func GetDialect(name string) (dialect Dialect, ok bool)

GetDialect gets the dialect for the specified dialect name

type Errors

type Errors []error

Errors contains all happened errors

func (Errors) Add

func (errs Errors) Add(newErrors ...error) Errors

Add adds an error to a given slice of errors

func (Errors) Error

func (errs Errors) Error() string

Error takes a slice of all errors that have occurred and returns it as a formatted string

func (Errors) GetErrors

func (errs Errors) GetErrors() []error

GetErrors gets all errors that have occurred and returns a slice of errors (Error type)

type Field

type Field struct {
	IsBlank bool
	Field   reflect.Value

Field model field definition

func (*Field) Set

func (field *Field) Set(value interface{}) (err error)

Set set a value to the field

type JoinTableForeignKey

type JoinTableForeignKey struct {
	DBName            string
	AssociationDBName string

JoinTableForeignKey join table foreign key struct

type JoinTableHandler

type JoinTableHandler struct {
	TableName   string          `sql:"-"`
	Source      JoinTableSource `sql:"-"`
	Destination JoinTableSource `sql:"-"`

JoinTableHandler default join table handler

func (JoinTableHandler) Add

func (s JoinTableHandler) Add(handler JoinTableHandlerInterface, db *DB, source interface{}, destination interface{}) error

Add create relationship in join table for source and destination

func (JoinTableHandler) Delete

func (s JoinTableHandler) Delete(handler JoinTableHandlerInterface, db *DB, sources ...interface{}) error

Delete delete relationship in join table for sources

func (*JoinTableHandler) DestinationForeignKeys

func (s *JoinTableHandler) DestinationForeignKeys() []JoinTableForeignKey

DestinationForeignKeys return destination foreign keys

func (JoinTableHandler) JoinWith

func (s JoinTableHandler) JoinWith(handler JoinTableHandlerInterface, db *DB, source interface{}) *DB

JoinWith query with `Join` conditions

func (*JoinTableHandler) Setup

func (s *JoinTableHandler) Setup(relationship *Relationship, tableName string, source reflect.Type, destination reflect.Type)

Setup initialize a default join table handler

func (*JoinTableHandler) SourceForeignKeys

func (s *JoinTableHandler) SourceForeignKeys() []JoinTableForeignKey

SourceForeignKeys return source foreign keys

func (JoinTableHandler) Table

func (s JoinTableHandler) Table(db *DB) string

Table return join table's table name

type JoinTableHandlerInterface

type JoinTableHandlerInterface interface {
	// initialize join table handler
	Setup(relationship *Relationship, tableName string, source reflect.Type, destination reflect.Type)
	// Table return join table's table name
	Table(db *DB) string
	// Add create relationship in join table for source and destination
	Add(handler JoinTableHandlerInterface, db *DB, source interface{}, destination interface{}) error
	// Delete delete relationship in join table for sources
	Delete(handler JoinTableHandlerInterface, db *DB, sources ...interface{}) error
	// JoinWith query with `Join` conditions
	JoinWith(handler JoinTableHandlerInterface, db *DB, source interface{}) *DB
	// SourceForeignKeys return source foreign keys
	SourceForeignKeys() []JoinTableForeignKey
	// DestinationForeignKeys return destination foreign keys
	DestinationForeignKeys() []JoinTableForeignKey

JoinTableHandlerInterface is an interface for how to handle many2many relations

type JoinTableSource

type JoinTableSource struct {
	ModelType   reflect.Type
	ForeignKeys []JoinTableForeignKey

JoinTableSource is a struct that contains model type and foreign keys

type LogWriter

type LogWriter interface {
	Println(v ...interface{})

LogWriter log writer interface

type Logger

type Logger struct {

Logger default logger

func (Logger) Print

func (logger Logger) Print(values ...interface{})

Print format & print log

type Model

type Model struct {
	ID        uint `gorm:"primary_key"`
	CreatedAt time.Time
	UpdatedAt time.Time
	DeletedAt *time.Time `sql:"index"`

Model base model definition, including fields `ID`, `CreatedAt`, `UpdatedAt`, `DeletedAt`, which could be embedded in your models

type User struct {

type ModelStruct

type ModelStruct struct {
	PrimaryFields []*StructField
	StructFields  []*StructField
	ModelType     reflect.Type
	// contains filtered or unexported fields

