ethereum

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Published: Feb 1, 2021 License: GPL-3.0 Imports: 5 Imported by: 0

README

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Quorum is an Ethereum-based distributed ledger protocol with transaction/contract privacy and new consensus mechanisms.

Quorum is a fork of go-ethereum and is updated in line with go-ethereum releases.

Key enhancements over go-ethereum:

  • Privacy - Quorum supports private transactions and private contracts through public/private state separation, and utilises peer-to-peer encrypted message exchanges (see Constellation and Tessera) for directed transfer of private data to network participants
  • Alternative Consensus Mechanisms - with no need for POW/POS in a permissioned network, Quorum instead offers multiple consensus mechanisms that are more appropriate for consortium chains:
    • Raft-based Consensus - a consensus model for faster blocktimes, transaction finality, and on-demand block creation
    • Istanbul BFT - a PBFT-inspired consensus algorithm with transaction finality, by AMIS.
    • Clique POA Consensus - a default POA consensus algorithm bundled with Go Ethereum.
  • Peer Permissioning - node/peer permissioning, ensuring only known parties can join the network
  • Account Management - Quorum introduced account plugins, which allows Quorum or clef to be extended with alternative methods of managing accounts including external vaults.
  • Pluggable Architecture - allows adding additional features as plugins to the core geth, providing extensibility, flexibility, and distinct isolation of Quorum features.
  • Higher Performance - Quorum offers significantly higher performance throughput than public geth

Architecture

Quorum Tessera Privacy Flow

The above diagram is very high-level overview of component architecture used by Quorum. For more in-depth discussion of the components and how they interact, please refer to lifecycle of a private transaction.

Quickstart

There are several ways to quickly get up and running with Quorum. One of the easiest is to use Quorum Wizard - a command line tool that allows users to set up a development Quorum network on their local machine in less than 2 minutes.

Quorum Projects

Check out some of the interesting projects we are actively working on:

Official Docker Containers

The official docker containers can be found under https://hub.docker.com/u/quorumengineering/

Third Party Tools/Libraries

The following Quorum-related libraries/applications have been created by Third Parties and as such are not specifically endorsed by J.P. Morgan. A big thanks to the developers for improving the tooling around Quorum!

Contributing

Quorum is built on open source and we invite you to contribute enhancements. Upon review you will be required to complete a Contributor License Agreement (CLA) before we are able to merge. If you have any questions about the contribution process, please feel free to send an email to info@goquorum.com. Please see the Contributors guide for more information about the process.

Reporting Security Bugs

Security is part of our commitment to our users. At Quorum we have a close relationship with the security community, we understand the realm, and encourage security researchers to become part of our mission of building secure reliable software. This section explains how to submit security bugs, and what to expect in return.

All security bugs in Quorum and its ecosystem (Tessera, Constellation, Cakeshop, ..etc) should be reported by email to security-quorum@consensys.net. Please use the prefix [security] in your subject. This email is delivered to Quorum security team. Your email will be acknowledged, and you'll receive a more detailed response to your email as soon as possible indicating the next steps in handling your report. After the initial reply to your report, the security team will endeavor to keep you informed of the progress being made towards a fix and full announcement.

If you have not received a reply to your email or you have not heard from the security team please contact any team member through quorum slack security channel. Please note that Quorum slack channels are public discussion forum. When escalating to this medium, please do not disclose the details of the issue. Simply state that you're trying to reach a member of the security team.

Responsible Disclosure Process

Quorum project uses the following responsible disclosure process:

  • Once the security report is received it is assigned a primary handler. This person coordinates the fix and release process.
  • The issue is confirmed and a list of affected software is determined.
  • Code is audited to find any potential similar problems.
  • If it is determined, in consultation with the submitter, that a CVE-ID is required, the primary handler will trigger the process.
  • Fixes are applied to the public repository and a new release is issued.
  • On the date that the fixes are applied, announcements are sent to Quorum-announce.
  • At this point you would be able to disclose publicly your finding.

Note: This process can take some time. Every effort will be made to handle the security bug in as timely a manner as possible, however it's important that we follow the process described above to ensure that disclosures are handled consistently.

