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Published: May 29, 2024 License: GPL-3.0 Imports: 7 Imported by: 0

README

Erigon

Erigon is an implementation of Ethereum (execution layer with embeddable consensus layer), on the efficiency frontier. Archive Node by default.

An accessible and complete version of the documentation is available at **erigon.gitbook.io **.

Build status Coverage

Disclaimer: this software is currently a tech preview. We will do our best to keep it stable and make no breaking changes but we don't guarantee anything. Things can and will break.

Important defaults: Erigon is an Archive Node by default (to remove history see: --prune flags in erigon --help). We don't allow change this flag after first start.

In-depth links are marked by the microscope sign (🔬)

System Requirements

  • For an Archive node of Ethereum Mainnet we recommend >=3.5TB storage space: 2.3TiB state (as of March 2024), 643GiB snapshots (can symlink or mount folder <datadir>/snapshots to another disk), 200GB temp files (can symlink or mount folder <datadir>/temp to another disk). Ethereum Mainnet Full node (see Pruned Node): 1.5TiB not including temp files (April 2024).

  • Goerli Full node (see Pruned Node): 189GB on Beta, 114GB on Alpha (April 2022).

  • Gnosis Chain Archive: 1.7TiB (March 2024). Gnosis Chain Full node (see Pruned Node): 530GiB (March 2024).

  • Polygon Mainnet Archive: 8.5TiB (December 2023). Polygon Mainnet Full node (see Pruned Node) with --prune.*.older 15768000: 5.1Tb (September 2023). Polygon Mumbai Archive: 1TB. (April 2022).

SSD or NVMe. Do not recommend HDD - on HDD Erigon will always stay N blocks behind chain tip, but not fall behind. Bear in mind that SSD performance deteriorates when close to capacity.

RAM: >=16GB, 64-bit architecture.

Golang version >= 1.21; GCC 10+ or Clang; On Linux: kernel > v4

🔬 more details on disk storage here and here.

Usage

Getting Started

For building the latest release (this will be suitable for most users just wanting to run a node):

git clone --branch release/<x.xx> --single-branch https://github.com/ledgerwatch/erigon.git
cd erigon
make erigon
./build/bin/erigon

You can check the list of releases for release notes.

For building the bleeding edge development branch:

git clone --recurse-submodules https://github.com/ledgerwatch/erigon.git
cd erigon
git checkout main
make erigon
./build/bin/erigon

Default --snapshots for mainnet, goerli, gnosis, chiado. Other networks now have default --snapshots=false. Increase download speed by flag --torrent.download.rate=20mb. 🔬 See Downloader docs

Use --datadir to choose where to store data.

Use --chain=gnosis for Gnosis Chain, --chain=bor-mainnet for Polygon Mainnet, --chain=mumbai for Polygon Mumbai and --chain=amoy for Polygon Amoy. For Gnosis Chain you need a Consensus Layer client alongside Erigon (https://docs.gnosischain.com/node/manual/beacon).

Running make help will list and describe the convenience commands available in the Makefile.

Datadir structure
  • chaindata: recent blocks, state, recent state history. low-latency disk recommended.
  • snapshots: old blocks, old state history. can symlink/mount it to cheaper disk. mostly immutable. must have ~100gb free space (for merge recent files to bigger one).
  • temp: can grow to ~100gb, but usually empty. can symlink/mount it to cheaper disk.
  • txpool: pending transactions. safe to remove.
  • nodes: p2p peers. safe to remove.
Logging

Flags:

  • verbosity
  • log.console.verbosity (overriding alias for verbosity)
  • log.json
  • log.console.json (alias for log.json)
  • log.dir.path
  • log.dir.prefix
  • log.dir.verbosity
  • log.dir.json

In order to log only to the stdout/stderr the --verbosity (or log.console.verbosity) flag can be used to supply an int value specifying the highest output log level:

  LvlCrit = 0
  LvlError = 1
  LvlWarn = 2
  LvlInfo = 3
  LvlDebug = 4
  LvlTrace = 5

To set an output dir for logs to be collected on disk, please set --log.dir.path If you want to change the filename produced from erigon you should also set the --log.dir.prefix flag to an alternate name. The flag --log.dir.verbosity is also available to control the verbosity of this logging, with the same int value as above, or the string value e.g. ' debug' or 'info'. Default verbosity is 'debug' (4), for disk logging.

Log format can be set to json by the use of the boolean flags log.json or log.console.json, or for the disk output --log.dir.json.

Modularity

Erigon by default is "all in one binary" solution, but it's possible start TxPool as separated processes. Same true about: JSON RPC layer (RPCDaemon), p2p layer (Sentry), history download layer (Downloader), consensus. Don't start services as separated processes unless you have clear reason for it: resource limiting, scale, replace by your own implementation, security. How to start Erigon's services as separated processes, see in docker-compose.yml.

Embedded Consensus Layer

On Ethereum Mainnet, Görli, and Sepolia, the Engine API can be disabled in favour of the Erigon native Embedded Consensus Layer. If you want to use the internal Consensus Layer, run Erigon with flag --internalcl. Warning: Staking (block production) is not possible with the embedded CL.

Testnets

If you would like to give Erigon a try, but do not have spare 2TB on your drive, a good option is to start syncing one of the public testnets, Görli. It syncs much quicker, and does not take so much disk space:

git clone --recurse-submodules -j8 https://github.com/ledgerwatch/erigon.git
cd erigon
make erigon
./build/bin/erigon --datadir=<your_datadir> --chain=goerli

Please note the --datadir option that allows you to store Erigon files in a non-default location, in this example, in goerli subdirectory of the current directory. Name of the directory --datadir does not have to match the name of the chain in --chain.

Block Production (PoW Miner or PoS Validator)

Disclaimer: Not supported/tested for Gnosis Chain and Polygon Network (In Progress)

Support only remote-miners.

