micro

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Published: Sep 20, 2018 License: Apache-2.0 Imports: 16 Imported by: 1416

README

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Go Micro is a pluggable RPC framework for distributed systems development.

The micro philosophy is sane defaults with a pluggable architecture. We provide defaults to get you started quickly but everything can be easily swapped out. It comes with built in support for {json,proto}-rpc encoding, consul or multicast dns for service discovery, http for communication and random hashed client side load balancing.

Plugins are available at github.com/micro/go-plugins.

Follow us on Twitter or join the Slack community.

Features

Go Micro abstracts away the details of distributed systems. Here are the main features.

  • Service Discovery - Automatic service registration and name resolution
  • Load Balancing - Client side load balancing built on discovery
  • Message Encoding - Dynamic encoding based on content-type with protobuf and json support
  • Sync Streaming - RPC based communication with support for bidirectional streaming
  • Async Messaging - Native PubSub messaging built in for event driven architectures

Go Micro supports both the Service and Function programming models. Read on to learn more.

Docs

For more detailed information on the architecture, installation and use of go-micro checkout the docs.

Learn By Example

An example service can be found in examples/service and function in examples/function.

The examples directory contains examples for using things such as middleware/wrappers, selector filters, pub/sub, grpc, plugins and much more. For the complete greeter example look at examples/greeter. Other examples can be found throughout the GitHub repository.

Watch the Golang UK Conf 2016 video for a high level overview.

Getting started

Install Protobuf

Protobuf is required for code generation

You'll need to install:

Service Discovery

Service discovery is used to resolve service names to addresses.

Consul

Consul is used as the default service discovery system.

Discovery is pluggable. Find plugins for etcd, kubernetes, zookeeper and more in the micro/go-plugins repo.

Install guide

Multicast DNS

Multicast DNS is a built in service discovery plugin for a zero dependency configuration.

Pass --registry=mdns to any command or the enviroment variable MICRO_REGISTRY=mdns

MICRO_REGISTRY=mdns go run main.go

Writing a service

This is a simple greeter RPC service example

Find this example at examples/service.

Create service proto

One of the key requirements of microservices is strongly defined interfaces. Micro uses protobuf to achieve this.

Here we define the Greeter handler with the method Hello. It takes a HelloRequest and HelloResponse both with one string arguments.

syntax = "proto3";

service Greeter {
	rpc Hello(HelloRequest) returns (HelloResponse) {}
}

message HelloRequest {
	string name = 1;
}

message HelloResponse {
	string greeting = 2;
}
Generate the proto

After writing the proto definition we must compile it using protoc with the micro plugin.

protoc --proto_path=$GOPATH/src:. --micro_out=. --go_out=. path/to/greeter.proto
Write the service

Below is the code for the greeter service.

It does the following:

  1. Implements the interface defined for the Greeter handler
  2. Initialises a micro.Service
  3. Registers the Greeter handler
  4. Runs the service
package main

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"

	micro "github.com/micro/go-micro"
	proto "github.com/micro/examples/service/proto"
)

type Greeter struct{}

func (g *Greeter) Hello(ctx context.Context, req *proto.HelloRequest, rsp *proto.HelloResponse) error {
	rsp.Greeting = "Hello " + req.Name
	return nil
}

func main() {
	// Create a new service. Optionally include some options here.
	service := micro.NewService(
		micro.Name("greeter"),
	)

	// Init will parse the command line flags.
	service.Init()

	// Register handler
	proto.RegisterGreeterHandler(service.Server(), new(Greeter))

	// Run the server
	if err := service.Run(); err != nil {
		fmt.Println(err)
	}
}
Run service
go run examples/service/main.go

Output

2016/03/14 10:59:14 Listening on [::]:50137
2016/03/14 10:59:14 Broker Listening on [::]:50138
2016/03/14 10:59:14 Registering node: greeter-ca62b017-e9d3-11e5-9bbb-68a86d0d36b6
Define a client

Below is the client code to query the greeter service.

The generated proto includes a greeter client to reduce boilerplate code.

package main

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"

	micro "github.com/micro/go-micro"
	proto "github.com/micro/examples/service/proto"
)


func main() {
	// Create a new service. Optionally include some options here.
	service := micro.NewService(micro.Name("greeter.client"))
	service.Init()

	// Create new greeter client
	greeter := proto.NewGreeterService("greeter", service.Client())

	// Call the greeter
	rsp, err := greeter.Hello(context.TODO(), &proto.HelloRequest{Name: "John"})
	if err != nil {
		fmt.Println(err)
	}

	// Print response
	fmt.Println(rsp.Greeting)
}
Run the client
go run client.go

Output

Hello John

Writing a Function

Go Micro includes the Function programming model.

A Function is a one time executing Service which exits after completing a request.

Defining a Function
package main

import (
	"context"

	proto "github.com/micro/examples/function/proto"
	"github.com/micro/go-micro"
)

type Greeter struct{}

func (g *Greeter) Hello(ctx context.Context, req *proto.HelloRequest, rsp *proto.HelloResponse) error {
	rsp.Greeting = "Hello " + req.Name
	return nil
}

func main() {
	// create a new function
	fnc := micro.NewFunction(
		micro.Name("greeter"),
	)

	// init the command line
	fnc.Init()

	// register a handler
	fnc.Handle(new(Greeter))

	// run the function
	fnc.Run()
}

It's that simple.