Receiving Security Updates

The best way to receive security announcements is to subscribe to the Quorum-announce mailing list/channel. Any messages pertaining to a security issue will be prefixed with [security].

Comments on This Policy If you have any suggestions to improve this policy, please send an email to info@goquorum.com for discussion.

License

The go-ethereum library (i.e. all code outside of the cmd directory) is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License v3.0, also included in our repository in the COPYING.LESSER file.

The go-ethereum binaries (i.e. all code inside of the cmd directory) is licensed under the GNU General Public License v3.0, also included in our repository in the COPYING file.

Documentation

Overview

Package ethereum defines interfaces for interacting with Ethereum.

Index

Constants

This section is empty.

Variables

View Source
var NotFound = errors.New("not found")

NotFound is returned by API methods if the requested item does not exist.

Functions

This section is empty.

Types

type CallMsg added in v1.0.2

type CallMsg struct {
	From     common.Address  // the sender of the 'transaction'
	To       *common.Address // the destination contract (nil for contract creation)
	Gas      uint64          // if 0, the call executes with near-infinite gas
	GasPrice *big.Int        // wei <-> gas exchange ratio
	Value    *big.Int        // amount of wei sent along with the call
	Data     []byte          // input data, usually an ABI-encoded contract method invocation
}

CallMsg contains parameters for contract calls.

type ChainReader added in v1.0.2

type ChainReader interface {
	BlockByHash(ctx context.Context, hash common.Hash) (*types.Block, error)
	BlockByNumber(ctx context.Context, number *big.Int) (*types.Block, error)
	HeaderByHash(ctx context.Context, hash common.Hash) (*types.Header, error)
	HeaderByNumber(ctx context.Context, number *big.Int) (*types.Header, error)
	TransactionCount(ctx context.Context, blockHash common.Hash) (uint, error)
	TransactionInBlock(ctx context.Context, blockHash common.Hash, index uint) (*types.Transaction, error)

	// This method subscribes to notifications about changes of the head block of
	// the canonical chain.
	SubscribeNewHead(ctx context.Context, ch chan<- *types.Header) (Subscription, error)
}

ChainReader provides access to the blockchain. The methods in this interface access raw data from either the canonical chain (when requesting by block number) or any blockchain fork that was previously downloaded and processed by the node. The block number argument can be nil to select the latest canonical block. Reading block headers should be preferred over full blocks whenever possible.

The returned error is NotFound if the requested item does not exist.

type ChainStateReader added in v1.0.2

type ChainStateReader interface {
	BalanceAt(ctx context.Context, account common.Address, blockNumber *big.Int) (*big.Int, error)
	StorageAt(ctx context.Context, account common.Address, key common.Hash, blockNumber *big.Int) ([]byte, error)
	CodeAt(ctx context.Context, account common.Address, blockNumber *big.Int) ([]byte, error)
	NonceAt(ctx context.Context, account common.Address, blockNumber *big.Int) (uint64, error)
}

ChainStateReader wraps access to the state trie of the canonical blockchain. Note that implementations of the interface may be unable to return state values for old blocks. In many cases, using CallContract can be preferable to reading raw contract storage.

type ChainSyncReader added in v1.0.2

type ChainSyncReader interface {
	SyncProgress(ctx context.Context) (*SyncProgress, error)
}

ChainSyncReader wraps access to the node's current sync status. If there's no sync currently running, it returns nil.

type ContractCaller added in v1.0.2

type ContractCaller interface {
	CallContract(ctx context.Context, call CallMsg, blockNumber *big.Int) ([]byte, error)
}

A ContractCaller provides contract calls, essentially transactions that are executed by the EVM but not mined into the blockchain. ContractCall is a low-level method to execute such calls. For applications which are structured around specific contracts, the abigen tool provides a nicer, properly typed way to perform calls.

type FilterQuery added in v1.0.2

type FilterQuery struct {
	BlockHash *common.Hash     // used by eth_getLogs, return logs only from block with this hash
	FromBlock *big.Int         // beginning of the queried range, nil means genesis block
	ToBlock   *big.Int         // end of the range, nil means latest block
	Addresses []common.Address // restricts matches to events created by specific contracts