  • To enable, add --mine --miner.etherbase=... or --mine --miner.miner.sigkey=... flags.
  • Other supported options: --miner.extradata, --miner.notify, --miner.gaslimit, --miner.gasprice , --miner.gastarget
  • JSON-RPC supports methods: eth_coinbase , eth_hashrate, eth_mining, eth_getWork, eth_submitWork, eth_submitHashrate
  • JSON-RPC supports websocket methods: newPendingTransaction

🔬 Detailed explanation is here.

Windows

Windows users may run erigon in 3 possible ways:

  • Build executable binaries natively for Windows using provided wmake.ps1 PowerShell script. Usage syntax is the same as make command so you have to run .\wmake.ps1 [-target] <targetname>. Example: .\wmake.ps1 erigon builds erigon executable. All binaries are placed in .\build\bin\ subfolder. There are some requirements for a successful native build on windows :

    • Git for Windows must be installed. If you're cloning this repository is very likely you already have it
    • GO Programming Language must be installed. Minimum required version is 1.21
    • GNU CC Compiler at least version 13 (is highly suggested that you install chocolatey package manager - see following point)
    • If you need to build MDBX tools (i.e. .\wmake.ps1 db-tools) then Chocolatey package manager for Windows must be installed. By Chocolatey you need to install the following components : cmake, make, mingw by choco install cmake make mingw. Make sure Windows System "Path" variable has: C:\ProgramData\chocolatey\lib\mingw\tools\install\mingw64\bin

    Important note about Anti-Viruses During MinGW's compiler detection phase some temporary executables are generated to test compiler capabilities. It's been reported some anti-virus programs detect those files as possibly infected by Win64/Kryptic.CIS trojan horse (or a variant of it). Although those are false positives we have no control over 100+ vendors of security products for Windows and their respective detection algorithms and we understand this might make your experience with Windows builds uncomfortable. To workaround the issue you might either set exclusions for your antivirus specifically for build\bin\mdbx\CMakeFiles sub-folder of the cloned repo or you can run erigon using the following other two options

  • Use Docker : see docker-compose.yml

  • Use WSL (Windows Subsystem for Linux) strictly on version 2. Under this option you can build Erigon just as you would on a regular Linux distribution. You can point your data also to any of the mounted Windows partitions ( eg. /mnt/c/[...], /mnt/d/[...] etc) but in such case be advised performance is impacted: this is due to the fact those mount points use DrvFS which is a network file system and, additionally, MDBX locks the db for exclusive access which implies only one process at a time can access data. This has consequences on the running of rpcdaemon which has to be configured as Remote DB even if it is executed on the very same computer. If instead your data is hosted on the native Linux filesystem non limitations apply. Please also note the default WSL2 environment has its own IP address which does not match the one of the network interface of Windows host: take this into account when configuring NAT for port 30303 on your router.

Using TOML or YAML Config Files

You can set Erigon flags through a YAML or TOML configuration file with the flag --config. The flags set in the configuration file can be overwritten by writing the flags directly on Erigon command line

Example

./build/bin/erigon --config ./config.yaml --chain=goerli

Assuming we have chain : "mainnet" in our configuration file, by adding --chain=goerli allows the overwrite of the flag inside of the yaml configuration file and sets the chain to goerli

TOML

Example of setting up TOML config file

datadir = 'your datadir'
port = 1111
chain = "mainnet"
http = true
"private.api.addr"="localhost:9090"

"http.api" = ["eth","debug","net"]
YAML

Example of setting up a YAML config file

datadir : 'your datadir'
port : 1111
chain : "mainnet"
http : true
private.api.addr : "localhost:9090"

http.api : ["eth","debug","net"]
Beacon Chain (Consensus Layer)

Erigon can be used as an Execution Layer (EL) for Consensus Layer clients (CL). Default configuration is OK.

If your CL client is on a different device, add --authrpc.addr 0.0.0.0 (Engine API listens on localhost by default) as well as --authrpc.vhosts <CL host> where <CL host> is your source host or any.

In order to establish a secure connection between the Consensus Layer and the Execution Layer, a JWT secret key is automatically generated.

The JWT secret key will be present in the datadir by default under the name of jwt.hex and its path can be specified with the flag --authrpc.jwtsecret.

This piece of info needs to be specified in the Consensus Layer as well in order to establish connection successfully. More information can be found here.

Once Erigon is running, you need to point your CL client to <erigon address>:8551, where <erigon address> is either localhost or the IP address of the device running Erigon, and also point to the JWT secret path created by Erigon.

Caplin

Caplin is a full-fledged validating Consensus Client like Prysm, Lighthouse, Teku, Nimbus and Lodestar. Its goal is:

  • provide better stability
  • Validation of the chain
  • Stay in sync
  • keep the execution of blocks on chain tip
  • serve the Beacon API using a fast and compact data model alongside low CPU and memory usage.

The main reason why developed a new Consensus Layer is to experiment with the possible benefits that could come with it. For example, The Engine API does not work well with Erigon. The Engine API sends data one block at a time, which does not suit how Erigon works. Erigon is designed to handle many blocks simultaneously and needs to sort and process data efficiently. Therefore, it would be better for Erigon to handle the blocks independently instead of relying on the Engine API.

Caplin's Usage.

Caplin is be enabled by default. to disable it and enable the Engine API, use the --externalcl flag. from that point on, an external Consensus Layer will not be need anymore.

Caplin also has an archivial mode for historical states and blocks. it can be enabled through the --caplin.archive flag. In order to enable the caplin's Beacon API, the flag --beacon.api=<namespaces> must be added. e.g: --beacon.api=beacon,builder,config,debug,node,validator,lighthouse will enable all endpoints. **NOTE: Caplin is not staking-ready so aggregation endpoints are still to be implemented. Additionally enabling the Beacon API will lead to a 6 GB higher RAM usage.