ModelStruct model definition

func (*ModelStruct) TableName

func (s *ModelStruct) TableName(db *DB) string

TableName returns model's table name

type Namer added in v1.9.2

type Namer func(string) string

Namer is a function type which is given a string and return a string

type NamingStrategy added in v1.9.2

type NamingStrategy struct {
	DB     Namer
	Table  Namer
	Column Namer

NamingStrategy represents naming strategies

func (*NamingStrategy) ColumnName added in v1.9.2

func (ns *NamingStrategy) ColumnName(name string) string

ColumnName alters the given name by Column

func (*NamingStrategy) DBName added in v1.9.2

func (ns *NamingStrategy) DBName(name string) string

DBName alters the given name by DB

func (*NamingStrategy) TableName added in v1.9.2

func (ns *NamingStrategy) TableName(name string) string

TableName alters the given name by Table

type Relationship

type Relationship struct {
	Kind                         string
	PolymorphicType              string
	PolymorphicDBName            string
	PolymorphicValue             string
	ForeignFieldNames            []string
	ForeignDBNames               []string
	AssociationForeignFieldNames []string
	AssociationForeignDBNames    []string
	JoinTableHandler             JoinTableHandlerInterface

Relationship described the relationship between models

type RowQueryResult

type RowQueryResult struct {
	Row *sql.Row

type RowsQueryResult

type RowsQueryResult struct {
	Rows  *sql.Rows
	Error error

type SQLCommon

type SQLCommon interface {
	Exec(query string, args ...interface{}) (sql.Result, error)
	Prepare(query string) (*sql.Stmt, error)
	Query(query string, args ...interface{}) (*sql.Rows, error)
	QueryRow(query string, args ...interface{}) *sql.Row

SQLCommon is the minimal database connection functionality gorm requires. Implemented by *sql.DB.

type Scope

type Scope struct {
	Search  *search
	Value   interface{}
	SQL     string
	SQLVars []interface{}
	// contains filtered or unexported fields

Scope contain current operation's information when you perform any operation on the database

func (*Scope) AddToVars

func (scope *Scope) AddToVars(value interface{}) string

AddToVars add value as sql's vars, used to prevent SQL injection

func (*Scope) Begin

func (scope *Scope) Begin() *Scope

Begin start a transaction

func (*Scope) CallMethod

func (scope *Scope) CallMethod(methodName string)

CallMethod call scope value's method, if it is a slice, will call its element's method one by one

func (*Scope) CombinedConditionSql

func (scope *Scope) CombinedConditionSql() string

CombinedConditionSql return combined condition sql

func (*Scope) CommitOrRollback

func (scope *Scope) CommitOrRollback() *Scope

CommitOrRollback commit current transaction if no error happened, otherwise will rollback it

func (*Scope) DB

func (scope *Scope) DB() *DB

DB return scope's DB connection

func (*Scope) Dialect

func (scope *Scope) Dialect() Dialect

Dialect get dialect

func (*Scope) Err

func (scope *Scope) Err(err error) error

Err add error to Scope

func (*Scope) Exec

func (scope *Scope) Exec() *Scope

Exec perform generated SQL

func (*Scope) FieldByName

func (scope *Scope) FieldByName(name string) (field *Field, ok bool)

FieldByName find `gorm.Field` with field name or db name

func (*Scope) Fields

func (scope *Scope) Fields() []*Field

Fields get value's fields

func (*Scope) Get

func (scope *Scope) Get(name string) (interface{}, bool)

Get get setting by name

func (*Scope) GetModelStruct

func (scope *Scope) GetModelStruct() *ModelStruct

GetModelStruct get value's model struct, relationships based on struct and tag definition

func (*Scope) GetStructFields

func (scope *Scope) GetStructFields() (fields []*StructField)

GetStructFields get model's field structs

func (*Scope) HasColumn

func (scope *Scope) HasColumn(column string) bool

HasColumn to check if has column

func (*Scope) HasError

func (scope *Scope) HasError() bool

HasError check if there are any error

func (*Scope) IndirectValue

func (scope *Scope) IndirectValue() reflect.Value

IndirectValue return scope's reflect value's indirect value

func (*Scope) InstanceGet

func (scope *Scope) InstanceGet(name string) (interface{}, bool)