	// The Topic list restricts matches to particular event topics. Each event has a list
	// of topics. Topics matches a prefix of that list. An empty element slice matches any
	// topic. Non-empty elements represent an alternative that matches any of the
	// contained topics.
	//
	// Examples:
	// {} or nil          matches any topic list
	// {{A}}              matches topic A in first position
	// {{}, {B}}          matches any topic in first position AND B in second position
	// {{A}, {B}}         matches topic A in first position AND B in second position
	// {{A, B}, {C, D}}   matches topic (A OR B) in first position AND (C OR D) in second position
	Topics [][]common.Hash
}

FilterQuery contains options for contract log filtering.

type GasEstimator added in v1.0.2

type GasEstimator interface {
	EstimateGas(ctx context.Context, call CallMsg) (uint64, error)
}

GasEstimator wraps EstimateGas, which tries to estimate the gas needed to execute a specific transaction based on the pending state. There is no guarantee that this is the true gas limit requirement as other transactions may be added or removed by miners, but it should provide a basis for setting a reasonable default.

type GasPricer added in v1.0.2

type GasPricer interface {
	SuggestGasPrice(ctx context.Context) (*big.Int, error)
}

GasPricer wraps the gas price oracle, which monitors the blockchain to determine the optimal gas price given current fee market conditions.

type LogFilterer added in v1.0.2

type LogFilterer interface {
	FilterLogs(ctx context.Context, q FilterQuery) ([]types.Log, error)
	SubscribeFilterLogs(ctx context.Context, q FilterQuery, ch chan<- types.Log) (Subscription, error)
}

LogFilterer provides access to contract log events using a one-off query or continuous event subscription.

Logs received through a streaming query subscription may have Removed set to true, indicating that the log was reverted due to a chain reorganisation.

type PendingContractCaller added in v1.0.2

type PendingContractCaller interface {
	PendingCallContract(ctx context.Context, call CallMsg) ([]byte, error)
}

PendingContractCaller can be used to perform calls against the pending state.

type PendingStateEventer added in v1.0.2

type PendingStateEventer interface {
	SubscribePendingTransactions(ctx context.Context, ch chan<- *types.Transaction) (Subscription, error)
}

A PendingStateEventer provides access to real time notifications about changes to the pending state.

type PendingStateReader added in v1.0.2

type PendingStateReader interface {
	PendingBalanceAt(ctx context.Context, account common.Address) (*big.Int, error)
	PendingStorageAt(ctx context.Context, account common.Address, key common.Hash) ([]byte, error)
	PendingCodeAt(ctx context.Context, account common.Address) ([]byte, error)
	PendingNonceAt(ctx context.Context, account common.Address) (uint64, error)
	PendingTransactionCount(ctx context.Context) (uint, error)
}

A PendingStateReader provides access to the pending state, which is the result of all known executable transactions which have not yet been included in the blockchain. It is commonly used to display the result of ’unconfirmed’ actions (e.g. wallet value transfers) initiated by the user. The PendingNonceAt operation is a good way to retrieve the next available transaction nonce for a specific account.

type Subscription added in v1.0.2

type Subscription interface {
	// Unsubscribe cancels the sending of events to the data channel
	// and closes the error channel.
	Unsubscribe()
	// Err returns the subscription error channel. The error channel receives
	// a value if there is an issue with the subscription (e.g. the network connection
	// delivering the events has been closed). Only one value will ever be sent.
	// The error channel is closed by Unsubscribe.
	Err() <-chan error
}

Subscription represents an event subscription where events are delivered on a data channel.

type SyncProgress added in v1.0.2

type SyncProgress struct {
	StartingBlock uint64 // Block number where sync began
	CurrentBlock  uint64 // Current block number where sync is at
	HighestBlock  uint64 // Highest alleged block number in the chain
	PulledStates  uint64 // Number of state trie entries already downloaded
	KnownStates   uint64 // Total number of state trie entries known about
}

SyncProgress gives progress indications when the node is synchronising with the Ethereum network.