Multiple Instances / One Machine

Define 6 flags to avoid conflicts: --datadir --port --http.port --authrpc.port --torrent.port --private.api.addr. Example of multiple chains on the same machine:

# mainnet
./build/bin/erigon --datadir="<your_mainnet_data_path>" --chain=mainnet --port=30303 --http.port=8545 --authrpc.port=8551 --torrent.port=42069 --private.api.addr=127.0.0.1:9090 --http --ws --http.api=eth,debug,net,trace,web3,erigon


# sepolia
./build/bin/erigon --datadir="<your_sepolia_data_path>" --chain=sepolia --port=30304 --http.port=8546 --authrpc.port=8552 --torrent.port=42068 --private.api.addr=127.0.0.1:9091 --http --ws --http.api=eth,debug,net,trace,web3,erigon

Quote your path if it has spaces.

Dev Chain

🔬 Detailed explanation is DEV_CHAIN.

Key features

🔬 See more detailed overview of functionality and current limitations. It is being updated on recurring basis.

More Efficient State Storage

Flat KV storage. Erigon uses a key-value database and storing accounts and storage in a simple way.

🔬 See our detailed DB walkthrough here.

Preprocessing. For some operations, Erigon uses temporary files to preprocess data before inserting it into the main DB. That reduces write amplification and DB inserts are orders of magnitude quicker.

🔬 See our detailed ETL explanation here.

Plain state.

Single accounts/state trie. Erigon uses a single Merkle trie for both accounts and the storage.

Faster Initial Sync

Erigon uses a rearchitected full sync algorithm from Go-Ethereum that is split into "stages".

🔬 See more detailed explanation in the Staged Sync Readme

It uses the same network primitives and is compatible with regular go-ethereum nodes that are using full sync, you do not need any special sync capabilities for Erigon to sync.

When reimagining the full sync, with focus on batching data together and minimize DB overwrites. That makes it possible to sync Ethereum mainnet in under 2 days if you have a fast enough network connection and an SSD drive.

Examples of stages are:

  • Downloading headers;

  • Downloading block bodies;

  • Recovering senders' addresses;

  • Executing blocks;

  • Validating root hashes and building intermediate hashes for the state Merkle trie;

  • [...]

JSON-RPC daemon

Most of Erigon's components (txpool, rpcdaemon, snapshots downloader, sentry, ...) can work inside Erigon and as independent process.

To enable built-in RPC server: --http and --ws (sharing same port with http)

Run RPCDaemon as separated process: this daemon can use local DB (with running Erigon or on snapshot of a database) or remote DB (run on another server). 🔬 See RPC-Daemon docs

For remote DB

This works regardless of whether RPC daemon is on the same computer with Erigon, or on a different one. They use TPC socket connection to pass data between them. To use this mode, run Erigon in one terminal window

make erigon
./build/bin/erigon --private.api.addr=localhost:9090 --http=false
make rpcdaemon
./build/bin/rpcdaemon --private.api.addr=localhost:9090 --http.api=eth,erigon,web3,net,debug,trace,txpool
gRPC ports

9090 erigon, 9091 sentry, 9092 consensus engine, 9093 torrent downloader, 9094 transactions pool

Supported JSON-RPC calls (eth, debug , net, web3):

For a details on the implementation status of each command, see this table.

Run all components by docker-compose

Docker allows for building and running Erigon via containers. This alleviates the need for installing build dependencies onto the host OS.

Optional: Setup dedicated user

User UID/GID need to be synchronized between the host OS and container so files are written with correct permission.

You may wish to setup a dedicated user/group on the host OS, in which case the following make targets are available.

# create "erigon" user
make user_linux
# or
make user_macos
Environment Variables

There is a .env.example file in the root of the repo.

  • DOCKER_UID - The UID of the docker user
  • DOCKER_GID - The GID of the docker user
  • XDG_DATA_HOME - The data directory which will be mounted to the docker containers

If not specified, the UID/GID will use the current user.

A good choice for XDG_DATA_HOME is to use the ~erigon/.ethereum directory created by helper targets make user_linux or make user_macos.

Check: Permissions

In all cases, XDG_DATA_HOME (specified or default) must be writeable by the user UID/GID in docker, which will be determined by the DOCKER_UID and DOCKER_GID at build time.

If a build or service startup is failing due to permissions, check that all the directories, UID, and GID controlled by these environment variables are correct.

Run

Next command starts: Erigon on port 30303, rpcdaemon on port 8545, prometheus on port 9090, and grafana on port 3000.

#
# Will mount ~/.local/share/erigon to /home/erigon/.local/share/erigon inside container
#
make docker-compose

#
# or
#
# if you want to use a custom data directory
# or, if you want to use different uid/gid for a dedicated user
#
# To solve this, pass in the uid/gid parameters into the container.
#
# DOCKER_UID: the user id
# DOCKER_GID: the group id
# XDG_DATA_HOME: the data directory (default: ~/.local/share)
#
# Note: /preferred/data/folder must be read/writeable on host OS by user with UID/GID given
#       if you followed above instructions
#
# Note: uid/gid syntax below will automatically use uid/gid of running user so this syntax
#       is intended to be run via the dedicated user setup earlier
#
DOCKER_UID=$(id -u) DOCKER_GID=$(id -g) XDG_DATA_HOME=/preferred/data/folder DOCKER_BUILDKIT=1 COMPOSE_DOCKER_CLI_BUILD=1 make docker-compose

#
# if you want to run the docker, but you are not logged in as the $ERIGON_USER
# then you'll need to adjust the syntax above to grab the correct uid/gid
#
# To run the command via another user, use
#
ERIGON_USER=erigon
sudo -u ${ERIGON_USER} DOCKER_UID=$(id -u ${ERIGON_USER}) DOCKER_GID=$(id -g ${ERIGON_USER}) XDG_DATA_HOME=~${ERIGON_USER}/.ethereum DOCKER_BUILDKIT=1 COMPOSE_DOCKER_CLI_BUILD=1 make docker-compose

Makefile creates the initial directories for erigon, prometheus and grafana. The PID namespace is shared between erigon and rpcdaemon which is required to open Erigon's DB from another process (RPCDaemon local-mode). See: https://github.com/ledgerwatch/erigon/pull/2392/files

If your docker installation requires the docker daemon to run as root (which is by default), you will need to prefix the command above with sudo. However, it is sometimes recommended running docker (and therefore its containers) as a non-root user for security reasons. For more information about how to do this, refer to this article.