Publish & Subscribe

Go-micro has a built in message broker interface for event driven architectures.

PubSub operates on the same protobuf generated messages as RPC. They are encoded/decoded automatically and sent via the broker. By default go-micro includes a point-to-point http broker but this can be swapped out via go-plugins.

Publish

Create a new publisher with a topic name and service client

p := micro.NewPublisher("events", service.Client())

Publish a proto message

p.Publish(context.TODO(), &proto.Event{Name: "event"})
Subscribe

Create a message handler. It's signature should be func(context.Context, v interface{}) error.

func ProcessEvent(ctx context.Context, event *proto.Event) error {
	fmt.Printf("Got event %+v\n", event)
	return nil
}

Register the message handler with a topic

micro.RegisterSubscriber("events", ProcessEvent)

See examples/pubsub for a complete example.

Plugins

By default go-micro only provides a few implementation of each interface at the core but it's completely pluggable. There's already dozens of plugins which are available at github.com/micro/go-plugins. Contributions are welcome!

Build with plugins

If you want to integrate plugins simply link them in a separate file and rebuild

Create a plugins.go file

import (
        // etcd v3 registry
        _ "github.com/micro/go-plugins/registry/etcdv3"
        // nats transport
        _ "github.com/micro/go-plugins/transport/nats"
        // kafka broker
        _ "github.com/micro/go-plugins/broker/kafka"
)

Build binary

// For local use
go build -i -o service ./main.go ./plugins.go

Flag usage of plugins

service --registry=etcdv3 --transport=nats --broker=kafka
Plugin as option

Alternatively you can set the plugin as an option to a service


import (
        "github.com/micro/go-micro" 
        // etcd v3 registry
        "github.com/micro/go-plugins/registry/etcdv3"
        // nats transport
        "github.com/micro/go-plugins/transport/nats"
        // kafka broker
        "github.com/micro/go-plugins/broker/kafka"
)

func main() {
	registry := etcdv3.NewRegistry()
	broker := kafka.NewBroker()
	transport := nats.NewTransport()

        service := micro.NewService(
                micro.Name("greeter"),
                micro.Registry(registry),
                micro.Broker(broker),
                micro.Transport(transport),
        )

	service.Init()
	service.Run()
}
Write plugins

Plugins are a concept built on Go's interface. Each package maintains a high level interface abstraction. Simply implement the interface and pass it in as an option to the service.

The service discovery interface is called Registry. Anything which implements this interface can be used as a registry. The same applies to the other packages.

type Registry interface {
    Register(*Service, ...RegisterOption) error
    Deregister(*Service) error
    GetService(string) ([]*Service, error)
    ListServices() ([]*Service, error)
    Watch() (Watcher, error)
    String() string
}

Browse go-plugins to get a better idea of implementation details.

Wrappers

Go-micro includes the notion of middleware as wrappers. The client or handlers can be wrapped using the decorator pattern.

Handler

Here's an example service handler wrapper which logs the incoming request

// implements the server.HandlerWrapper
func logWrapper(fn server.HandlerFunc) server.HandlerFunc {
	return func(ctx context.Context, req server.Request, rsp interface{}) error {
		fmt.Printf("[%v] server request: %s", time.Now(), req.Method())
		return fn(ctx, req, rsp)
	}
}

It can be initialised when creating the service

service := micro.NewService(
	micro.Name("greeter"),
	// wrap the handler
	micro.WrapHandler(logWrapper),
)
Client

Here's an example of a client wrapper which logs requests made

type logWrapper struct {
	client.Client
}

func (l *logWrapper) Call(ctx context.Context, req client.Request, rsp interface{}, opts ...client.CallOption) error {
	fmt.Printf("[wrapper] client request to service: %s method: %s\n", req.Service(), req.Method())
	return l.Client.Call(ctx, req, rsp)
}

// implements client.Wrapper as logWrapper
func logWrap(c client.Client) client.Client {
	return &logWrapper{c}
}

It can be initialised when creating the service

service := micro.NewService(
	micro.Name("greeter"),
	// wrap the client
	micro.WrapClient(logWrap),
)

Other Languages

Check out ja-micro to write services in Java

Sponsors

Sixt is an Enterprise Sponsor of Micro

Become a sponsor by backing micro on Patreon

Documentation

Overview

Package micro is a pluggable RPC framework for microservices

Index

Constants

This section is empty.