type TransactionReader

type TransactionReader interface {
	// TransactionByHash checks the pool of pending transactions in addition to the
	// blockchain. The isPending return value indicates whether the transaction has been
	// mined yet. Note that the transaction may not be part of the canonical chain even if
	// it's not pending.
	TransactionByHash(ctx context.Context, txHash common.Hash) (tx *types.Transaction, isPending bool, err error)
	// TransactionReceipt returns the receipt of a mined transaction. Note that the
	// transaction may not be included in the current canonical chain even if a receipt
	// exists.
	TransactionReceipt(ctx context.Context, txHash common.Hash) (*types.Receipt, error)
}

TransactionReader provides access to past transactions and their receipts. Implementations may impose arbitrary restrictions on the transactions and receipts that can be retrieved. Historic transactions may not be available.

Avoid relying on this interface if possible. Contract logs (through the LogFilterer interface) are more reliable and usually safer in the presence of chain reorganisations.

The returned error is NotFound if the requested item does not exist.

type TransactionSender added in v1.0.2

type TransactionSender interface {
	SendTransaction(ctx context.Context, tx *types.Transaction) error
}

TransactionSender wraps transaction sending. The SendTransaction method injects a signed transaction into the pending transaction pool for execution. If the transaction was a contract creation, the TransactionReceipt method can be used to retrieve the contract address after the transaction has been mined.

The transaction must be signed and have a valid nonce to be included. Consumers of the API can use package accounts to maintain local private keys and need can retrieve the next available nonce using PendingNonceAt.