Windows support for docker-compose is not ready yet. Please help us with .ps1 port.

Grafana dashboard

docker compose up prometheus grafana, detailed docs.

old data

Disabled by default. To enable see ./build/bin/erigon --help for flags --prune

Documentation

The ./docs directory includes a lot of useful but outdated documentation. For code located in the ./cmd directory, their respective documentation can be found in ./cmd/*/README.md. A more recent collation of developments and happenings in Erigon can be found in the Erigon Blog.

FAQ

How much RAM do I need
  • Baseline (ext4 SSD): 16Gb RAM sync takes 6 days, 32Gb - 5 days, 64Gb - 4 days
  • +1 day on "zfs compression=off". +2 days on "zfs compression=on" (2x compression ratio). +3 days on btrfs.
  • -1 day on NVMe

Detailed explanation: ./docs/programmers_guide/db_faq.md

Default Ports and Firewalls
erigon ports
Component Port Protocol Purpose Should Expose
engine 9090 TCP gRPC Server Private
engine 42069 TCP & UDP Snap sync (Bittorrent) Public
engine 8551 TCP Engine API (JWT auth) Private
sentry 30303 TCP & UDP eth/68 peering Public
sentry 30304 TCP & UDP eth/67 peering Public
sentry 9091 TCP incoming gRPC Connections Private
rpcdaemon 8545 TCP HTTP & WebSockets & GraphQL Private

Typically, 30303 and 30304 are exposed to the internet to allow incoming peering connections. 9090 is exposed only internally for rpcdaemon or other connections, (e.g. rpcdaemon -> erigon). Port 8551 (JWT authenticated) is exposed only internally for Engine API JSON-RPC queries from the Consensus Layer node.

caplin ports
Component Port Protocol Purpose Should Expose
sentinel 4000 UDP Peering Public
sentinel 4001 TCP Peering Public

In order to configure the ports, use:

   --caplin.discovery.addr value                                                    Address for Caplin DISCV5 protocol (default: "127.0.0.1")
   --caplin.discovery.port value                                                    Port for Caplin DISCV5 protocol (default: 4000)
   --caplin.discovery.tcpport value                                                 TCP Port for Caplin DISCV5 protocol (default: 4001)
beaconAPI ports
Component Port Protocol Purpose Should Expose
REST 5555 TCP REST Public
shared ports
Component Port Protocol Purpose Should Expose
all 6060 TCP pprof Private
all 6060 TCP metrics Private

Optional flags can be enabled that enable pprof or metrics (or both) - however, they both run on 6060 by default, so

you'll have to change one if you want to run both at the same time. use --help with the binary for more info.

other ports

Reserved for future use: gRPC ports: 9092 consensus engine, 9093 snapshot downloader, 9094 TxPool

Hetzner expecting strict firewall rules
0.0.0.0/8             "This" Network             RFC 1122, Section 3.2.1.3
10.0.0.0/8            Private-Use Networks       RFC 1918
100.64.0.0/10         Carrier-Grade NAT (CGN)    RFC 6598, Section 7
127.16.0.0/12         Private-Use Networks       RFC 1918
169.254.0.0/16        Link Local                 RFC 3927
172.16.0.0/12         Private-Use Networks       RFC 1918
192.0.0.0/24          IETF Protocol Assignments  RFC 5736
192.0.2.0/24          TEST-NET-1                 RFC 5737
192.88.99.0/24        6to4 Relay Anycast         RFC 3068
192.168.0.0/16        Private-Use Networks       RFC 1918
198.18.0.0/15         Network Interconnect
Device Benchmark Testing   RFC 2544
198.51.100.0/24       TEST-NET-2                 RFC 5737
203.0.113.0/24        TEST-NET-3                 RFC 5737
224.0.0.0/4           Multicast                  RFC 3171
240.0.0.0/4           Reserved for Future Use    RFC 1112, Section 4
255.255.255.255/32    Limited Broadcast          RFC 919, Section 7
RFC 922, Section 7

Same in IpTables syntax

How to run erigon as a separate user? (e.g. as a systemd daemon)

Running erigon from build/bin as a separate user might produce an error:

error while loading shared libraries: libsilkworm_capi.so: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

The library needs to be installed for another user using make DIST=<path> install. You could use $HOME/erigon or /opt/erigon as the installation path, for example:

make DIST=/opt/erigon install

and then run /opt/erigon/erigon.

How to get diagnostic for bug report?
  • Get stack trace: kill -SIGUSR1 <pid>, get trace and stop: kill -6 <pid>
  • Get CPU profiling: add --pprof flag run go tool pprof -png http://127.0.0.1:6060/debug/pprof/profile\?seconds\=20 > cpu.png
  • Get RAM profiling: add --pprof flag run go tool pprof -inuse_space -png http://127.0.0.1:6060/debug/pprof/heap > mem.png
How to run local devnet?

🔬 Detailed explanation is here.

Docker permissions error

Docker uses user erigon with UID/GID 1000 (for security reasons). You can see this user being created in the Dockerfile. Can fix by giving a host's user ownership of the folder, where the host's user UID/GID is the same as the docker's user UID/GID (1000). More details in post

How to run public RPC api
  • --txpool.nolocals=true
  • don't add admin in --http.api list
  • to increase throughput may need increase/decrease: --db.read.concurrency, --rpc.batch.concurrency, --rpc.batch.limit
Run RaspberyPI

https://github.com/mathMakesArt/Erigon-on-RPi-4

How to change db pagesize

post

Getting in touch

Erigon Discord Server

The main discussions are happening on our Discord server. To get an invite, send an email to bloxster [at] proton.me with your name, occupation, a brief explanation of why you want to join the Discord, and how you heard about Erigon.