Variables

View Source
var (
	HeaderPrefix = "X-Micro-"
)

Functions

func NewContext

func NewContext(ctx context.Context, s Service) context.Context

NewContext returns a new Context with the Service embedded within it.

func RegisterHandler

func RegisterHandler(s server.Server, h interface{}, opts ...server.HandlerOption) error

RegisterHandler is syntactic sugar for registering a handler

func RegisterSubscriber

func RegisterSubscriber(topic string, s server.Server, h interface{}, opts ...server.SubscriberOption) error

RegisterSubscriber is syntactic sugar for registering a subscriber

Types

type Function

type Function interface {
	// Inherits Service interface
	Service
	// Done signals to complete execution
	Done() error
	// Handle registers an RPC handler
	Handle(v interface{}) error
	// Subscribe registers a subscriber
	Subscribe(topic string, v interface{}) error
}

Function is a one time executing Service

func NewFunction

func NewFunction(opts ...Option) Function

NewFunction returns a new Function for a one time executing Service

type Option

type Option func(*Options)

func Action

func Action(a func(*cli.Context)) Option

func AfterStart

func AfterStart(fn func() error) Option

func AfterStop

func AfterStop(fn func() error) Option

func BeforeStart

func BeforeStart(fn func() error) Option

func BeforeStop

func BeforeStop(fn func() error) Option

func Broker

func Broker(b broker.Broker) Option

func Client

func Client(c client.Client) Option

func Cmd

func Cmd(c cmd.Cmd) Option

func Context

func Context(ctx context.Context) Option

Context specifies a context for the service. Can be used to signal shutdown of the service. Can be used for extra option values.

func Flags

func Flags(flags ...cli.Flag) Option

func Metadata

func Metadata(md map[string]string) Option

Metadata associated with the service

func Name

func Name(n string) Option

Name of the service

func RegisterInterval

func RegisterInterval(t time.Duration) Option

RegisterInterval specifies the interval on which to re-register

func RegisterTTL

func RegisterTTL(t time.Duration) Option

RegisterTTL specifies the TTL to use when registering the service

func Registry

func Registry(r registry.Registry) Option

Registry sets the registry for the service and the underlying components

func Selector

func Selector(s selector.Selector) Option

Selector sets the selector for the service client

func Server

func Server(s server.Server) Option

func Transport

func Transport(t transport.Transport) Option

Transport sets the transport for the service and the underlying components

func Version

func Version(v string) Option

Version of the service

func WrapCall

func WrapCall(w ...client.CallWrapper) Option

WrapCall is a convenience method for wrapping a Client CallFunc

func WrapClient

func WrapClient(w ...client.Wrapper) Option

WrapClient is a convenience method for wrapping a Client with some middleware component. A list of wrappers can be provided.

func WrapHandler

func WrapHandler(w ...server.HandlerWrapper) Option

WrapHandler adds a handler Wrapper to a list of options passed into the server

func WrapSubscriber

func WrapSubscriber(w ...server.SubscriberWrapper) Option

WrapSubscriber adds a subscriber Wrapper to a list of options passed into the server

type Options

type Options struct {
	Broker    broker.Broker
	Cmd       cmd.Cmd
	Client    client.Client
	Server    server.Server
	Registry  registry.Registry
	Transport transport.Transport

	// Register loop interval
	RegisterInterval time.Duration

	// Before and After funcs
	BeforeStart []func() error
	BeforeStop  []func() error
	AfterStart  []func() error
	AfterStop   []func() error

	// Other options for implementations of the interface
	// can be stored in a context
	Context context.Context
}

type Publisher

type Publisher interface {
	Publish(ctx context.Context, msg interface{}, opts ...client.PublishOption) error
}

Publisher is syntactic sugar for publishing

func NewPublisher

func NewPublisher(topic string, c client.Client) Publisher

NewPublisher returns a new Publisher

type Service

type Service interface {
	Init(...Option)
	Options() Options
	Client() client.Client
	Server() server.Server
	Run() error
	String() string
}

Service is an interface that wraps the lower level libraries within go-micro. Its a convenience method for building and initialising services.

func FromContext

func FromContext(ctx context.Context) (Service, bool)

FromContext retrieves a Service from the Context.

func NewService

func NewService(opts ...Option) Service

NewService creates and returns a new Service based on the packages within.

Directories

Path Synopsis
Package broker is an interface used for asynchronous messaging
Package broker is an interface used for asynchronous messaging
Package client is an interface for an RPC client
Package client is an interface for an RPC client
rpc
cmd
Package cmd is an interface for parsing the command line
Package cmd is an interface for parsing the command line
Package codec is an interface for encoding messages
Package codec is an interface for encoding messages
protorpc
Package proto is a generated protocol buffer package.
Package proto is a generated protocol buffer package.
Package errors provides a way to return detailed information for an RPC request error.
Package errors provides a way to return detailed information for an RPC request error.
examples module
Package metadata is a way of defining message headers
Package metadata is a way of defining message headers
plugins
auth/jwt Module
broker/grpc Module
broker/kafka Module
broker/nats Module
client/http Module
logger/zap Module
registry/etcd Module
registry/nats Module
server/grpc Module
server/http Module
Package registry is an interface for service discovery
Package registry is an interface for service discovery
Package selector is a way to load balance service nodes
Package selector is a way to load balance service nodes
cache
Package cache is a caching selector.
Package cache is a caching selector.
Package server is an interface for a micro server
Package server is an interface for a micro server
debug/proto
Package debug is a generated protocol buffer package.
Package debug is a generated protocol buffer package.
rpc
Package is an interface for synchronous communication
Package is an interface for synchronous communication

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