Source Files

Directories

Path Synopsis
Package accounts implements high level Ethereum account management.
Package accounts implements high level Ethereum account management.
abi
Package abi implements the Ethereum ABI (Application Binary Interface).
Package abi implements the Ethereum ABI (Application Binary Interface).
abi/bind
Package bind generates Ethereum contract Go bindings.
Package bind generates Ethereum contract Go bindings.
keystore
Package keystore implements encrypted storage of secp256k1 private keys.
Package keystore implements encrypted storage of secp256k1 private keys.
usbwallet
Package usbwallet implements support for USB hardware wallets.
Package usbwallet implements support for USB hardware wallets.
usbwallet/trezor
Package trezor contains the wire protocol.
Package trezor contains the wire protocol.
cmd
bootnode
bootnode runs a bootstrap node for the Ethereum Discovery Protocol.
bootnode runs a bootstrap node for the Ethereum Discovery Protocol.
checkpoint-admin
checkpoint-admin is a utility that can be used to query checkpoint information and register stable checkpoints into an oracle contract.
checkpoint-admin is a utility that can be used to query checkpoint information and register stable checkpoints into an oracle contract.
evm
evm executes EVM code snippets.
evm executes EVM code snippets.
faucet
faucet is a Ether faucet backed by a light client.
faucet is a Ether faucet backed by a light client.
geth
geth is the official command-line client for Ethereum.
geth is the official command-line client for Ethereum.
p2psim
p2psim provides a command-line client for a simulation HTTP API.
p2psim provides a command-line client for a simulation HTTP API.
puppeth
puppeth is a command to assemble and maintain private networks.
puppeth is a command to assemble and maintain private networks.
rlpdump
rlpdump is a pretty-printer for RLP data.
rlpdump is a pretty-printer for RLP data.
utils
Package utils contains internal helper functions for go-ethereum commands.
Package utils contains internal helper functions for go-ethereum commands.
Package common contains various helper functions.
Package common contains various helper functions.
bitutil
Package bitutil implements fast bitwise operations.
Package bitutil implements fast bitwise operations.
compiler
Package compiler wraps the Solidity and Vyper compiler executables (solc; vyper).
Package compiler wraps the Solidity and Vyper compiler executables (solc; vyper).
hexutil
Package hexutil implements hex encoding with 0x prefix.
Package hexutil implements hex encoding with 0x prefix.
math
Package math provides integer math utilities.
Package math provides integer math utilities.
mclock
Package mclock is a wrapper for a monotonic clock source
Package mclock is a wrapper for a monotonic clock source
prque
Package prque implements a priority queue data structure supporting arbitrary value types and int64 priorities.
Package prque implements a priority queue data structure supporting arbitrary value types and int64 priorities.
Package consensus implements different Ethereum consensus engines.
Package consensus implements different Ethereum consensus engines.
clique
Package clique implements the proof-of-authority consensus engine.
Package clique implements the proof-of-authority consensus engine.
ethash
Package ethash implements the ethash proof-of-work consensus engine.
Package ethash implements the ethash proof-of-work consensus engine.
contracts
checkpointoracle
Package checkpointoracle is a an on-chain light client checkpoint oracle.
Package checkpointoracle is a an on-chain light client checkpoint oracle.
Package core implements the Ethereum consensus protocol.
Package core implements the Ethereum consensus protocol.
asm
Provides support for dealing with EVM assembly instructions (e.g., disassembling them).
Provides support for dealing with EVM assembly instructions (e.g., disassembling them).
bloombits
Package bloombits implements bloom filtering on batches of data.
Package bloombits implements bloom filtering on batches of data.
forkid
Package forkid implements EIP-2124 (https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-2124).
Package forkid implements EIP-2124 (https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-2124).
rawdb
// Copyright 2015 The go-ethereum Authors // This file is part of the go-ethereum library.
// Copyright 2015 The go-ethereum Authors // This file is part of the go-ethereum library.
state
Package state provides a caching layer atop the Ethereum state trie.
Package state provides a caching layer atop the Ethereum state trie.
types
Package types contains data types related to Ethereum consensus.
Package types contains data types related to Ethereum consensus.
vm
Package vm implements the Ethereum Virtual Machine.
Package vm implements the Ethereum Virtual Machine.
vm/runtime
Package runtime provides a basic execution model for executing EVM code.
Package runtime provides a basic execution model for executing EVM code.
blake2b
Package blake2b implements the BLAKE2b hash algorithm defined by RFC 7693 and the extendable output function (XOF) BLAKE2Xb.
Package blake2b implements the BLAKE2b hash algorithm defined by RFC 7693 and the extendable output function (XOF) BLAKE2Xb.
bn256
Package bn256 implements the Optimal Ate pairing over a 256-bit Barreto-Naehrig curve.
Package bn256 implements the Optimal Ate pairing over a 256-bit Barreto-Naehrig curve.
bn256/cloudflare
Package bn256 implements a particular bilinear group at the 128-bit security level.
Package bn256 implements a particular bilinear group at the 128-bit security level.
bn256/google
Package bn256 implements a particular bilinear group.
Package bn256 implements a particular bilinear group.
secp256k1 Module
eth
Package eth implements the Ethereum protocol.
Package eth implements the Ethereum protocol.
downloader
Package downloader contains the manual full chain synchronisation.
Package downloader contains the manual full chain synchronisation.
fetcher
Package fetcher contains the block announcement based synchronisation.
Package fetcher contains the block announcement based synchronisation.