Reporting security issues/concerns

Send an email to security [at] torquem.ch.

Known issues

htop shows incorrect memory usage

Erigon's internal DB (MDBX) using MemoryMap - when OS does manage all read, write, cache operations instead of Application (linux , windows)

htop on column res shows memory of "App + OS used to hold page cache for given App", but it's not informative, because if htop says that app using 90% of memory you still can run 3 more instances of app on the same machine - because most of that 90% is "OS pages cache". OS automatically frees this cache any time it needs memory. Smaller "page cache size" may not impact performance of Erigon at all.

Next tools show correct memory usage of Erigon:

  • vmmap -summary PID | grep -i "Physical footprint". Without grep you can see details

    • section MALLOC ZONE column Resident Size shows App memory usage, section REGION TYPE column Resident Size shows OS pages cache size.
  • Prometheus dashboard shows memory of Go app without OS pages cache (make prometheus, open in browser localhost:3000, credentials admin/admin)

  • cat /proc/<PID>/smaps

    Erigon uses ~4Gb of RAM during genesis sync and ~1Gb during normal work. OS pages cache can utilize unlimited amount of memory.

    Warning: Multiple instances of Erigon on same machine will touch Disk concurrently, it impacts performance - one of main Erigon optimisations: "reduce Disk random access". "Blocks Execution stage" still does many random reads - this is reason why it's slowest stage. We do not recommend running multiple genesis syncs on same Disk. If genesis sync passed, then it's fine to run multiple Erigon instances on same Disk.

Blocks Execution is slow on cloud-network-drives

Please read https://github.com/ledgerwatch/erigon/issues/1516#issuecomment-811958891 In short: network-disks are bad for blocks execution - because blocks execution reading data from db non-parallel non-batched way.

Filesystem's background features are expensive

For example: btrfs's autodefrag option - may increase write IO 100x times

Gnome Tracker can kill Erigon

Gnome Tracker - detecting miners and kill them.

the --mount option requires BuildKit error

For anyone else that was getting the BuildKit error when trying to start Erigon the old way you can use the below...

XDG_DATA_HOME=/preferred/data/folder DOCKER_BUILDKIT=1 COMPOSE_DOCKER_CLI_BUILD=1 make docker-compose

Erigon3 user's guide

Git branch main. Just start erigon as you usually do.

RAM requirement is higher: 32gb and better 64gb. We will work on this topic a bit later.

Golang 1.21

Almost all RPC methods are implemented - if something doesn't work - just drop it on our head.

Supported networks: all (except Mumbai).

E3 changes from E2:
  • Sync from scratch doesn't require re-exec all history. Latest state and it's history are in snapshots - can download.
  • ExecutionStage - now including many E2 stages: stage_hash_state, stage_trie, stage_log_index, stage_history_index, stage_trace_index
  • E3 can execute 1 historical transaction - without executing it's block - because history/indices have transaction-granularity, instead of block-granularity.
  • E3 doesn't store Logs (aka Receipts) - it always re-executing historical txn (but it's cheaper then in E2 - see point above). Also Logs LRU added in E2 (release/2.60) and E3: https://github.com/ledgerwatch/erigon/pull/10112 here. Likely later we will add optional flag "to persist receipts".
  • --sync.loop.block.limit is enabled by default. (Default: 2_000. Set --sync.loop.block.limit=10_000_000 --batchSize=1g to increase sync speed on good hardware).
  • datadir/chaindata is small now - to prevent it's grow: we recommend set --batchSize <= 1G. And it's fine to rm -rf chaindata
  • can symlink/mount latest state to fast drive and history to cheap drive
E3 datadir structure
datadir        
    chaindata   # "Recently-updated Latest State" and "Recent History"
    snapshots   
        domain    # Latest State: link to fast disk
        history   # Historical values 
        idx       # InvertedIndices: can search/filtering/union/intersect them - to find historical data. like eth_getLogs or trace_transaction
        accessors # Additional (generated) indices of history - have "random-touch" read-pattern. They can serve only `Get` requests (no search/filters).
    temp # buffers to sort data >> RAM. sequential-buffered IO - is slow-disk-friendly
   
# There is 4 domains: account, storage, code, commitment 
E3 can store state on fast disk and history on cheap disk

If you can afford store datadir on 1 nvme-raid - great. If can't - it's possible to store history on cheap drive.

# place (or ln -s) `datadir` on slow disk. link some sub-folders to fast disk.
# Example: what need link to fast disk to speedup execution
datadir        
    chaindata   # link to fast disk
    snapshots   
        domain    # link to fast disk
        history   
        idx       
        accessors 
    temp   

# Example: how to speedup history access: 
#   - go step-by-step - first try store `accessors` on fast disk
#   - if speed is not good enough: `idx`
#   - if still not enough: `history` 
E3 datadir size
# eth-mainnet - archive - April 2024

du -hsc /erigon/* 
6G  	/erigon/caplin
80G 	/erigon/chaindata
1.7T	/erigon/snapshots
1.8T	total

du -hsc /erigon/snapshots/* 
100G 	/erigon/snapshots/accessor
230G	/erigon/snapshots/domain
250G	/erigon/snapshots/history
400G	/erigon/snapshots/idx
1.7T	total
# bor-mainnet - archive - April 2024

du -hsc /erigon/* 
160M	/erigon/bor
60G 	/erigon/chaindata
3.7T	/erigon/snapshots
3.8T	total

du -hsc /erigon/snapshots/* 
24G	/erigon/snapshots/accessor
680G	/erigon/snapshots/domain
580G	/erigon/snapshots/history
1.3T	/erigon/snapshots/idx
3.7T	total
E3 other perf trics
  • --sync.loop.block.limit=10_000_000 --batchSize=1g - likely will help for sync speed.