InstanceGet get instance setting from current operation

func (*Scope) InstanceID

func (scope *Scope) InstanceID() string

InstanceID get InstanceID for scope

func (*Scope) InstanceSet

func (scope *Scope) InstanceSet(name string, value interface{}) *Scope

InstanceSet set instance setting for current operation, but not for operations in callbacks, like saving associations callback

func (*Scope) Log

func (scope *Scope) Log(v ...interface{})

Log print log message

func (*Scope) New

func (scope *Scope) New(value interface{}) *Scope

New create a new Scope without search information

func (*Scope) NewDB

func (scope *Scope) NewDB() *DB

NewDB create a new DB without search information

func (*Scope) OmitAttrs

func (scope *Scope) OmitAttrs() []string

OmitAttrs return omitted attributes

func (*Scope) PrimaryField

func (scope *Scope) PrimaryField() *Field

PrimaryField return scope's main primary field, if defined more that one primary fields, will return the one having column name `id` or the first one

func (*Scope) PrimaryFields

func (scope *Scope) PrimaryFields() (fields []*Field)

PrimaryFields return scope's primary fields

func (*Scope) PrimaryKey

func (scope *Scope) PrimaryKey() string

PrimaryKey get main primary field's db name

func (*Scope) PrimaryKeyValue

func (scope *Scope) PrimaryKeyValue() interface{}

PrimaryKeyValue get the primary key's value

func (*Scope) PrimaryKeyZero

func (scope *Scope) PrimaryKeyZero() bool

PrimaryKeyZero check main primary field's value is blank or not

func (*Scope) Quote

func (scope *Scope) Quote(str string) string

Quote used to quote string to escape them for database

func (*Scope) QuotedTableName

func (scope *Scope) QuotedTableName() (name string)

QuotedTableName return quoted table name

func (*Scope) Raw

func (scope *Scope) Raw(sql string) *Scope

Raw set raw sql

func (*Scope) SQLDB

func (scope *Scope) SQLDB() SQLCommon

SQLDB return *sql.DB

func (*Scope) SelectAttrs

func (scope *Scope) SelectAttrs() []string

SelectAttrs return selected attributes

func (*Scope) Set

func (scope *Scope) Set(name string, value interface{}) *Scope

Set set value by name

func (*Scope) SetColumn

func (scope *Scope) SetColumn(column interface{}, value interface{}) error

SetColumn to set the column's value, column could be field or field's name/dbname

func (*Scope) SkipLeft

func (scope *Scope) SkipLeft()

SkipLeft skip remaining callbacks

func (*Scope) TableName

func (scope *Scope) TableName() string

TableName return table name

type SqlExpr added in v1.9.12

type SqlExpr struct {
	// contains filtered or unexported fields

SQL expression

func Expr

func Expr(expression string, args ...interface{}) *SqlExpr

Expr generate raw SQL expression, for example:

DB.Model(&product).Update("price", gorm.Expr("price * ? + ?", 2, 100))

type StructField

type StructField struct {
	DBName          string
	Name            string
	Names           []string
	IsPrimaryKey    bool
	IsNormal        bool
	IsIgnored       bool
	IsScanner       bool
	HasDefaultValue bool
	Tag             reflect.StructTag
	TagSettings     map[string]string
	Struct          reflect.StructField
	IsForeignKey    bool
	Relationship    *Relationship
	// contains filtered or unexported fields

StructField model field's struct definition

func (*StructField) TagSettingsDelete added in v1.9.2

func (sf *StructField) TagSettingsDelete(key string)

TagSettingsDelete deletes a tag

func (*StructField) TagSettingsGet added in v1.9.2

func (sf *StructField) TagSettingsGet(key string) (string, bool)

TagSettingsGet returns a tag from the tag settings

func (*StructField) TagSettingsSet added in v1.9.2

func (sf *StructField) TagSettingsSet(key, val string)

TagSettingsSet Sets a tag in the tag settings map


Path Synopsis

Jump to

Keyboard shortcuts

? : This menu
/ : Search site
f or F : Jump to
y or Y : Canonical URL