filters
Package filters implements an ethereum filtering system for block, transactions and log events.
Package filters implements an ethereum filtering system for block, transactions and log events.
tracers
Package tracers is a collection of JavaScript transaction tracers.
Package tracers is a collection of JavaScript transaction tracers.
Package ethclient provides a client for the Ethereum RPC API.
Package ethclient provides a client for the Ethereum RPC API.
Package ethdb defines the interfaces for an Ethereum data store.
Package ethdb defines the interfaces for an Ethereum data store.
leveldb
Package leveldb implements the key-value database layer based on LevelDB.
Package leveldb implements the key-value database layer based on LevelDB.
memorydb
Package memorydb implements the key-value database layer based on memory maps.
Package memorydb implements the key-value database layer based on memory maps.
Package ethstats implements the network stats reporting service.
Package ethstats implements the network stats reporting service.
Package event deals with subscriptions to real-time events.
Package event deals with subscriptions to real-time events.
Package graphql provides a GraphQL interface to Ethereum node data.
Package graphql provides a GraphQL interface to Ethereum node data.
les
Package les implements the Light Ethereum Subprotocol.
Package les implements the Light Ethereum Subprotocol.
flowcontrol
Package flowcontrol implements a client side flow control mechanism
Package flowcontrol implements a client side flow control mechanism
Package light implements on-demand retrieval capable state and chain objects for the Ethereum Light Client.
Package light implements on-demand retrieval capable state and chain objects for the Ethereum Light Client.
Package log15 provides an opinionated, simple toolkit for best-practice logging that is both human and machine readable.
Package log15 provides an opinionated, simple toolkit for best-practice logging that is both human and machine readable.
Go port of Coda Hale's Metrics library <https://github.com/rcrowley/go-metrics> Coda Hale's original work: <https://github.com/codahale/metrics>
Go port of Coda Hale's Metrics library <https://github.com/rcrowley/go-metrics> Coda Hale's original work: <https://github.com/codahale/metrics>
exp
Hook go-metrics into expvar on any /debug/metrics request, load all vars from the registry into expvar, and execute regular expvar handler
Hook go-metrics into expvar on any /debug/metrics request, load all vars from the registry into expvar, and execute regular expvar handler
prometheus
Package prometheus exposes go-metrics into a Prometheus format.
Package prometheus exposes go-metrics into a Prometheus format.
Package miner implements Ethereum block creation and mining.
Package miner implements Ethereum block creation and mining.
Package geth contains the simplified mobile APIs to go-ethereum.
Package geth contains the simplified mobile APIs to go-ethereum.
Package node sets up multi-protocol Ethereum nodes.
Package node sets up multi-protocol Ethereum nodes.
p2p
Package p2p implements the Ethereum p2p network protocols.
Package p2p implements the Ethereum p2p network protocols.
discover
Package discover implements the Node Discovery Protocol.
Package discover implements the Node Discovery Protocol.
discv5
Package discv5 implements the RLPx v5 Topic Discovery Protocol.
Package discv5 implements the RLPx v5 Topic Discovery Protocol.
dnsdisc
Package dnsdisc implements node discovery via DNS (EIP-1459).
Package dnsdisc implements node discovery via DNS (EIP-1459).
enr
Package enr implements Ethereum Node Records as defined in EIP-778.
Package enr implements Ethereum Node Records as defined in EIP-778.
nat
Package nat provides access to common network port mapping protocols.
Package nat provides access to common network port mapping protocols.
netutil
Package netutil contains extensions to the net package.
Package netutil contains extensions to the net package.
simulations
Package simulations simulates p2p networks.
Package simulations simulates p2p networks.
v1
v2
gen
gen/proto_common
Package proto_common is a generated GoMock package.
Package proto_common is a generated GoMock package.
Package rlp implements the RLP serialization format.
Package rlp implements the RLP serialization format.
Package rpc implements bi-directional JSON-RPC 2.0 on multiple transports.
Package rpc implements bi-directional JSON-RPC 2.0 on multiple transports.
signer
fourbyte
Package fourbyte contains the 4byte database.
Package fourbyte contains the 4byte database.
rules/deps
Package deps contains the console JavaScript dependencies Go embedded.
Package deps contains the console JavaScript dependencies Go embedded.
Package tests implements execution of Ethereum JSON tests.
Package tests implements execution of Ethereum JSON tests.
Package trie implements Merkle Patricia Tries.
Package trie implements Merkle Patricia Tries.
whisper
mailserver
Package mailserver provides a naive, example mailserver implementation
Package mailserver provides a naive, example mailserver implementation
internal
debug
Package debug interfaces Go runtime debugging facilities.
Package debug interfaces Go runtime debugging facilities.
ethapi
Package ethapi implements the general Ethereum API functions.
Package ethapi implements the general Ethereum API functions.
guide
Package guide is a small test suite to ensure snippets in the dev guide work.
Package guide is a small test suite to ensure snippets in the dev guide work.
jsre
Package jsre provides execution environment for JavaScript.
Package jsre provides execution environment for JavaScript.
jsre/deps
Package deps contains the console JavaScript dependencies Go embedded.
Package deps contains the console JavaScript dependencies Go embedded.
testlog
Package testlog provides a log handler for unit tests.
Package testlog provides a log handler for unit tests.
web3ext
package web3ext contains geth specific web3.js extensions.
package web3ext contains geth specific web3.js extensions.

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