  • on cloud-drives (good throughput, bad latency) - can enable OS's brain to pre-fetch some data (madv_normal instead of madv_random). For snapshots/domain folder (latest state) KV_MADV_NORMAL_NO_LAST_LVL=accounts,storage,commitment (or if have enough RAM: KV_MADV_NORMAL=accounts,storage,commitment). For chaindata folder (latest updates) MDBX_READAHEAD=true. For all files - SNAPSHOT_MADV_RND=false

  • can lock latest state in RAM - to prevent from eviction (node may face high historical RPC traffic without impacting Chain-Tip perf):

vmtouch -vdlw /mnt/erigon/snapshots/domain/*bt
ls /mnt/erigon/snapshots/domain/*.kv | parallel vmtouch -vdlw

# if it failing with "can't allocate memory", try: 
sync && sudo sysctl vm.drop_caches=3
echo 1 > /proc/sys/vm/compact_memory

Documentation

Overview

Package ethereum defines interfaces for interacting with Ethereum.

Index

Constants

This section is empty.

Variables

View Source
var NotFound = errors.New("not found")

NotFound is returned by API methods if the requested item does not exist.

Functions

This section is empty.

Types

type CallMsg

type CallMsg struct {
	From             libcommon.Address  // the sender of the 'transaction'
	To               *libcommon.Address // the destination contract (nil for contract creation)
	Gas              uint64             // if 0, the call executes with near-infinite gas
	MaxFeePerBlobGas *uint256.Int       // EIP-4844 max_fee_per_blob_gas
	GasPrice         *uint256.Int       // wei <-> gas exchange ratio
	Value            *uint256.Int       // amount of wei sent along with the call
	Data             []byte             // input data, usually an ABI-encoded contract method invocation

	FeeCap     *uint256.Int      // EIP-1559 fee cap per gas.
	Tip        *uint256.Int      // EIP-1559 tip per gas.
	AccessList types2.AccessList // EIP-2930 access list.
	BlobHashes []libcommon.Hash  // EIP-4844 versioned blob hashes.
}

CallMsg contains parameters for contract calls.

type ChainReader

type ChainReader interface {
	BlockByHash(ctx context.Context, hash libcommon.Hash) (*types.Block, error)
	BlockByNumber(ctx context.Context, number *big.Int) (*types.Block, error)
	HeaderByHash(ctx context.Context, hash libcommon.Hash) (*types.Header, error)
	HeaderByNumber(ctx context.Context, number *big.Int) (*types.Header, error)
	TransactionCount(ctx context.Context, blockHash libcommon.Hash) (uint, error)
	TransactionInBlock(ctx context.Context, blockHash libcommon.Hash, index uint) (*types.Transaction, error)

	// This method subscribes to notifications about changes of the head block of
	// the canonical chain.
	SubscribeNewHead(ctx context.Context, ch chan<- *types.Header) (Subscription, error)
}

ChainReader provides access to the blockchain. The methods in this interface access raw data from either the canonical chain (when requesting by block number) or any blockchain fork that was previously downloaded and processed by the node. The block number argument can be nil to select the latest canonical block. Reading block headers should be preferred over full blocks whenever possible.

The returned error is NotFound if the requested item does not exist.

type ChainStateReader

type ChainStateReader interface {
	BalanceAt(ctx context.Context, account libcommon.Address, blockNumber *big.Int) (*big.Int, error)
	StorageAt(ctx context.Context, account libcommon.Address, key libcommon.Hash, blockNumber *big.Int) ([]byte, error)
	CodeAt(ctx context.Context, account libcommon.Address, blockNumber *big.Int) ([]byte, error)
	NonceAt(ctx context.Context, account libcommon.Address, blockNumber *big.Int) (uint64, error)
}

ChainStateReader wraps access to the state trie of the canonical blockchain. Note that implementations of the interface may be unable to return state values for old blocks. In many cases, using CallContract can be preferable to reading raw contract storage.

type ChainSyncReader

type ChainSyncReader interface {
	SyncProgress(ctx context.Context) (*SyncProgress, error)
}

ChainSyncReader wraps access to the node's current sync status. If there's no sync currently running, it returns nil.

type ContractCaller

type ContractCaller interface {
	CallContract(ctx context.Context, call CallMsg, blockNumber *big.Int) ([]byte, error)
}

A ContractCaller provides contract calls, essentially transactions that are executed by the EVM but not mined into the blockchain. ContractCall is a low-level method to execute such calls. For applications which are structured around specific contracts, the abigen tool provides a nicer, properly typed way to perform calls.

type FilterQuery

type FilterQuery struct {
	BlockHash *libcommon.Hash     // used by eth_getLogs, return logs only from block with this hash
	FromBlock *big.Int            // beginning of the queried range, nil means genesis block
	ToBlock   *big.Int            // end of the range, nil means latest block
	Addresses []libcommon.Address // restricts matches to events created by specific contracts

	// The Topic list restricts matches to particular event topics. Each event has a list
	// of topics. Topics matches a prefix of that list. An empty element slice matches any
	// topic. Non-empty elements represent an alternative that matches any of the
	// contained topics.
	//
	// Examples:
	// {} or nil          matches any topic list
	// {{A}}              matches topic A in first position
	// {{}, {B}}          matches any topic in first position AND B in second position
	// {{A}, {B}}         matches topic A in first position AND B in second position
	// {{A, B}, {C, D}}   matches topic (A OR B) in first position AND (C OR D) in second position
	Topics [][]libcommon.Hash
}

FilterQuery contains options for contract log filtering.

type GasEstimator

type GasEstimator interface {
	EstimateGas(ctx context.Context, call CallMsg) (uint64, error)
}

GasEstimator wraps EstimateGas, which tries to estimate the gas needed to execute a specific transaction based on the pending state. There is no guarantee that this is the true gas limit requirement as other transactions may be added or removed by miners, but it should provide a basis for setting a reasonable default.

type GasPricer

type GasPricer interface {
	SuggestGasPrice(ctx context.Context) (*big.Int, error)
}

GasPricer wraps the gas price oracle, which monitors the blockchain to determine the optimal gas price given current fee market conditions.

type LogFilterer

type LogFilterer interface {
	FilterLogs(ctx context.Context, q FilterQuery) ([]types.Log, error)
	SubscribeFilterLogs(ctx context.Context, q FilterQuery, ch chan<- types.Log) (Subscription, error)
}

LogFilterer provides access to contract log events using a one-off query or continuous event subscription.

Logs received through a streaming query subscription may have Removed set to true, indicating that the log was reverted due to a chain reorganisation.

type PendingContractCaller

type PendingContractCaller interface {
	PendingCallContract(ctx context.Context, call CallMsg) ([]byte, error)
}

PendingContractCaller can be used to perform calls against the pending state.

type PendingStateEventer

type PendingStateEventer interface {
	SubscribePendingTransactions(ctx context.Context, ch chan<- *types.Transaction) (Subscription, error)
}

A PendingStateEventer provides access to real time notifications about changes to the pending state.

type PendingStateReader

type PendingStateReader interface {
	PendingBalanceAt(ctx context.Context, account libcommon.Address) (*big.Int, error)
	PendingStorageAt(ctx context.Context, account libcommon.Address, key libcommon.Hash) ([]byte, error)
	PendingCodeAt(ctx context.Context, account libcommon.Address) ([]byte, error)
	PendingNonceAt(ctx context.Context, account libcommon.Address) (uint64, error)
	PendingTransactionCount(ctx context.Context) (uint, error)
}

A PendingStateReader provides access to the pending state, which is the result of all known executable transactions which have not yet been included in the blockchain. It is commonly used to display the result of ’unconfirmed’ actions (e.g. wallet value transfers) initiated by the user. The PendingNonceAt operation is a good way to retrieve the next available transaction nonce for a specific account.

type Subscription

type Subscription interface {
	// Unsubscribe cancels the sending of events to the data channel
	// and closes the error channel.
	Unsubscribe()
	// Err returns the subscription error channel. The error channel receives
	// a value if there is an issue with the subscription (e.g. the network connection
	// delivering the events has been closed). Only one value will ever be sent.
	// The error channel is closed by Unsubscribe.
	Err() <-chan error
}

Subscription represents an event subscription where events are delivered on a data channel.

type SyncProgress

type SyncProgress struct {
	StartingBlock uint64 // Block number where sync began
	CurrentBlock  uint64 // Current block number where sync is at
	HighestBlock  uint64 // Highest alleged block number in the chain
	PulledStates  uint64 // Number of state trie entries already downloaded
	KnownStates   uint64 // Total number of state trie entries known about
}

SyncProgress gives progress indications when the node is synchronising with the Ethereum network.

type TransactionReader

type TransactionReader interface {
	// TransactionByHash checks the pool of pending transactions in addition to the
	// blockchain. The isPending return value indicates whether the transaction has been
	// mined yet. Note that the transaction may not be part of the canonical chain even if
	// it's not pending.
	TransactionByHash(ctx context.Context, txHash libcommon.Hash) (tx *types.Transaction, isPending bool, err error)
	// TransactionReceipt returns the receipt of a mined transaction. Note that the
	// transaction may not be included in the current canonical chain even if a receipt
	// exists.
	TransactionReceipt(ctx context.Context, txHash libcommon.Hash) (*types.Receipt, error)
}

TransactionReader provides access to past transactions and their receipts. Implementations may impose arbitrary restrictions on the transactions and receipts that can be retrieved. Historic transactions may not be available.

Avoid relying on this interface if possible. Contract logs (through the LogFilterer interface) are more reliable and usually safer in the presence of chain reorganisations.

The returned error is NotFound if the requested item does not exist.

type TransactionSender

type TransactionSender interface {
	SendTransaction(ctx context.Context, tx *types.Transaction) error
}

TransactionSender wraps transaction sending. The SendTransaction method injects a signed transaction into the pending transaction pool for execution. If the transaction was a contract creation, the TransactionReceipt method can be used to retrieve the contract address after the transaction has been mined.

The transaction must be signed and have a valid nonce to be included. Consumers of the API can use package accounts to maintain local private keys and need can retrieve the next available nonce using PendingNonceAt.

Directories

Path Synopsis
accounts
abi
Package abi implements the Ethereum ABI (Application Binary Interface).
Package abi implements the Ethereum ABI (Application Binary Interface).
abi/bind
Package bind generates Ethereum contract Go bindings.
Package bind generates Ethereum contract Go bindings.
cl
abstract/mock_services
Package mock_services is a generated GoMock package.
Package mock_services is a generated GoMock package.
aggregation/mock_services
Package mock_services is a generated GoMock package.
Package mock_services is a generated GoMock package.
beacon/synced_data/mock_services
Package mock_services is a generated GoMock package.
Package mock_services is a generated GoMock package.
phase1/execution_client
Package execution_client is a generated GoMock package.
Package execution_client is a generated GoMock package.
phase1/network/services/mock_services
Package mock_services is a generated GoMock package.
Package mock_services is a generated GoMock package.
rpc
sentinel
package sentinel
package sentinel
sentinel/httpreqresp
package httpreqresp encapsulates eth2 beacon chain resp-resp into http
package httpreqresp encapsulates eth2 beacon chain resp-resp into http
ssz
transition/machine
Package machine is the interface for eth2 state transition
Package machine is the interface for eth2 state transition
utils/eth_clock
Package eth_clock is a generated GoMock package.
Package eth_clock is a generated GoMock package.
validator/committee_subscription/mock_services
Package mock_services is a generated GoMock package.
Package mock_services is a generated GoMock package.
validator/sync_contribution_pool/mock_services
Package mock_services is a generated GoMock package.
Package mock_services is a generated GoMock package.
cmd
bootnode
bootnode runs a bootstrap node for the Ethereum Discovery Protocol.
bootnode runs a bootstrap node for the Ethereum Discovery Protocol.
evm
evm executes EVM code snippets.
evm executes EVM code snippets.
p2psim
p2psim provides a command-line client for a simulation HTTP API.
p2psim provides a command-line client for a simulation HTTP API.
rlpdump
rlpdump is a pretty-printer for RLP data.
rlpdump is a pretty-printer for RLP data.
utils
Package utils contains internal helper functions for go-ethereum commands.
Package utils contains internal helper functions for go-ethereum commands.
Package common contains various helper functions.
Package common contains various helper functions.
bitutil
Package bitutil implements fast bitwise operations.
Package bitutil implements fast bitwise operations.
compiler
Package compiler wraps the Solidity and Vyper compiler executables (solc; vyper).
Package compiler wraps the Solidity and Vyper compiler executables (solc; vyper).
math
Package math provides integer math utilities.
Package math provides integer math utilities.
mclock
Package mclock is a wrapper for a monotonic clock source
Package mclock is a wrapper for a monotonic clock source
prque
Package prque implements a priority queue data structure supporting arbitrary value types and int64 priorities.
Package prque implements a priority queue data structure supporting arbitrary value types and int64 priorities.
Package consensus is a generated GoMock package.
Package consensus is a generated GoMock package.
aura
Package aura implements the proof-of-authority consensus engine.
Package aura implements the proof-of-authority consensus engine.
clique
Package clique implements the proof-of-authority consensus engine.
Package clique implements the proof-of-authority consensus engine.
ethash
Package ethash implements the ethash proof-of-work consensus engine.
Package ethash implements the ethash proof-of-work consensus engine.
Package core implements the Ethereum consensus protocol.
Package core implements the Ethereum consensus protocol.
asm
Package asm provides support for dealing with EVM assembly instructions (e.g., disassembling them).
Package asm provides support for dealing with EVM assembly instructions (e.g., disassembling them).
forkid
Package forkid implements EIP-2124 (https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-2124).
Package forkid implements EIP-2124 (https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-2124).
state
Package state provides a caching layer atop the Ethereum state trie.
Package state provides a caching layer atop the Ethereum state trie.
types
Package types contains data types related to Ethereum consensus.
Package types contains data types related to Ethereum consensus.
vm
Package vm implements the Ethereum Virtual Machine.
Package vm implements the Ethereum Virtual Machine.
vm/runtime
Package runtime provides a basic execution model for executing EVM code.
Package runtime provides a basic execution model for executing EVM code.
bn256
Package bn256 implements the Optimal Ate pairing over a 256-bit Barreto-Naehrig curve.
Package bn256 implements the Optimal Ate pairing over a 256-bit Barreto-Naehrig curve.
bn256/cloudflare
Package bn256 implements a particular bilinear group at the 128-bit security level.
Package bn256 implements a particular bilinear group at the 128-bit security level.
bn256/google
Package bn256 implements a particular bilinear group.
Package bn256 implements a particular bilinear group.
eth
Package eth implements the Ethereum protocol.
Package eth implements the Ethereum protocol.
ethconfig
Package ethconfig contains the configuration of the ETH and LES protocols.
Package ethconfig contains the configuration of the ETH and LES protocols.
tracers
Package tracers is a manager for transaction tracing engines.
Package tracers is a manager for transaction tracing engines.
tracers/js/internal/tracers
Package tracers contains the actual JavaScript tracer assets.
Package tracers contains the actual JavaScript tracer assets.
tracers/native
Package native is a collection of tracers written in go.
Package native is a collection of tracers written in go.
Package ethstats implements the network stats reporting service.
Package ethstats implements the network stats reporting service.
Package node sets up multi-protocol Ethereum nodes.
Package node sets up multi-protocol Ethereum nodes.
p2p
Package p2p implements the Ethereum p2p network protocols.
Package p2p implements the Ethereum p2p network protocols.
discover
Package discover implements the Node Discovery Protocol.
Package discover implements the Node Discovery Protocol.
discover/v4wire
Package v4wire implements the Discovery v4 Wire Protocol.
Package v4wire implements the Discovery v4 Wire Protocol.
dnsdisc
Package dnsdisc implements node discovery via DNS (EIP-1459).
Package dnsdisc implements node discovery via DNS (EIP-1459).
enr
Package enr implements Ethereum Node Records as defined in EIP-778.
Package enr implements Ethereum Node Records as defined in EIP-778.
nat
Package nat provides access to common network port mapping protocols.
Package nat provides access to common network port mapping protocols.
netutil
Package netutil contains extensions to the net package.
Package netutil contains extensions to the net package.
rlpx
Package rlpx implements the RLPx transport protocol.
Package rlpx implements the RLPx transport protocol.
simulations
Package simulations simulates p2p networks.
Package simulations simulates p2p networks.
polygon
bor
Package bor is a generated GoMock package.
Package bor is a generated GoMock package.
bor/finality
nolint
nolint
nolint
heimdall
Package heimdall is a generated GoMock package.
Package heimdall is a generated GoMock package.
p2p
Package p2p is a generated GoMock package.
Package p2p is a generated GoMock package.
sync
Package sync is a generated GoMock package.
Package sync is a generated GoMock package.
Package rlp implements the RLP serialization format.
Package rlp implements the RLP serialization format.
rpc
Package rpc implements bi-directional JSON-RPC 2.0 on multiple transports.
Package rpc implements bi-directional JSON-RPC 2.0 on multiple transports.
Package tests implements execution of Ethereum JSON tests.
Package tests implements execution of Ethereum JSON tests.
turbo
adapter/ethapi
Package ethapi implements the general Ethereum API functions.
Package ethapi implements the general Ethereum API functions.
app
Package app contains framework for building a command-line based Erigon node.
Package app contains framework for building a command-line based Erigon node.
cli
debug
Package debug interfaces Go runtime debugging facilities.
Package debug interfaces Go runtime debugging facilities.
node
Package node contains classes for running a Erigon node.
Package node contains classes for running a Erigon node.
testlog
Package testlog provides a log handler for unit tests.
Package testlog provides a log handler for unit tests.
trie
Package trie implements Merkle Patricia Tries.
Package trie implements Merkle Patricia Tries.

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